sweetener - ii

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Various parts of plants have a unique taste. Some plants yield natural sweeteners that are much more sweet than the processed sugar. These sugars have unique qualities capable of maintaining good health as compared to the processed sugars.

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  • 1.Natural sources of Sweeteners (Sweeteners: Part II) Presented by Dr. Sudhakar Kokate Director PPRC, India

2. Advantages of Natural Sweeteners No calorific value Cause the least possible side-effect Qualitative & quantitative improvement of sweeteners is within the reach of biologists through modern breeding and biotechnology techniques. PPRC/INDIA 01 3. Thaumatococcus daniellii (Bennett) Benth. PPRC/INDIA 02 4. Thaumatocacus danielli (Bennett) Benth. Family: Marantaceae Miraculous fruit Distribution in West Africa Aril of fruit PPRC/INDIA 03 5. Sweetening principle: Protein Thaumatin (Trade name Talin I & II) Sweetening intensity: 5000 times than sucrose Uses: to sweeten bread, fruits, palm wine, tea, coffee Thaumatocacus danielli (Bennett) Benth. PPRC/INDIA 04 6. Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii (Stapf) Diels PPRC/INDIA 05 7. Family: Menispermaceae Berry from West Africa Sweetening principle: Protein Monellin Sweetening intensity: 1500 3000 times sweeter than sugar Taste life: max 24 hrs. Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii (Stapf) Diels PPRC/INDIA 06 8. Stevia rebaudiana PPRC/INDIA 07 9. Family: Asteraceae Cultivated in Japan & S.E. Asia Leaves are useful Sweetening principle: Diterpene glycosides Rebaudioside A-E Dulcoside A & B Stevia rebaudiana PPRC/INDIA 08 10. Sweetening intensity: 300 times sweeter than sugar Uses: Sweetening drinks, tea, coffee, used for treating diabetes Stevia rebaudiana PPRC/INDIA 09 11. Citrus grandis, Citrus paradisii PPRC/INDIA 10 12. From Malaysia, N.E. India Common names: Seville orange or Shaddock, Grapefruit Part: Fruit Citrus grandis, Citrus paradisii PPRC/INDIA 11 13. Sweetening principle: Flavonoid derivatives, Neohesperidin dihydrochalcones Sweetening intensity: 600 1000 times sweeter than sugar Citrus grandis, Citrus paradisii PPRC/INDIA 12 14. Zero calorie sweeteners Brazzein: West Africa Curculin: Fruit of Curculigo latifolia from Malaysia Lue Han Cuo: Monk fruit in China Miraculin: West Africa PPRC/INDIA 13 15. Monellin: Berry from Central & West Africa Penadin: Climbing plant from West Africa Stevia: Native to South America Stevioside: Extract of plant from South America Zero calorie sweeteners PPRC/INDIA 14 16. Polypodium glycyrrhiza D. Eaton PPRC/INDIA 15 17. Family: Polypodiaceae Known as Liquorice fern Distribution: Coastal Alaska, Central California Plant part: Rhizome Polypodium glycyrrhiza D. Eaton PPRC/INDIA 16 18. Sweetening principle: Triterpene glycoside- glycyrrhizin Sweetening intensity: 50 100 times as sweet as sugar Polypodium glycyrrhiza D. Eaton PPRC/INDIA 17 19. Polypodium vulgare Linn. PPRC/INDIA 18 20. Family: Polypodiaceae Wall fern, European polypody Useful plant part: rhizome Sweetening principle: steroid saponin, osladin Sweetening intensity: 3000 times as sweet as sucrose Very low yield Polypodium vulgare Linn. PPRC/INDIA 19 21. Myrrhis odorata PPRC/INDIA 20 22. Family: Apiaceae Known as sweet cicely, sweet cheroil Distributed in Europe, West Asia Fresh whole plant useful Sweetening principle: phenylpropanoid-trans anethole Sweetening intensity: 13 times sweeter than sugar Myrrhis odorata PPRC/INDIA 21 23. Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) PPRC/INDIA 22 24. Tea of heaven Distributed in Japan, Korea Useful plant part: Leaves Sweetening principle: Phyllodulcin, hydrangenol Sweetening intensity: 400 times sweeter than sugar Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) PPRC/INDIA 23 25. Perilla frutescens (Linn.) Britt PPRC/INDIA 24 26. Family: Lamiaceae Known as Perilla mint, wild coleus Whole plant is useful Sweetening principle: Monoterpene-perillartine (Perillaldehyde) Sweetening intensity: 2000 times as sweet as sugar Perilla frutescens (Linn.) Britt PPRC/INDIA 25 27. Engelhardia roxburghiana wall PPRC/INDIA 26 28. Family: Juglandoceae E. chrysolepis Hance Known as Huang-qui (Chinese) Distributed in India, China, Indo-china, Malaysia Leaves are useful Engelhardia roxburghiana wall PPRC/INDIA 27 29. Sweetening principle: Dihydroflavonol glycoside-neoastibine huangqioside, neohuangquiside Leaves used to make sweet tea Sweetness increases on heating Engelhardia roxburghiana wall PPRC/INDIA 28 30. Periandra dulcis Mart. PPRC/INDIA 29 31. Family: Fabiaceae Distributed in Brazil Root useful part Sweetening principle: Periandrin I-IV Glycorrhizin Used as Liquorice substitute Periandra dulcis Mart. PPRC/INDIA 30 32. Tessaria dodoneifolia (Hook & Arn.) PPRC/INDIA 31 33. Family: Asteraceae Arrow weed Distributed in Paraguay, Tropical America Young shorts useful Sweetening principle: Dihydroflavanol (Dihydroquercetin-3-acetate) Sweetening intensity: 80 times sweeter than sugar Tessaria dodoneifolia (Hook & Arn.) PPRC/INDIA 32 34. Abrus precatorius Linn. PPRC/INDIA 33 35. Family: Fabaceae Known as Crabs eye, Indian Liquorice Distributed in tropics Leaves are useful part Abrus precatorius Linn. PPRC/INDIA 34 36. Sweetening principle: Cycloartane glycoside Glycorrhizin Sweetening intensity: 30 100 times sweeter than sugar Abrus precatorius Linn. PPRC/INDIA 35 37. Lippia dulci Trev. PPRC/INDIA 36 38. Family: Verbenaceae Known as Honey herb Distributed in Central America, West Indies A small shrubby herb, flowers are white Aerial parts useful Lippia dulci Trev. PPRC/INDIA 37 39. Sweetening principle: Sesquiterpene- hernandulcin Sweetening intensity: 1000 times sweeter than sugar Lippia dulci Trev. PPRC/INDIA 38 40. Illicium verum Hook F. PPRC/INDIA 39 41. Family: Illicinaceae Distributed in South China A slow growing tree Useful plant part: dried fruits Used in flavouring liquors and medicines Illicium verum Hook F. PPRC/INDIA 40 42. Sweetening principle: Phenyl propanoid- trans-Anethole Sweetening intensity: 13 times sweeter than sugar Illicium verum Hook F. PPRC/INDIA 41 43. Piper marginatum Jacq. PPRC/INDIA 42 44. Piper marginatum Jacq. Family: Piperaceae Dried leaves are useful Sweetening principle: Phenyl propanoid- trans-Anethole Sweetening intensity: 13 times sweeter than sugar PPRC/INDIA 43 45. Curculigo latifolia Dryand ex Ait. PPRC/INDIA 44 46. Curculigo latifolia Dryand ex Ait. Family: Hypoxidaceae Distributed in India and Malaysia A rhizomatous polygamous herb Useful part: Fruit Sweetening principle: Protein Curculin PPRC/INDIA 45 47. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. PPRC/INDIA 46 48. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Family: Apiaceae Known as Fennel Distributed in Europe, Mediterranean regions A perennial herb Fresh aerial parts are useful Sweetening principle: Phenyl propanoid-trans- Anethole PPRC/INDIA 47 49. Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC. PPRC/INDIA 48 50. Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC. Family: Apiaceae Also known as Smooth sweet cicely Distributed in North and South America A perennial herb PPRC/INDIA 49 51. Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC. Sweetening principle: Phenylpropanoid- trans-Anethole Sweetening intensity: 13 times sweeter than sugar PPRC/INDIA 50 52. Fraxinus spp. PPRC/INDIA 51 53. Fraxinus spp. Family: Oleaceae European ash Distributed in East Asia, North America, Mediterranean regions A small tree Useful part: Stem Sweetening principle: Mannitol PPRC/INDIA 52 54. Thladiantha grosvenori (Swingle) C. Jeffrey PPRC/INDIA 53 55. Family: Cucurbitaceae Distributed in China Tendril climber with root tubers Sweetening principle: Cucurbitane glycoside - mogroside V. Thladiantha grosvenori (Swingle) C. Jeffrey PPRC/INDIA 54 56. Tagetes filifolia Lag PPRC/INDIA 55 57. Tagetes filifolia Lag Family: Asteraceae Known as Irish lace Distributed in Mexico Fresh whole much branched annual herb PPRC/INDIA 56 58. Tagetes filifolia Lag Sweetening principle: Phenyl propanoids- trans-Anethole and Estragole Sweetening intensity: trans-Anethole is 13 times sweeter than sugar PPRC/INDIA 57 59. Ocimum basilicum Linn. PPRC/INDIA 58 60. Ocimum basilicum Linn. Family: Lamiaceae Known as Sweet Basil Distributed in old world tropics An aromatic herb Fresh aerial parts are useful PPRC/INDIA 59 61. Ocimum basilicum Linn. Sweetening principle: Phenyl propanoids- trans-Anethole and Estragole in volatile oil Sweetening intensity: 13 times sweeter than sugar PPRC/INDIA 60 62. Taste modifying sugar substitutes PPRC/INDIA 61 63. These plants have certain chemical principles which have the property of modifying the taste of foods, making sour or bitter foods taste sweet. They temporarily suppress the sensitivity to sweet substances PPRC/INDIA 62 64. Synsepalum dulcificum (Schum.) Daniell PPRC/INDIA 63 65. Synsepalum dulcificum (Schum.) Daniell Family: Sapotaceae Miraculous berry / fruit Found in West tropical Africa Limited food application Extraction difficult PPRC/INDIA 64 66. Synsepalum dulcificum (Schum.) Daniell The fruits contain a glycoprotein Miraculin which is taste modifier of sour foods with the sweet taste persisting for 1 2 hours PPRC/INDIA 65 67. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. PPRC/INDIA 66 68. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Family: Asclepiadaceae A large woody climber of Asia, Africa and Australia Ovate leaves, yellow flowers, follicles large seeds winged Leaves contain gymnemic acid a taste modifying substance PPRC/INDIA 67 69. Cynara scolymus Linn. PPRC/INDIA 68 70. Cynara scolymus Linn. Family: Asteraceae A coarse perennial herb Pinnate leaves, purple flowers Native of Mediterranean region PPRC/INDIA 69 71. Cynara scolymus Linn. Taste modifying substance Caffeolocunic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Cynarin Sweet taste persists for 4 5 hours PPRC/INDIA 70 72. Larix decidua Mill. (L. europea) DC. PPRC/INDIA 71 73. Larix decidua Mill. (L. europea) DC. Family: Pinaceae A tall conifer of Central Europe Taste modifying substance: Melezitore PPRC/INDIA 72 74. Roots and tubers of some plants contain high quantity of Insulin which is converted to D- Fructose, basically better tolerated by Diabetes than any other carbohydrate