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    T TH TY TNG

    I GII THOT THNG QUA S NGHE

    TRONG BARDO

    Nguyn bn: ca Guru Rinpoche theo Karma Lingpa

    Mt bn dch mi, y t ting Ty Tng

    vi bnh ging bi Chogyam Trungpa v FrancescaFremantle

    The Tibetan Book of the Dead - The Great LiberationThrough Hearing in The Bardo

    Shambhala, 1975 - Vit dch: Kin Khng - Thin Tri Thc,2001

    Bn Vit ng: An Phong - Thin Tri Thc xut bn 1998-1999.

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    MC LC

    Li ni u .................................................................................. 02

    Bi m u .................................................................................. 05

    Bi ging - i gii thot thng qua s nghe trong Bardo ........... 12

    i gii thot thng qua s nghe trong Bardo - chnh vn........... 44

    Nhng cu nguyn..................................................................... 112

    Cu nguynch Pht v ch B tt cu thot............................ 112

    Nhng cu k chnh v su Bardo ............................................. 113

    Cu nguyn gii thot khi li i nguy him ca 6 Bardo ..... 115

    Cu nguyntrong Bardo che ch khi s hi............................. 118

    Ph lc: Nhng trch dn ........................................................... 120

    Ch thch ................................................................................... 131

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    Li Ni u

    Bardo Thotrol l mt trong mt lot cc b gio hun ch dn su

    cch gii thot: gii thot thng qua s nghe; gii thot thng qua eo,mc; gii thot thng qua s thy; gii thot thng qua nh tng; giithot thng qua nm v; gii thot thng qua xc chm. B gio hunny do ngi Padmasambhava ch gio v ngi v (tm linh) ca ngi lYeshe Tsogyal ghi li cng vi sadhana (nghi thc hnh tr) v hai mn la (mandalas) ca bn mi hai v deity bnh yn (peaceful) v nmmi tm v deity xung n (wrathful).

    Ngi Padmasambhava chn ct cc b gio hun ny trong vng

    i Gampo min trung Ty Tng, ni ny v sau i s Gampopa xymt tu vin. Nhiu b gio hun khc cng vi cc vt thing ling cngc chn ct nh vy nhiu ni khc nhau trn khp lnh th TyTng; ngi ta gi cc b gio hun v cc vt thing ling cchn ct l terma. Ngi Padmasambhava truyn oai lc cho hai milm i t khm ph cc ni chn ct cc terma. Sau ny, ngiKarma Lingpa tm ra ni chn ct b gio hun Bardo ny, ngiKarma Lingpa l ti sanh ca mttrong cc v i t .

    Theo tn ch ny, gii thot c ngha rng bt k ai d l ngi nghing hay l ngi c tm rng m, khi tip cn c gio hun ny snhn c mt cht thy thnh lnh gic ng thng qua oai lc traotruyn c cha ng trong cc bo vt (terma) ny.

    Ngi Karma Lingpa thuc truyn thng Nyingma nhng tt c hctr ca ngi u thuc truyn thng Kagyu. Ngi thc hin s traotruyn ln u tin su b gio hun gii thot ny cho ngi DodulDorje, v Karmapa i thmi ba, n lt ngi Dodul Dorje traotruyn li cho Gyurme Tenphel, v Trungpa i th tm. S trao truyn

    vn tip tc tn ti trong cc tu vin Surmang ca dng Trungpa v tni s trao truyn lan ra tr li trong truyn thng Nyingma.

    Ngi tutp b gio hun ny thc hnh sadhana v nghin cu bgio hun sao cho hai mn la hon ton tr nn quen thuc nm lngnh mt phn kinh nghim ring ca mnh.

    Ti nhn c s trao truyn ny khi ti ln tm tui, cc v gio thca ti dy ti b gio hun ny, cc thy ti cng hng dn ticch thc x s vi ngi ang cht. Kt qu l, t tr i ti thng

    n thm nhng ngi ang cht hay cht, khong bn ln mt tun.i vi ai tu theo truyn thng ny, vic thng xuyn tip cn chng

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    kin trnh t ca ci cht, c bit ci cht ca ngi thn hay bn bgn gi, s c coi l ht sc quan trng, sao cho nim v thngtr thnh mt kinh nghim sng hn l mt quan im trit l.

    Quyn sch ny nhm mt nh xa hn, l cho gio hun nyc cc ngi tu hc Ty phng tu hnh. Ti hy vng trong tng laikhng xa cc sadhana (nghi thc hnh tr) cng c th c dch ra, sao cho truyn thng ny c tu tp mt cch y trn vn.

    Chogyam Trungpa, Rinpoche

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    Bi Gii Thiu

    Tht tnh c ti vit bi gii thiu ny ti Tu vin Rumtek

    Sikkim, pha bn kia thung lng l vng Gangtok ni m na th ktrc, ngi Kazi Dawa Samdup dch v ng W. Y. Evans Wentz cho xut bn b Bardo Thotrol u tin bng ting Anh. C mt milin kt na l vn bn dch ny c thc hin vi mt phn munca ti l tng cho ng Evans Wentz.

    Ngi ta c hi ti sao cn phi c mt vn bn mi khi m bn dchca ngi Samdup v Evans Wentz c ph bin rng ri ri v khincho rt nhiu ngi quan tm n o Pht. Trong bi gii thiu ca

    mnh, ng Evans Wentz t tr li mt phn nghi vn khi ng thanhn tnh cht tin phong trong quyn dch xut bn ca mnh. T tr i vc bit sau khi cc v lt ma cao cp nht ri Ty Tng, ccthng tin cng nh s quan tm ca th gii v o Pht Ty Tng gia tng ng k. Gi y, o Pht Ty Tng khng cn l mt tinghin cu v hc thuyt, nhng l mt truyn thng ca cuc snghng ngy v cm r vo Ty phng. Chnh v vy m cn ti mtvn bn dch lm th no cho s p dng tu tp ca b lun c nuln vi mt tm quan trng ln lao ng thi bn dch chuyn ti c

    ci ct li tinh ty ca tnh cch trc din v sng ng ca b lun.Vo ma h nm 1971, cui k hi tho ca Cng ng Tiger

    Vermont, i s Chogyam Trungpa trnh by bi thuyt ging tiT th Ty Tng, bi thuyt ging c trong sch ny phn lungii. Trong sut gi hi tho, ngi dng b lun bng ting Ty Tngtrong khi khn thnh gi li da theo n bn ca Evans Wentz. Cho nnny sinh cc vn khc bit v dch thut v cch din t, v chnh vcc vn m chng ti i n quyt nh nn chun b dch mt vn

    bn mi. dch vn bn ny chng ti da vo n bn ting Ty Tng pht

    hnh bi E. Kalsang (Varanasi 1969) cng vi ba bn khc ch in. Mtvi ch sai hay s st nh c sa cha bng cch tham kho cc

    bn khc ch in, nhng khng c nhng mu thun quan trng gia bnbn vn ny. Do kh ngc nhin khi thy c khc bit ng k giavn bn ny v vn bn trc y. Khng i su vo chi tit, y munnu ra mt vi im cn c cp.

    Ngi Kazi Dawa Samdup nhiu ln thay i t ting Anh khc nhaut mt t Ty Tng nguyn gc v cho l c lm ln. Trong phn ghi ch

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    nh xut bn c trch dn cc b lun c dng bng ting Ty Tng,mt vn bn chp tay v mt vn bn khc ch in nh xut bn thngghi ch rng ngi dch sa mt s t m by gi thy khng ng.a s cc t ting Anh thay i iu chnh dng nh c dng dung ha nhng mu thun h thng cc tng hp ca cc v thn, cc

    mu tng trng, vn vn vi cc kinh sch khc. Sau y l cc th dni bt (trch dn t cc trang ba cui ca t sn xut 1960 ca nhxut bn Oxford University Press) trang 95, phn ghi ch 3 v Kuntu-Zang-mo (Samantabhadri) thn n li i thnh v Kuntu-Zang-po(Samantabhadra) thn nam v v ny nh vy xut hin hai ln. Nhngton b ni dung ca on lun ny nhm vo vic biu tng ha shp nht cc kha cnh nam tnh v n tnh ca tm. Nh ng EvansWentz t cp ti iu ny trong cng phn ghi ch v ghi ch s

    3 trang k tip ta thy kh m hiu c lm sao ng ta, hay ngidch, hn coi b lun b nhm ln.

    trang 106 v 109, ch vt cht (m chng ti dch l sc thn) vch tm thc-thn thc b o ngc lm sao cho vt cht xuthin ngy th nht v thn thc xut hin ngy th hai, mc d trong

    bn khc in, cc ch xut hin theo mt cch khc. Tng t, trang108 v 111 cc v phi ngu Sangyay Chanma (Buddha-Locana) vMamaki i ch cho nhau.

    trang 114, ngy th t, nh sng ca pretas (qu i) c m t lmu , v trang 117, ngy th nm, nh sng ca asuras (cc v thnganh t) m t l mu xanh l cy trong khi trong vn bn dch ny, nhsng ca pretas l vng v ca asuras l mu . Cc mu sc ca suci xut hin tr li cc trang 124 v174, ng Evans Wentz ghich ( l) mu theo ngi Ty Tng v ng gii thch rng ngi dch thay i ph hp vi cc mu ca ch Pht. Tuy nhin cch biul hnh tng bng tranh, tng trong Pht gio khng phi nht thit lkhng thay i. Nhng bt thng khng quy cch, thy r nh nhng

    g xy ra thng xuyn y, v lun c nhng hu ca n. Trong ttc nhng trng hp ny bn ngun gc b lun ca chng ti ph hpvi bn khc ch in ca Evans Wentz v cng ph hp vi bn vit tayca ng y trong a s trng hp, nh vy rt c th rng s ging yht nh vy chng t l bn vn ng.

    Mt s khc bit na gia hai bn dch s c thy trong cch dint cc thut ng c bit ca Pht gio. Cc bn gc chp tay ca oPht c vit bng ting Sanskrit hay Pali (mt chi nhnh ngn ng rt

    gn vi Sanskrit) v c dch ra ting Ty Tng t th k th by tri. Vo thi k ting Ty Tng cha b nh hng bi bt k h

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    thng t tng no pht trin cao, nn ting Ty Tng c th thchnghi m khng qu kh khn. Do , ngi ta to ra mt ngn ngtrit hc mi bng ting Ty Tng vo thi chuyn ti cc gio lo Pht. Gi y khi dch ra mt ngn ng ca ngi Chu u th khai mi, chng ti trong mt tnh hung hon ton khc. Ngi Ty

    phng pht trin nhng lung t tng rt khc bit vi ngi ngphng, nn nu mt ch ting Anh c chn ra t nhng t vng tngio hay trit l th chc chn s xy ra vic l ch ting Anh s chatt c cc ngha tng ng v ngha bng m c th hon ton xa lvi nhng ngha mc nhin ca o Pht. Ngc li, khng th notm thy c trong bt k mt ch n ting Anh no tng ng vimt ch Sanskrit vi y ngha. Trong trng hp ny, ngi ta cnmt cm t ting Anh ng ngha gii thch cng nhiu cng tt ngha

    nguyn gc trong khi ch Sanskrit c li im l khng c nhng t linkt kh d lm sai lch cho ngi c.

    Do , mt s thut ng nht nh c gi nguyn ch Sanskrit,tc l ngn ng gc cho d b lun Bardo Thotrol c vit bngting Ty Tng. Tn cc v Thn c ghi bng ting Sanskrit, bi v ccv Thn c ngi ta bit nhiu hn vi ngn ng ny, v khi ccc b kinh lun khc cng d nhn ra ngay. Cc dch gi Ty Tngcng thng tun theo cch lm ny, mc d trong b lun c bit ny,c khi khng p dng cch .

    Dng nh khng c nht tr cho lm i vi hai ch Ty Tngbardo v yidam khi nu ra y. L do n gin l bi v hai ch l nhng ch c s dng d nht, chng rt quen thuc vi nhngngi tu hc Pht gio v l thnh phn c gi ct cn ca tp sch ny.T dch kh thi ca bardo l trng thi trung m th tht bt tin nhtl khi ta lp i lp li nhiu ln, cn t Sanskrit tng ng lantarabhava th cng kh c v li n l t khng quen thuc bi vgio l ny c pht trin nhiu Ty Tng hn l n . T

    Yidam dng trong Pht gio Ty Tng, c nhng n d khc hn tSanskrit l istadevata c ngha l v Thn c chn, t ny quenthuc trong o Hindu. T Yidam