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MALAY NATIONALISM Evolved in three stages:Religious stage (19061926) Socioeconomic stage (19261938) Political stage ((1936 onwards)

Influenced by Islamic education

Malay and English education

Malay and English education


Religious stageInfluenced by Islamic Reformation MovementMiddle East ( concept of Pan-Islam) (refer to slide 6) Formed a group name as Kaum Muda Led by Sheikh Tahir Jalaluddin and Syed Sheikh Ahmad alHadi

Opposed by Kaum Tua

They are fight for: (refer to slide 7

Published several magazines such as Al-Imam, AlIkhwan & Sauda)ra to their ideology

Kaum Tua, consisted of the elite Malay traditionalists and ulama

Kaum Tua ideas more conservative

In end, after 1920s, the movement taken over by more secular groups


Islamic Reformation Movement Started by Sheikh Muhammad Abduh and his supporters, the Al-Manar in Cairo. Championed the concept of Pan-Islam Also known as Renewal of Islam or Wahabi Movement

Influenced the Malay students in cairo


Reasons for fighting (Kaum Muda) Community development Advocated liberalization in religious education Fight for freedom of women Modernization

Critized the weaknesses of government Demand for the necessity of renewal


Socio-economic stageMore secular Emphasis on socio-economic status of Malays

Begin when, Malays realized they were left behind in economic development & politics

Role of associationmake sure Malays were not excluded from the benefits of modernization program

Formation of Kesatuan Melayu Singapura1926

Started by elite group- either English or Malay education background

Malay educated group formed Persaudaraan Sahabat Pena ( PASPAM)- 1934

PASPAM championed the socio-economic restoration of Malays

Political stageResulted of pressure from other races and the power transfer issues- 1920s Political parties majority championed concept of Tanah Melayu untuk Orang Melayu Formed of Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM)1838 ( more radical groups)


Influenced by Indonesian revolution - led by President Sukarno.

He spread the idea of gaining independence by revolution.

led by Ibrahim Yaakob

KMM fought for independence of Malaya & unity with IndonesiaMelayu Raya

KMMs fight not well received

The impact- lead to increasing nationalist spiritdemand for independence


CHINESE NATIONALISMThe nationalism began since China- Japan war in 1894 1895.Focused on the political struggles in China

because they still had a feeling that China was their homeland.

launched rallies and strike in Malaya in order to form a republic communist of Malaya but failed

Chinese community formed Malayan Communist Party

Influenced by several factors (refer to slide 11)


Influencer of Chinese Nationalism:1. Influenced by Renewal Movement initiated by Kang Yu Wei-1898 Aim to bring modernization in China Influenced those-especially among Chinese in Perak and Selangor.

2. Also influenced by Revolutionary Movement by Sun Yat Sen against cruelty of Manchu dynasty

3. Also influenced by Kuomintang party Kuomintang fought for the unity of China and strengthen the country through industrialization and modernization.


INDIAN NATIONALISMBefore Second World War (SWW)- political strife focused more in India After SWW, Indian started focus to local politics

Influenced by: (refer to slide 13

The associations responsibilities: ( refer to slide 14)

Taiping Indian Association (April 1906) & Selangor Indian Association (1923)

Formation of parties looked after interests of Indian in Malaya

Oct 1936formation of Central Indian Association of Malaya ( CIAM)

Alliance of 12 Indian associations & 4 Indian Chambers of Commerce

CIAM fought for progress an d political rights of Indians in Malaya


Influencer of Indian Nationalism: 1. The anti-colonial activities among Punjabi Influenced by Ghar Movement Publications on the movement were distributed in Malay Peninsular

2. National Movement in India Led by Mahatma Gandhi Gandhi led Indian National congress and conceived the philosophy of Satyagraha (non violence resistance against British Able to achieve independence in India- give hope to India community in Malaya


Taiping Indian Association (April 1906) & Selangor Indian Association (1923)- Responsibilities:

Improved the socio-economic status by: Building schools Health centers Starting Hindi language classes



Refer to additional notes


MALAYAN UNIONBefore Malayan Union:After Japanese surrendered- British tried to govern Malaya named British Military Administration (BMA). BMA faced problem when their administration was disturbed by MPAJA

BMA was dissolved

British introduced new administration named Malayan Union


Formation of Malayan Union

Malayan Union- a new administrati ve system introduced 1946

Reasons of MU formation (refer to slide 18)

Contents / Conditions of MU: (refer to slide 19)

However, MU encountered a massive resistance because of: (refer to slide 20)

Malayan Union was abolished because of: (refer to slide 24)

Process of resistance in Malaya (Refer to slide 21)

Discontent showed through publicationsMajlis & Utusan Melayu


Reasons of MU formation1. Unified administrative systems- for efficiency 2. To make Malaya stronger

3. To protect their own interest4. To ensure future political stability.



Contents / Conditions of MU:1. Singapore was to become a separate colony with its own governor. 2. Penang & Malacca joined the nine Malay states to form M.U - under governor with the help of executive council and legislative council. 3. Sultans were to keep authority over religious matters but would lose all other political powers. 4. Citizenship would no longer be restricted to natives under jus soli principle 5. State commissioner as leader of administration of each state-assisted by State Council that comprised of Malay leaders.



Reasons of opposition:1. Abolishment of Sultans sovereignity

2. Granting of citizenship to non Malays based on jus soli principle3. Malayan Union was formed without any input from the Malays 4. Harold MacMichael used force and intimidation to gain consent from Sultans. Sultans were not given enough time to consider and discuss the proposal with heads of state and the people of MalayaBack


Process of resistance:Early stages- Malays showed discontent through publications Over time, resistance become active & aggressive Visible effort done Dato Onn Jaafar, President of Johore Malay Association He held conference with 41 Malay associations at Sultan Sulaiman Club, Kuala Lumpur 1 March to 4 March 1946 Resulted Congress agreed to boycott the launch of Malayan UnionBoycott done by- Sultans were urged not to attend the ceremony to appoint the Governor & mourned for 1 week by wearing a white band on their songkok


Process of resistance (continue)Resistance become more aggressive and instensified with demonstrations in main town- Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru, Alor Setar,

The conference also resulted United Malay National Organization ( UMNO)Officially formed- 11th May 1946 First president- Dato Onn Jaafar Besides that, non Malays also opposed the ideas of Malayan Union through Malayan Democratic Union (MDU) The reason: MU did not offer any benefits to them and Singapore was not a part of MU


Process of resistance (continue)

With all sort of resistance, MU still implemented on 1 April 1946 with Sir Edward Gent as the 1st Governor

Because of overwhelming opposition- Sir Edward Gent forced to negotiate with Malay Sultans and Datos Onn Jaafar

Lastly, Malayan Union was abolished and replaced by Federated States of MalayaBack


Factors of failure of Malayan Union:1. Massive opposition by Malays and the rise of nationalist spirit amongst them 2. Ex-British officers such Frank Swettenham, R.O Windstedt and George Maxwell expressed their disapproval through newspaper in London.



THE FEDERATED STATES OF MALAYAA committee formed to draft a new constitution of MalayaMembersfour Malay Sultans, Two from UMNO, Six British officers chaired by former head of secretary of MU 1st draft published on December 1946

Left-wing Malays opposed the draft- PUTERA ( refer to slide 28)

Non-Malay formed AllMalaya Council of Joint Action( AMCJA)- Dec 1946 (refer to slide 26)

Non-Malay disapproved the draft


THE FEDERATED STATES OF MALAYAAMCJA and PUTERA cooperate demanded to include the proposals but British ignored their demands Resulted PUTERAAMCJA civil disobedience strikes Cause realized the importance of non-Malay reaction

In the end, Federated States of Malaya existed- on 21 February 1948

Consisted of British officers and non-Malay

Consultative Committee formed

The proposals included in the constitution: (refer to slide 30)


All- Malaya Council of Joint Action( AMCJA) Led by Tan Cheng Lock Combination of MDU, MIC, Liga Belia Demokrasi Baru Tanah Melayu and a few workers union They made 6 proposals:a) Singapore be united with Malaya b) The formation of a central legislature whose members elected by the people


c) Equal rights for all people lived in Malay Peninsula d) Malays to have authority over Malay customs and Islamic matters e) Malays be given special priority so that they would have the opportunity to make rapid economic progress



Pusat Tenaga Rakyat (PUTERA) Left- wing Malays More radical ideologies Members- PKMM, API, AWAS Made four proposals:a) Bahasa Melayu as official language b) Matters of foreign relations and defence should be shouldered by both Malaya and British government


c) All citizens who lived in Malay Peninsula be known as Melayu

d) The national flags to contain the national colors of the Malays



The proposals of Federated States of Malaya:1. 9 Malay states, Penang and Melaka unified under federation. Singapore is to be a separate Crown Colony under British control 2. The FSM led by British High Commissionerappointed by British government, assisted by Federal Legislative Council and Federal Council


3. The federal council consisted of:i. A High Commissioner ii. Three ex officio iii. 9 residents of various State Councils & two representatives from local council of Penang and Melaka

4. The authority of Sultan restored- given back the power to oversee their own states with the counsel of the State Council and State Executive Council


5. The state government was to be given control on matters of health, education, land and agriculture 6. The conditions for citizenship were tightened

An applicant must have been:Born and reside in Malaya from at least 8-12 years Reside for 15- 20 years The min age 18 years old Must have good command of Bahasa Melayu

7. Malays were given special rights as the indigenous peopleBack


MAIN POLITICAL PARTIES1. United Malays National Organization (UMNO)2. The Malayan Indian Congress (MIC) 3. The Malayan Chinese Association ( MCA)

4. The Alliance Party5. Independence of Malaya Party (IMP)


United Malays National Organization (UMNO) Founded 11 May 1946 Led by Dato Onn Jaafar (until 1951) Reasons for formation: Oppose MU Unite Malays and defend the special rights of Malays

Slogan used Hidup Melayu A political party Constitution approved on 19 May 1946


Until 1951-39 divisions of UMNO formed. Two main divisions- UMNO Youth and Womens Wing Emerged as strongest party-represented Malays and played central role in demanding independence of Malaya


The Malayan Indian Congress (MIC) Formed- 8 August 1946 First president- John A. Thivy Reasons for formation: Protect the political, economic and social interests of Indian community in Malaya Fight for political rights for the whole of Malaya Represent Indian community

Entered alliance with UMNO and MCA in April 1955


The Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) Formed on 27 February 1949

First president- Tun Tan Cheng Lock Purposes: Protect the rights of Chinese Maintain harmony amongst various races in the country

At first was only a welfare center 1952- officially become a political party 1952- formed alliance with UMNO


Alliance Party 1952- Malayan General Elections in Kuala Lumpur- cause UMNO and MCA decided to work together The alliance won 9 out of 12 seats contested. Formed in 1955 by Tunku Abdul Rahman and Tan Cheng Lock and sooner MIC decided to join This showed the cooperation between 3 main ethnics in Malay Peninsula


1955- Malayan General Elections- won 51 out 52 seats. The victory was a signal of national unity among various ethnic groups and proof locals ready to rule their own country


Independence of Malaya Party (IMP) Formed after Dato Onn Jaafar left UMNO. The formation serve with purpose the cooperation between races could form the basis for the creation of a single party. Membership opened to all races Objective: obtaining independence in 10 years

INDEPENDCE NEGOTIATIONSAlliance Partys victory in general election (1955)- paved way to selfgovernment Jan 1956- Tunku Abdul Rahman led an entourage to London


Purpose: negotiate for independence

Reid Commissio n formed (refer to slide 43)

According to agreementFSM given independence on 31 August 1957

ResultedLondon Agreement signed on 8 February 1956

Comprised of 4 Sultans and 4 member of Alliance Party

Malaya granted independence on 31 August 1957

Tunku Abdul Rahman as the first prime minister

The Yamtuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan, Tuanku Abdul Rahman as first Yang di Pertuan Agong


Reid Commission Led by Lord Reid Members included Ivor Jennings, William Mackell B. Malik and Halim Abdul Hamid Purpose: drew up constitution that set up a new democratic & unified Malaya with a firm government - had to consider the right of Malays, non-Malays & the Sultans 131 memorandums were received from individuals & various organizations


The constitution was drafted and approved by Federal Legislative Council on 15 August 1957 and put into effect on 27 August 1957. Characteristics of Constitution:1. Political system- based on Constitutional Monarchy. 2. The head of government was to be the Prime Minister- elected from House of Representatives 3. The federation would be a democratic parliament. The parliament consisted of members of House of Representatives and Senate


4. Conditions for citizenship refined:


5. Bahasa Melayu- national language 6. Islam as official religion but freedom of religion would be allowed



Thank you for your attention & Have a wonderful day!See you in the next lesson