Topic 1.Nature and Scope of Psychology

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<ul><li><p> LEARNING MODULE </p><p>GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY </p><p>Effectivity: </p><p>SY 2015-2016 </p><p>Document Reference: </p><p>QR-AAD-013 Revision No: 01 Issue No: 01 </p><p>Date Issued: </p><p>Prepared by: </p><p>MARREN A. ADAN </p><p>E-FACULTY </p><p>Reviewed by: </p><p>RIVIERA G. GUIYAB </p><p>Approved by: </p><p>ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D. </p><p>This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the </p><p>office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office. 1/5 </p><p>LEARNING MODULE TITLE </p><p>Nature and Scope of Psychology </p><p>LEARNING MODULE RATIONALE </p><p>Because psychology affects so many aspects of our life, it is essential that even those who do not intend </p><p>to specialize in the field know something about its basic facts and research methods. An introductory </p><p>course in psychology is quintessential to better understanding why people think and act as they do. </p><p>This module discusses the nature and general scope of psychology. This will provide the students a </p><p>more concrete way of understanding what psychology is as well as the different perspectives used by a </p><p>psychologist in his/her attempt to explain an individuals behavior. </p><p>LEARNING OUTCOMES </p><p>At the conclusion of this learning module, the students are expected to: </p><p>A. Explain what Psychology is </p><p>B. Discuss the meaning of behavior and the perspectives used in explaining behavior </p><p>C. Discuss the different methods used in psychological researches </p><p>D. Point- out the different areas of specialization in Psychology </p></li><li><p> LEARNING MODULE </p><p>GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY </p><p>Effectivity: </p><p>SY 2015-2016 </p><p>Document Reference: </p><p>QR-AAD-013 Revision No: 01 Issue No: 01 </p><p>Date Issued: </p><p>Prepared by: </p><p>MARREN A. ADAN </p><p>E-FACULTY </p><p>Reviewed by: </p><p>RIVIERA G. GUIYAB </p><p>Approved by: </p><p>ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D. </p><p>This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the </p><p>office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office. 2/5 </p><p>TEACHING STRATEGIES/LEARNING ACTIVITIES </p><p> Lecture </p><p> Classroom Discussion </p><p>RESOURCES/MATERIALS </p><p>Check more research methods applied to the study of psychology through the link provided below! </p><p>http://www.simplypsychology.org/research-methods.html </p></li><li><p> LEARNING MODULE </p><p>GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY </p><p>Effectivity: </p><p>SY 2015-2016 </p><p>Document Reference: </p><p>QR-AAD-013 Revision No: 01 Issue No: 01 </p><p>Date Issued: </p><p>Prepared by: </p><p>MARREN A. ADAN </p><p>E-FACULTY </p><p>Reviewed by: </p><p>RIVIERA G. GUIYAB </p><p>Approved by: </p><p>ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D. </p><p>This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the </p><p>office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office. 3/5 </p><p>LEARNING CONCEPT </p><p>What is Psychology? </p><p>The word psychology comes from </p><p>two words: logos which means a </p><p>science or study and psyche which </p><p>means mind or soul. </p><p>Behavior: Defined </p><p>--Behavior is defined as any response or reaction to a stimulus. </p><p>Behavior can be </p><p>1. Normal or Abnormal </p><p>-The behavior can be considered normal if it is something that is acceptable to society, </p><p>according to a set of standards, or is something expected a given moment. </p><p>For instance, your class has a graded recitation which was announced by your professor </p><p>during the previous meeting. Unfortunately, your name is called for recitation. You are </p><p>asked to go in front of the class. Since you did not study the lesson, you are nervous and </p><p>tense. You notice your heart is beating faster; you are perspiring and having tremors. Is </p><p>your behavior considered normal? Under the prevailing circumstances, your behavior is </p><p>then considered normal, since the stimuli call for the activation of your sympathetic </p><p>nervous system such behavior is therefore expected. On the contrary, if you exhibit the </p><p>same behavior when you are just seated while your professor is discussing the lesson, the </p><p>behavior is considered abnormal. </p><p>2. Learned or Unlearned </p><p>- Behavior is considered learned when you acquire it while </p><p>undergoing developmental processes. Behavior is unlearned </p><p>when it is something innate, inherent, or inborn. </p><p>Being polite, industrious, helpful of others, cooperative, lazy, </p><p>untidy and the like are examples of learned behavior. </p></li><li><p> LEARNING MODULE </p><p>GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY </p><p>Effectivity: </p><p>SY 2015-2016 </p><p>Document Reference: </p><p>QR-AAD-013 Revision No: 01 Issue No: 01 </p><p>Date Issued: </p><p>Prepared by: </p><p>MARREN A. ADAN </p><p>E-FACULTY </p><p>Reviewed by: </p><p>RIVIERA G. GUIYAB </p><p>Approved by: </p><p>ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D. </p><p>This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the </p><p>office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office. 4/5 </p><p>Reflexive behaviors, such as withdrawing your hand from a hot kettle or blinking your eyes </p><p>upon seeing an approaching object that may hit your eye, are examples of unlearned </p><p>behavior. </p><p>3. Voluntary or Involuntary </p><p>- Involuntary behavior is a behavior that the individual cant deliberately regulate or control </p><p>while voluntary entails a deliberate action. </p><p> Dancing and singing are examples of voluntary behavior. Eating and drinking are also </p><p>examples of voluntary behavior. Reflexive behaviors are examples of involuntary behavior. </p><p>4. Conscious or Unconscious </p><p>Conscious behavior involves awareness of ones action while the opposite is considered as </p><p>an unconscious behavior. </p><p>Quarrelling with someone is a conscious behavior since the individual has full awareness of </p><p>his action. On the other hand, there are people who walk while they are sleeping. This </p><p>behavior then is considered unconscious. </p><p>Goals of Psychology as a Science </p><p>1. Description </p><p> The first major goal or objective of psychology is to describe mental processes and behavior. This fact-</p><p>finding step normally comes first whenever researchers step into a new area. Some methods </p><p>psychologists use to learn how people think include conducting interviews and doing surveys. They </p><p>also observe people in the workplace, in schools and in public areas to find out how they act. They may </p><p>use additional methods such as psychoanalysis, lab experiments and personality tests. </p><p>2. Understanding </p><p> In natural sequence, the second goal of psychology is understanding people's behavior. Also </p><p>sometimes called "explaining," this objective requires finding out the cause or causes behind the </p><p>behavior that's been observed. For example, psychologists set up tests and examine data to find </p><p>patterns of possible cause and effect. To confirm true causation, psychologists must do repeated </p><p>testing and eliminate all hypothetical causes due to chance. For example, despite many studies on </p></li><li><p> LEARNING MODULE </p><p>GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY </p><p>Effectivity: </p><p>SY 2015-2016 </p><p>Document Reference: </p><p>QR-AAD-013 Revision No: 01 Issue No: 01 </p><p>Date Issued: </p><p>Prepared by: </p><p>MARREN A. ADAN </p><p>E-FACULTY </p><p>Reviewed by: </p><p>RIVIERA G. GUIYAB </p><p>Approved by: </p><p>ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D. </p><p>This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the </p><p>office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office. 5/5 </p><p>heredity and environment, researchers have not yet conclusively proven what causes autism. </p><p>3. Prediction </p><p> The third goal of psychology is to predict behavior. When psychologists finally understand what </p><p>causes a particular behavior, they're better able to predict when it's likely to occur. For example, if </p><p>psychologists know what combination of personal circumstances and traffic conditions cause road </p><p>rage, they can foretell when drivers are likely to engage in violence. Similarly, if they know what </p><p>situations cause former addicts to return to drugs, they can predict when relapses are likely. </p><p>4. Control </p><p>The fourth goal of psychology is to control behavior. Sometimes stated less autocratically as "to </p><p>influence," this goal includes preventing destructive behaviors and encouraging positive ones. This goal </p><p>is exemplified by clinical, counseling or school psychologists, who typically have a state license and a </p><p>graduate degree in psychology. For example, school psychologists help students improve disruptive </p><p>behavior and meet learning goals, while clinical psychologists help patients overcome emotional </p><p>disorders and substance abuse problems. </p><p>Psychology Perspectives </p><p>There are various different approaches in contemporary psychology. </p><p>An approach is a perspective (i.e. view) that involves certain assumptions (i.e. beliefs) about human </p><p>behavior: the way they function, which aspects of them are worthy of study and what research methods </p><p>are appropriate for undertaking this study. There may be several different theories within an approach, </p><p>but they all share these common assumptions. </p><p>1. Behavioral </p><p>If your layperson's idea of psychology has always been of people in laboratories wearing white coats </p><p>and watching hapless rats try to negotiate mazes in order to get to their dinner, then you are probably </p><p>thinking of behavioral psychology. </p><p>Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because they view people (and animals) as </p><p>controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our </p><p>environment. Behaviorism is concerned with how environmental factors (called stimuli) affect </p><p>observable behavior (called the response). </p></li><li><p> LEARNING MODULE </p><p>GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY </p><p>Effectivity: </p><p>SY 2015-2016 </p><p>Document Reference: </p><p>QR-AAD-013 Revision No: 01 Issue No: 01 </p><p>Date Issued: </p><p>Prepared by: </p><p>MARREN A. ADAN </p><p>E-FACULTY </p><p>Reviewed by: </p><p>RIVIERA G. GUIYAB </p><p>Approved by: </p><p>ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D. </p><p>This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the </p><p>office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office. 6/5 </p><p>The behaviorist approach proposes two main processes whereby people learn from their environment: </p><p>namely classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by </p><p>association, and operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior. </p><p>Behaviorism also believes in scientific methodology (e.g. controlled experiments), and that only </p><p>observable behavior should be studies because this can be objectively measured. Behaviorism rejects </p><p>the idea that people have free will, and believes that the environment determines all behavior. </p><p>Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be </p><p>reduced to learn S-R (Stimulus-Response) units. </p><p>Classical conditioning (CC) was studied by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. Though looking into </p><p>natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to condition dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell </p><p>through repeated associated of the sound of the bell and food. The principles of CC have been applied </p><p>in many therapies. These include systematic desensitization for phobias (step-by-step exposed to feared </p><p>stimulus at once) and aversion therapy. </p><p>B.F. Skinner investigated operant conditioning of voluntary and involuntary behavior. Skinner felt that </p><p>some behavior could be explained by the person's motive. Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, and </p><p>the three main behavior shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and </p><p>punishment. </p><p>Behaviorism has been criticized in the way it under-estimates the complexity of human behavior. Many </p><p>studies used animals which are hard to generalize to humans and it cannot explain for example the </p><p>speed in which we pick up language. There must be biological factors involved. </p><p>2. Psychodynamic </p><p>Who hasn't heard of Sigmund Freud? So many expressions from our daily life come from Freud's </p><p>theories of psychoanalysis - subconscious, denial, repression and anal personality to name only a few. </p><p>Freud believes that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behavior as adults. He </p><p>also believed that people have little free will to make choices in life. Instead our behavior is determined </p><p>by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences. </p><p>Freuds psychoanalysis is both a theory and a therapy. It is the original psychodynamic theory and </p><p>inspired psychologists such as Jung and Erikson to develop their own psychodynamic theories. Freuds </p><p>work is vast and he has contributed greatly to psychology as a discipline. </p><p>Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, explained the human mind as like an iceberg, with only a small </p><p>amount of it being visible, that is our observable behavior, but it is the unconscious, submerged mind </p><p>that has the most, underlying influence on our behavior. Freud used three main methods of accessing </p></li><li><p> LEARNING MODULE </p><p>GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY </p><p>Effectivity: </p><p>SY 2015-2016 </p><p>Document Reference: </p><p>QR-AAD-013 Revision No: 01 Issue No: 01 </p><p>Date Issued: </p><p>Prepared by: </p><p>MARREN A. ADAN </p><p>E-FACULTY </p><p>Reviewed by: </p><p>RIVIERA G. GUIYAB </p><p>Approved by: </p><p>ALMA V. DELA CRUZ, Ph.D. </p><p>This is a controlled document. Revision of this document should undergo the standard procedure. The original copy of this document is located at the </p><p>office of the Academic Affairs Department (AAD). The user should secure the latest revision of this document from the AAD office. 7/5 </p><p>the unconscious mind: free association, dream analysis and slips of the tongue. </p><p>He believed that the unconscious mind consisted of three components: the 'id' the 'ego' and the </p><p>'superego'. The 'id' contains two main instincts: 'Eros', which is the life instinct, which involves self-</p><p>preservation and sex which is fuelled by the 'libido' energy force. 'Thanatos' is the death instinct, whose </p><p>energies, because they are less powerful than those of 'Eros' are channeled away from us and into </p><p>aggression towards others. </p><p>The 'id' and the 'superego' are constantly in conflict with each other, and the 'ego' tries to resolve the </p><p>discord. If this conflict is not resolved, we tend to use defense mechanisms to reduce our anxieties. </p><p>Psychoanalysis attempts to help patients resolve their inner conflicts. </p><p>An aspect of psychoanalysis is Freud's theory of psychosexual development. It shows how early </p><p>experiences affect adult personality. Stimulation of different areas of the body is important as the child </p><p>progresses through the important developmental stages. Too much or too little can have bad </p><p>consequences later. </p><p>The most important stage is the phallic stage where the focus of the libido is on the genitals. During </p><p>this stage little boys experience the 'Oedipus complex', and little girls experience the 'Electra complex'. </p><p>These complexes result in children i...</p></li></ul>

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