psychology module 1 the history and scope of psychology

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  • PSYCHOLOGY Module 1The History and Scope of Psychology

  • Psychologys RootsPrescientific PsychologyIs the mind connected to the body or distinct?Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?

  • Prescientific PsychologyRene Descartes (1596-1650)Human Mind held two ideas:Innate (i.e., belief in God)Derived (all ideas acquired by experience)

  • John Locke (1632-1704)Empiricism knowledge acquired by observationAll ideas come from experience no innate ideasMind is a blank slate written on by experience

  • Psychologys RootsWilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig (c. 1879)Introspection, psychophysical measurementsStructuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

  • Psychologys RootsMax Wertheimer (1880-1943) Functionalism, however focused on how behavioral processes functionhow they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourishGestalt Psychology

  • Early MilestonesStanley Hall 1st laboratory in U.S. (1883)Herman Ebbinghaus memory (1885)William James founded Functionalism (1890)Sigmund Freud Unconsciousness (1900)American Psychological Association (1892)Ivan Pavlov Behaviorism (1906)

  • Psychologys RootsFigure 1- British Psychological Society membership

  • Psychologys RootsDefinition of PsychologyThe science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings)

  • How do we know?Validity of knowledge:God is dead.Abortion is wrong.There is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.The mind is just like a computerAttitudes affect cancerPornography is harmful2 + 2 + 4

  • Philosophical DevelopmentsA Question: How are mind and body related? Dualism - body and soul are separate but interrelatedorigins in medieval religion soul is seat of intellectual function and willmind is product of the soulmind not subject to scientific inquiryto challenge this was punishable by death

  • Philosophical DevelopmentsA Question: How are mind and body related? Rene Descartes (1596-1650) - modified dualismsince animals have no soul, much behavior does not require soulthe body can therefore control much behaviorled him to study reflexes the souls main function is thought, a uniquely human attribute

  • Philosophical DevelopmentsMaterialism: Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) mind is a product of the brainsoul is not involved in human behaviorEmpiricism: knowledge and intellect are acquired sensory experiences produce elementary ideaselementary ideas become associated into complex thought and ideasA Question: How are mind and body related?

  • Philosophical DevelopmentsAnother Question: Empiricism vs. Nativism

    Nativism is the view that elementary ideas are innateIf knowledge is innate What is the purpose of education?Can intellect be changed by experience?Are abilities determined by our genes or our experiences?This is known as Nature vs. Nurture appears throughout modern psychology

  • Foundations of Modern PsychologyCharles Darwin (1809-1882)Theory of natural selection (1859)physical characteristics evolve through natural selectionbehavioral patterns also influence selectioninborn knowledge and behavioral tendencies with survival value are passed onHuman beings are part of nature and can be understood through the methods of science

  • Foundations of Modern PsychologyDarwins theory encouraged scientific inquiry19th century developments in physiology demonstrated the approach to use based on scientific methods, controlled laboratory experimentsinfluential beliefs from early physiologyreflexology - all human behaviors occur through reflexeslocalization of function - specific structures of the brain serve specific functions in the control of mental experiences and behavior

  • Other PioneersAlfred Binet (1857-1911) French intelligence researcherdeveloped first intelligence testIvan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian physiologist discovered conditioned reflexes B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)American psychologist at Harvardstudied learning and effect of reinforcementbehaviorism

  • Contemporary PsychologyPsychologys Big IssuesNature-nurture controversy the relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors

  • Contemporary PsychologyNatural selectionprinciple that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

  • Andrea YatesCognitive PerspectivePrivate mental functioning?Biological BasisBrain chemistrydepressionSocial-CulturalFamily affair?Extended family

  • Contemporary PsychologyPsychologys PerspectivesA lot depends on your point of view

  • Contemporary Psychology

  • Contemporary PsychologyPsychologys SubfieldsBasic Researchbiological psychologists explore the links between brain and minddevelopmental psychologists study changing abilities from womb to tombcognitive psychologists study how we perceive, think, and solve problems

  • Contemporary PsychologyPsychologys SubfieldsBasic ResearchPersonality psychologists investigate our persistent traitsSocial psychologists explore how we view and affect one another

  • Contemporary PsychologyPsychologys SubfieldsApplied ResearchIndustrial/organizational psychologists study and advise on behavior in the workplaceClinical psychologists study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders

  • Contemporary PsychologyPsychiatryA branch of medicine dealing with psychological disordersPracticed by physicians who sometimes use medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy

    *Keywords: dualism, Rene DescartesGraphic: picture of Descartes pg. 4 of Gray*Keywords: dualism, Rene DescartesGraphic: picture of Descartes pg. 4 of Gray*Keywords: dualism, Rene DescartesGraphic: picture of Descartes pg. 4 of Gray*Keywords: materialism, empiricism, nativism*Keywords: Charles Darwin, natural selectionGraphic: picture of Darwin pg. 8 of Gray*Keywords: reflexology, localization of function