the early history and scope of psychology
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DESCRIPTIONThe Early History and Scope of Psychology. Define Psychology. The science of behavior and mental processes. Early History (around 400 B.C.). Hippocrates Theory of the Four Humors, First personality theory. We are made up of four humors - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Early History and Scopeof Psychology
Define PsychologyThe science of behavior and mental processes
Early History (around 400 B.C.)Hippocrates Theory of the Four Humors, First personality theory. We are made up of four humorsThe dominant humor affected the individual's personality
The 4 HumorsSANGUINE (Blood) - A warm, outgoing personality. Rarely loses temper and is compassionate and loving by nature.
PHLEGMATIC (Phlegm) - A lazy, laid-back personality. Is rarely bothered by carrying out jobs or work, and does not express many emotions. Never is emotionally intense.
The 4 HumorsCHOLERIC (Yellow Bile) - An angry, aggressive personality. Is often loyal, but at the same time, has a very short fuse and is impulsive by nature. MELANCHOLIC (Black Bile) - A sad, despondent personality. Tends to display more reactions of negativity towards stimuli, and is often selfish and self-absorbed.
Early History (around 387 B.C.)Socrates, and his student Plato (Greek Philosophers)
The mind and the body are two separate entities, and do not influence each other.
Socrates, and Plato believed that:Human behavior and knowledge is pre-disposed and genetically built-in (Nature).
IE. If you are intelligent, you were born with a smart brain. If you are athletic, you were born with strong muscles and balance. If you are violent, depressed, or forgetful, you were born with a brain disorder.
Aristotle (335 B.C.)The mind and the body are inseparable and each influences the other with regards to behavior.
Aristotle (Greek Philosopher)
Human behavior and knowledge is not preexisting; it grows from the experiences stored in our memories (Nurture).
IE. You are violent because you watched it on television. You are smart because you studied. You are kind because you were loved.
Rene Descartes (French Philosopher) (1600s)The body and the mind are separate entities, though they do interact and communicate through the spirits of the brain, and the passages of the body. Knowledge is inborn as well.
Early dissections led to the early understanding of mind/body connections (biological psychology).
John Locke (British Philosopher)
Tabula rasa (Empiricism) literally means blank slate
Theory: the mind is at birth a "blank slate" without rules for processing data, and that data is added and processed based solely by our sensory experiences. It also emphasized the individual's freedom to author his or her own soul.
IE. There are no inherited notions regarding the world. Therefore, my decision to drink or not to drink is based solely on my sensory experience of the taste and effects of a glass of wine, not my parents alcoholism. My grades in school and my professional goals are based on my study and work habits, not my parents idiocy.
Stressed the scientific principles of observation and experimentation when evaluating human behavior Francis Bacon (English Scientist)1600s
1879 establishes the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany.
This is generally considered the starting point of Psychology as a science.Wilhelm Wundt
Psychology Comes to AmericaG. Stanley Hall (1846-1924)A student of WundtEstablishes 1st American laboratory at Johns Hopkins (1883) Founded 1st American Psych. journal (1887)Founded American Psychological Association-APA (1892)
Edward Titchener (Structuralism)A student of WundtMeasured and compared individuals perceptions of smells, sights, memories, etc., IntrospectionProvides direct contact with the mind.
Structuralists break human experiences down into their smallest parts in order to understand the entire behavior.
William James (turn of the century) (Functionalism)Focused on the physical functions of the brain and the body, and how they worked together
Also, reintroduced the Darwinist theory of human evolution, and that body and brain functions evolved as humans learned about and experienced the world
Humanistic PerspectiveHumanists believe that we choose most of our behaviors and these choices are guided by physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs. Humanists stress free will and individual choice.Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
IE. An introverted person chooses to limit social contact with others because he or she finds that social needs are better satisfied by contact with a few close friends rather than large groups.
Gestalt PsychologyEmphasize our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Mostly used with Sensation & Perception
Psychoanalytic PerspectivePsychoanalysts believe that the unconscious mind (a part of our mind that we do not have conscious control over or access to) controls much or our thought and action. Sigmund Freud
IE. An introverted person avoids social situations because of a repressed memory of trauma in childhood involving an acutely embarrassing experience at a party.
Biopsychology (Neuroscience)Biopsychologists explain human behavior in terms of biological processes, including genetics, hormones, and brain (dys)functions.
IE. An introverted person may lack a certain gene for sociability, or an extroverted person may be producing an overabundance of a particular hormone. There may be a dysfunctional frontal lobe.
Evolutionary PerspectiveEvolutionary psychologists (sociobiologists) examine human behavior in terms of natural selection and survival traits.Charles Darwin
IE. An extroverted person carries a social genetic trait based upon the need to make friends or allies, thus increasing their chances of survival. An introverted person may have a genetic quality that precludes isolation as a way to avoid predators, thus increasing their chances for survival.
Behavioral PerspectiveBehavioral psychologists explain human thought and behavior by looking strictly at observable behaviors and what reaction organisms get in response to specific behaviors.Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F. Skinner
IE. An introverted person may be withdrawn and shy because they are punished for speaking at home. An extrovert may get monetary rewards for garnering attention.
Cognitive PerspectiveCognitive psychologists explain human behavior in terms of how we interpret, process, and remember environmental events. How we view the world plays a big role in what we do! Stimulus Mental process Behavior
IE. An introvert does not socialize much because they interpret friendship as pity, or whispered conversations as criticism. An extrovert may think that the world is a happy and safe place, and therefore all people are potential friends.
Social-Cultural Perspectiveemphasize the influence of groups and culture on the way that we think and act. Sociocultural psychologists:
IE. An female introvert lives in a society where women are not allowed to talk, vote, or own land. An extrovert lives in a society where gluttony and extravagance is encouraged.
Fields in Psychology What do people do with a degree in Psychology?
what can I do with a degree in Psychology?
Fields in PsychologyApplied v. Basic Psychology:
Applied refers to practical and interactive psychology.the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome problems in other areas Basic refers mainly to the research fields of psychology.
TherapyMental and physical rehabilitation regarding mental disorders.
Can include medications, in/out patient services, counseling, etc.
SchoolAssisting school-aged children, adolescence issues, counseling, etc.
ClinicalDiagnosis and treatment of troubled people.Career, marriage, stress counseling.
Industrial/Organizational Productivity, job stress, motivation, automation. Practical issues of selecting and training a workforce
Forensic PsychologyProvide advice to legislators, judges, correctional officers, lawyers and the police
Called upon, for example, to serve as an expert witness, diagnose and treat incarcerated and probation offenders; and screen and evaluate personnel in the law enforcement and judicial systems
Sports PsychologyIssues and techniques of sport-specific psychological assessment and mental skillsGoal-setting, visualization and performance planning, self-confidence, eating disorders, overtraining and burnout counseling, team building, sportsmanship
DevelopmentalStudy mental and physical growth from prenatal through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and into old age.
Social Study how people influence each others attitudes, prejudices, norms, interpersonal attractions, etc.
Cognitive Experiment with how we perceive, think, and solve problems
ExperimentalConduct research on learning, memory, sensation, perception, cognition, motivation, etc.
Major Research Areas pie chart
Careers in Psychology: Percentage of Psychology Degrees by Specialty
Current Perspectives in Psychology
Woman and MinoritiesFew woman and minorities in early 1900s
Women Margaret Floy Washburn - first PhD 1894- Mary Calkins - first president of APA- Currently woman get about 70% of PhDs
African Americans Francis Sumner - first PhD in 1920- Kenneth B. Clark- first PhD from Colombia in 1940 - brown vs. white doll study - helped with desegregation of public schools
What is the difference be