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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Problem Pronunciation is distribution of sounds when who speak with students or the way a words or a language is spoken and the manner in which student utters a word, phrase and sentence. In pronunciation the students also study about phonetics, segmental, suprasegmentals, consonants, vowels, sounds and voice. According to Clarey and Dixson (1963:5), the teaching of English pronunciation is both a simple. It is simple in that such teaching involves merely the drilling of students on the various sounds of English. Those conscientious teachers who have good pronunciation can do this. They offer themselves as models of good pronunciation. Correcting as best they can any errors which the students make. Therefore English teachers should teach students clearly about how the sound produced and how the word stress is placed. Pronunciation plays an important role in learning English as a second and foreign language. And most of students see pronunciation as an important part of learning to speak. The importance of pronunciation is, to success in communication. To work on pronunciation 1

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Problem

Pronunciation is distribution of sounds when who speak with students or the way a words or a language is spoken and the manner in which student utters a word, phrase and sentence. In pronunciation the students also study about phonetics, segmental, suprasegmentals, consonants, vowels, sounds and voice. According to Clarey and Dixson (1963:5), the teaching of English pronunciation is both a simple. It is simple in that such teaching involves merely the drilling of students on the various sounds of English. Those conscientious teachers who have good pronunciation can do this. They offer themselves as models of good pronunciation. Correcting as best they can any errors which the students make. Therefore English teachers should teach students clearly about how the sound produced and how the word stress is placed. Pronunciation plays an important role in learning English as a second and foreign language. And most of students see pronunciation as an important part of learning to speak. The importance of pronunciation is, to success in communication. To work on pronunciation is important for two main reasons: the first, to help the students to understand the spoken English they hear and the second, to help them make their own speech more comprehensible and meaningful to others. The effectives use of pronunciation features is crucial for effective spoken communication. At English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training Lancang Kuning University, pronunciation is scheduled in the first semester. The general instructional objective of pronunciation is students are expected to utter or pronounce a word correctly. And specific instructional objectives of pronunciation is students expected to distinguish the sound of a word and symbol to determine what sounds and what organs of speech associated with. The students study pronunciation only in one semester and then they continue to

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study phonology in the next semester. In the syllabus the students study about the nature of pronunciation, vowels analysis, familiar and unfamiliar vowel, consonant analysis, familiar and unfamiliar consonant, voice analysis, voiceless analysis, aspirated stop, organs of speech, nasal cavity and labial, affricative and affricative, gliding sound, stressing in a word (syllables) and sentence intonation. Based on my observation in speaking class and interviewing with the lecturer of Speaking II in May 2011 at second semester students of English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training Lancang Kuning University, the students have problem in their speaking, especially in their pronunciation. There are some pronunciation problems made by seconds semester students of English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training Lancang Kuning University such as the students make long pauses, unintelligible pronunciation, the students do not give stress to their English words and the last is students use English intonation that is similar to Indonesian intonation. First of all, some students make long pauses in their speaking. It results to their bad speaking performance; they work hard to focus on the production of English utterances instead of producing good English pronunciation. Second, some students produce unintelligible pronunciation. They do not pronounce the English utterances well. Perhaps, speaking activity or speak first is more important than thinking about English pronunciation. Moreover, the students native language or their mother tongue seems interfere students English pronunciation. The students unintelligible pronunciation mostly dealing with the production of English consonants; such as in the words very they pronounce it with fery, also they have problem with the use of English vowels; they cannot differentiate the use of short and long vowels well. For example in the word leaf and leave the word leaf should be pronounced with short /i/ while the words leave with long /i:/. Third, some students do not give any stress to their English words when they are speaking. Meanwhile in English pronunciation giving stress to certain

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words is very important because different stress for some English words will results to different meaning or different class of words. Finally, some students also have problem with their English intonation. It can be seen from their speaking activity, especially in giving question to their friends in classroom discussion. They address the questions in English without knowing the rules of raising or falling intonation or they speak English with Indonesian intonation. Based on the problems above, the researcher will do the research focus on the best students at the second semester students of English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of Lancang Kuning University who is Akzir Fitri Afiani. This research is entitled: A study on a students ability to pronounce English at second semester students of English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training Lancang Kuning University.

B.

Identification of The Problem Based on the background of the problem mentioned above. The

identification of the problems are: 1. The students make long pauses in their speaking 2. The Students unintelligible pronunciation 3. The students have problem in stress English words 4. The Students have problem in intonation

C. Focus of the Research The researcher only focuses on English pronunciation at a student at second semester of English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training Lancang Kuning University.

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D. Formulation of the problem The formulations of the problem in this research are: 1. How is the student pronunciation ability? 2. What factors influence her pronunciation ability?

E. Purpose of the problem The purposes of the research are: 1. To identify a student pronunciation ability. 2. To identify the factors influence student pronunciation ability.

F. Importance of the Research The importances the research are the others English students especially the second semester students at class C of English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training Lancang Kuning University can be a good pronunciation and also a student can improve his pronunciation. To know about pronunciation can make a student and the lecturer easier in English learning process.

G. Definition of key terms In order to avoid misunderstanding about the title of researcher, the definition the term is: Pronunciation is the manner in which someone to utters a word or sentence.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

A . Review of the Related Theories 1. The Nature of Pronunciation The pronunciation of a word is what you hear when someone says the word. Most words have only one pronunciation, but sometime a word has two or more pronunciation. You must learn the pronunciation of all the words that you want to use in speech. This word has a strange pronunciation. If you dont know the pronunciation of the word, dont use the word. Use another word. The dictionary gives two different pronunciation for this word. When you forget the pronunciation of a word, you must find it in a dictionary. According to Carlyle (1795-1881:216), phonology is concerned with this kind of linguistic knowledge. Phonetics is a part of phonology. Phonologists study the ways in which these speech sound form system and patterns in human language. The phonology of a language is then the system and pattern of the speech sounds. The phonology is used in two ways, either as the study of sound pattern in language or as the sound patterns themselves. Phonological knowledge permits a speaker to produce sounds which form meaningful utterances, to recognize a foreign accent to make up new words, to add the appropriate phonetic segments to form plurals and past tense, to produce aspirated and unaspirated voiceless stops in the appropriate context, to know what is or is not a sound in his or her language. According to Clarey and Dixson (1963:6) phonetic is concerned with the study of speech sounds and proper pronunciation, phonetics symbols remain simply one of the tools which the phonetician uses in analyzing language. It is quite possible to teach pronunciation without making use of phonetics symbols. It is also possible to make extensive use of such symbols without succeeding in teaching pronunciation.

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According to Clarey and Dixson (1963:7), where the pronunciation of a so often fails to accord with the spelling, we thus have a method of making the pronunciation clear. Particularly in cases where a student cannot pronounce a word or is confused by the obscuring of certain syllables, it is helpful to be able to transcribe the word into phonetic script. Also in teaching certain vowel soundsparticularly those which are peculiar to English- it is useful to have at hand a symbol to represent these sounds. By means of phonetic symbols, one can also indicate the voicing or unvoicing of terminal consonants, the existence of strong and weak forms. According to Clarey and Dixson (1963:8-9), classification of speech sounds: there are twenty six letters in the English alphabet but upwards of some fifty different and distinct sounds. The sounds of any language are generally divided into two main groups vowels and consonants. All vowels are produce with voice, that is, with vibration of vocal cords. They differ from consonants in that the outward flow of sound is largely unrestricted. In consonant, this flow is interrupted or diverted by one of the articulators- teeth, tongue, lips, and soft palate. Consonants are classified according to the manner of articulation as follows: 1. Stops or plosives. In the production of these sounds the breath is cheeked in its outward movement, and then suddenly released with a slight explosion. In this group fall the sounds (p, b, t, d, k, g). 2. Continuants. Continuant is a sound which may be continued or prolonged as long as the speaker has breath to sustain it. Continuants are further divided into nasals (m,n,), laterals (I), and fricatives (f, v, h, w, , , s, z, , ). A further classification of consonants concerns their production in a voiced or voiceless manner. This in an important classification for our purposes, since the voicing or unvoicing of consonants, under certain specified conditions, is important in foreign accent correction. Voiced consonants are produced with vibration of the vocal cords. And unvoiced consonant are produced with breath alone.

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2. Classification of Speech Sounds Eckersley and Eckersley (1960:404-406) state that there are two kinds of sounds of English, are: a. Vowels Vowels are voiced continuous sounds involving no interruption in the flow of air through the oral cavity. Different vowel sounds result from changing the shape of the mouth; each vowel is associated with a different configuration of the tongue and lips. The characteristic sound of a vowel is determined by the shape given to the inventor of the mouth by the position of the lips and the tongue. Vowels may be classified as front, back or central according to whether the front, back or central part of the tongue is raised. In English, the lips are generally spread wide for the front vowels- the higher the tongue is raised, the more the lips are spread; the lips are generally slightly rounded for the back vowels-the higher the tongue is raised, the more the lips are rounded. For the central vowels, the lips are in a neutral position; they must not be rounded. Based on Parker (1946:87), these vowels phonemes are described in terms of the following physical dimensions: a). Tongue Height. For any articulation corresponding to one of these vowels phonemes, the tongue is either relatively high in the mouth (/i, , u, /), mid (/e, , , o/), or low (/, a, /) Compare he (high) and hay (mid). b). Frontness. For any articulation corresponding to one of these vowel phonemes, the tongue is either relatively front (/i, , e, , /) or back (/, a, u, , o, /). Compare he (front) and who (back). c). Lip Rounding. For any articulation corresponding to one of these vowel phonemes, the lips are either relatively round (/u, , o, /), or spread (/i, , e, , , , a/). Compare hoe (round) and hay (spread). d). Tenseness. For any articulation corresponding to one of these vowel phonemes, the vocal musculature is either relatively tense (/, , , , a, /). Compare aid (tense) and Ed (lax).

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In addition a diphthong differs from a pure vowel in that the tongue and lips, instead of remaining in a fixed position, move while it is being pronounced. In practice it can be regarded as a combination of two vowel sounds; but a diphthong can from only one syllable or part of a syllable, and the transition from one element to the other are made not by an abrupt change but by a gradual glide. The phonetic symbols represent approximately the beginning and the end of each diphthong.

b. Consonants Consonant are those sounds during whose production there is either total stoppage or same considerable restriction of the air stream. Consonants may be classified according to the way they are formed in the mouth. The following types are distinguished in English: a. Plosive. The breath is stopped completely in the mouth and then released suddenly with an explosive sound. b. Fricative. The breath is not completely stopped but the air-passage is narrowed in the mouth so that friction can be heard. c. Affricative. Similar to a plosive consonant, but the release of the air is less sudden, so that it sounds like a plosive consonant followed by a fricative. d. Nasal. The breath is completely stopped in the mouth (as for the plosive consonants) but is permitted to come through the nose. e. Semi-vowel. Like vowel-sounds, but so short that they form only a glide to the following sound, and are treated as consonants. In addition there are two English consonant sounds which cannot be placed in any of the above categories. Voiced and voiceless sounds. Sounds may be produced with vibration of the vocal chords (voiced sounds) or without vibration (voiceless sounds). As a result there are many pairs of consonants which have the same formation in the mouth but are distinguished by being voiced in one case, voiceless in the other. Based on Parker (1946:89-91), as was the case with vowels, these consonant phonemes are described in terms of physical dimensions; the first is

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place of articulation. For any articulation corresponding to one of these consonant phonemes, the vocal tract is constricted at one of the following points: a). Bilabial (from bi two + labial lips). The primary constriction is at the lips (/ p, b, m, w/). Compare pea (bilabial) and tea (non-bilabial). b). Labiodentals (from labio lips + dental teeth). The primary constriction is between the lower lip and upper teeth (/f, v/). Compare fee (labiodentals) and see (no-labiodental). c). Interdental (from inter between + dental teeth). The primary constriction is between the tongue and the upper teeth (/, /). Compare thigh (Interdental) and shy (non-interdental). d). Alveolar (from alveolar ridge). The primary constriction is between the tongue and the alveolar ridge (/t, d, s, z, n, l/). Compare tea (alveolar) and key (non-alveolar). e). Palatal (from palate). The primary constriction is between the tongue and the palate (, , , , r, y/). Compare shoe (palatal) and sue (non-palatal). f). Velar (from velum). The primary constriction is between the tongue and the velum (/k, g, /). Compare coo (velar) and two (non-velar). g). Glottal (from glottis, which refers to the space between the vocal cords). The primary constriction is at the glottis (/h/). Compare hoe (glottal) and so (non-glottal). The second term is manner of articulations. For any articulation corresponding to one of these consonant phonemes, the vocal tract is constricted in one of the following ways. a). Stops. Two articulators (lips, tongue, teeth, etc.) are brought together such that the flow of air through the vocal tract is completely blocked (/p, b, t, d, g, k/). Compare tea (stop) and see (non-stop). b). Fricatives. Two articulators are brought near each other such that the flow of air is impeded but not completely blocked. The air flow through the narrow opening creates friction, hence the term fricative (/f, v, , , s, z, , , h/). Compare zoo (fricative) and do (non-fricative).

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c). Affricates. Articulations corresponding to affricates are those that begin like stops (with a complete closure in the vocal tract) and end like fricatives (with a narrow opening in the vocal tract) (/, /). Compare chew (affricate) and shoe (non-affricate). Because affricates can be described as a stop plus a fricative, some phonemic alphabets transcribe // as /t/ and // as /d/. d). Nasals. A nasal articulation is one in which the air flow through the mouth is completely blocked but the velum is lowered, forcing the air through the nose (/m, n, /). Compare no (nasal) and doe (non-nasal). e). Liquids and glides. Both of these terms describe articulations that are midway between true consonants (i.e.,stops, fricatives, affricates, and nasals) and vowels, although they are both generally classified as consonants. Liquid is a cover term for all l-like and r-like articulations (/l, r/). Compare low (liquid) and doe (non-liquid). The term glide refers to an articulation in which the vocal tract is constricted, but not enough to block or impede the airflow (/w, y/). Compare way (glide) and bay (non-glide). And the last is voicing. For any articulation corresponding to one of these consonant phonemes, the vocal cords are either vibrating (/b, d, g, v, , z, , , m, n, , l, r, w, y/) or not (/p, t, k, f, , s, , h, /). Compare zoo (voiced) and sue (voiceless). Stops, fricatives, and affricates come in voiced and voiceless pairs (except for /h/); nasals, liquids, and glides are all voiced, as are vowels. Such pairs may be grouped as follows: Voiced Unvoiced [b, d, g, v, z, , ] [p, t, k, f, s, , ]

3. Stress According to Eckersley and Eckersley (1960:409) Stress is the prominence given to certain syllables by variation in the pitch of the voice (intonation) and by the use of greater breath force. A syllable may have main stress, indicated in this section by the sign ( ) place before the stressed syllable; or secondary stress,

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indicated by

) or (), depending on whether it is high-pitched or low-pitched;

or it may be unstressed. Based on Zainuddin (1999:95), English words may consist of one, two, three, four, five, or even six syllables. One syllable is usually pronounced loudlier than the other. Loudness given to syllables is called stress. In pronouncing English words, we need to distinguish three degrees of stress: primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary stress is marked / and secondary stress \; while tertiary is left unmarked or /v/. Based on Kreidler (2004:197-198), Stress rules are based on three kinds of information: syntactic, morphological, and phonological. Syntactic information the place of stress in a word depends partly on what part of speech it is. The noun insult is stressed differently from the verb insult. Similarly, compare the adjective content and the noun contents, the noun present (gift) and the adjective present (not absent) with the verb present. The words we examine here are nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and somewhat different rules apply to each of these parts of speech. Morphological information we tion and ity have a role in the location of stress. Every word has a morphological composition. A word may be simple, consisting of a single base: for example, arm, baby, circle, fat, manage. Some words, like armchair, babysit, ice-cold, square dance are compounds, consisting of two bases together (whether our orthographic conventions prefer them written as a single word, or with a hyphen, or with a space between the parts). Finally, some words are complex, consisting of a prefix plus a base (disarm, encircle, mismanage, renew) or a base plus a suffix (babyish, fatten, happiness, management). A (mismanagement, unhappiness square dancer), babysitting,

suffix (fattening, sharpener), and so forth. The

morphological composition has a role in determining stress. We will see that different kinds of suffixes, especially, are important in determining the place of stress. Strictly speaking, a prefix or a suffix must have a meaning or a function, as in the examples above. For the purpose of locating the stressed syllable in a word

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we consider certain elements which occur at the beginning of numerous words, prefixes, and elements which often occur in final place, suffixes. Phonological information the place of stress in particular words depends in part on the nature of the last two syllables, the ult and penult. We need to consider whether a syllable has a free vowel or not and the number of consonants, if any, which close the syllable. Since phonological facts interact with syntactic and morphological facts, we shall see that rules about vowels and consonants are different for nouns, verbs, and adjectives.

4. Intonation According to Eckersley and Eckersley (1960:412) Intonation is the rise and fall in the pitch of the voice when speaking. In English, certain patterns or tunes of intonation tend to be associated with different types of sentence or utterance. The intonation may also indicate the speakers attitude to what he is saying (e.g. degree of excitement, interest, surprise) or to his listener (e.g. apology, sympathy, impatience). According to Clary and Dixson (1963:14), the following two principles govern all basic intonation pattern in English. Actually, these two principles are really all foreign students need to know about intonation and all they need to be taught: 1. The first principles require that all completed statements, including commands, end with a downward glide of the voice on the last accented syllable. This type of intonation is known as rising falling intonation. It is used for all statements and commends. The fall of the voice at the end of a sentence indicates to the listener that the speaker has terminated and no answer or further comments is necessarily expected. 2. The second principles is that all statements indicating incompleteness, doubt, or hesitation end with an upward glide of the voice on the last accented syllable, in this category are included all question which may be answered yes or no. this type of intonation is known as rising intonation. Question beginning with interrogative words such as when, where, why,

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since these words in themselves indicate that the statement is a question, generally follow the first principle. Based on Kreidler (2004:181-182), There have been two basic ways of describing the melodies of English, the levels approach and the contour approach. The levels approach uses a sort of scale, similar to the scale used in music but simpler. This approach is based on the assumption that English has an inventory of distinctive pitch levels, just as it has an inventory of distinctive vowel and consonant phonemes. Further, just as any utterance is a sequence of vowels and consonants; it is also a sequence of the distinctive pitch phonemes which accompany the segmental phonemes. This has, at least until recently, been the approach of American linguists, who have maintained that there are four such levels. The levels may be numbered, say, 1 to 4 from lowest to highest pitch, or given names, such as Low, Mid, High, and Extra High. The contour approach to describing intonation assumes that the relevant elements in a tune are not so much levels as movements, changes of pitch rises and falls. This seems to be more in line with the way people actually perceive intonation patterns. As we listen to someone talk, we may recognize a high point or a low point in the utterance, but are probably more aware of the rises and falls of the voice. All analysts of English intonation have insisted that there is no melody which is exclusively associated with one type of sentence: statements do not necessarily have a falling tune, questions do not necessarily rise. The tunes do not correlate with any specific kinds of grammatical structure, and yet there is an element of truth in the popular belief. In addition, according to Daniel (1990:51) many words have two pronunciation which are called strong and weak forms. In most of these cases the weak form contains , while the strong form contains some other vowel. Whether a word is pronounced in the strong way in the weak way depends on the kind of sentence in which it occurs.

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B. Riview of the Related Findings / The Relevance Research There are same previous researchers who have carried out the research dealing with students pronunciation. First, Saibah (2009) had conducted a research entitled English Pronunciation Errors of English Students after she

analyzing the pronunciation errors made by stedents the writer can conclude many of students do not really understand about the theory of pronunciation in details and they do not know how to pronounce the correct English words. They also do not use English as their daily conversation. And they can not pronounce English word well. The students do not have pronounciation error in vowel or consonants but also in difthongs. The error not only causeed the students knowledge but also because of their dialect. Second, Schaetzel (2009) had conducted a research entitled Teaching Pronunciation to Adult English Language Learners, the research result showed that although there are challenges to teaching and learning English pronunciation, it is an area vital to adult English language learners communicative competence. Recent research has shed light on pronunciation features to be taught and on learners goals and motivations for improving their pronunciation. By incorporating current research and its implications into their teaching practice, teachers can help learners gain the skills they need for effective communication in English. Third, Wulandari (2008) had conducted a research entitled Improving Students Pronunciation Using Audio Visual Aids (AVAs) At the Fifth Year of Al-Azhar Syifa Budi Elementary School of Surakarta the research found that the result of the pre-test and posttest indicates that there is an improvement in students pronunciation, especially in pronouncing word-stress. The students responses to the implementation of AVAs are positive. It is proven by their enjoyment and excitement condition during the implementation of AVAs. Besides, their pronunciation ability, especially in pronouncing the correct wordstress has also improved. They are very interested in learning English pronunciation by watching video, since they can watch the characters

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expressions, listen to the native speakers voice, and read the subtitling appeared on the screen. Fourth, Mardliyatun (2007) had conducted a research entitled Children Songs as Media in Teaching English Pronunciation (The Case of Fourth Graders of SD N 01 Sekaran Gunungpati) the writer conclude that teaching learning process by using English children songs can improve the students ability in English pronunciation. It is pleasing to use English children songs in teaching pronunciation. It is recommended that before deciding the media that will be used in the teaching learning process, a teacher should know the things that the students like. Because of the differences of each student, a teacher should also choose the way of teaching that is suitable with the condition of the students. Fifth, Eskenazi (1999) had conducted a research entitled Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype the research show that students can be guided to use the computer as a complement to classroom instruction, the increase in practice time can help to more closely approach the advantages of total immersion learning. The ease with which the students used the computers during our tests at Carnegie Mellon is a positive step in this direction. Sixth, Puspita (2007) had conducted a research entitled An Analysis of Students Errors in Pronouncing English Vowels The result of the analysis shows that students are considered Excellent in pronouncing English vowels. The total percentage of various errors in pronouncing English vowels is 23.33%. There are five types of dominant errors. There are vowel [i:] (5.31%), vowel [] (6.22%), vowel [a:] (6.67%), vowel [_:] (6.67%), and vowel [_] (0.76%).

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Kind of the Research It was a kind of qualitative, a narrative research. According to Gay and Mills (2009:391) a narrative research is the study of the lives of individuals as told through the stories of their experiences for the individual. Referring to the experts idea, it can be concluded that a narrative research is a kind of a research that concerns on someones experience in any field, such as, education, job, or love during his/her life. In addition, this research was aimed to develop ones live quality after listening or hearing another live experience or story. According to Gay and Mills (2009:391) a narrative is conducted to increase understanding of central issues related to teaching and learning through the telling and retelling of the teachers story. Furthermore, this research can be done by referring to the following steps that described by Gay and Mills (2009:386), as follows: 1. Identify the purpose of the research study and identify a phenomenon to explore. 2. Identify an individual who can help you learn about the phenomenon. 3. Develop initial narrative research question. 4. Consider the researchers role and obtain necessary permission. 5. Develop data collection method, paying particular attention to interviewing and collect the data. 6. Collaborate with the research participant to construct the narrative and to validate the accuracy of the story.

B. Time and Location of the Research The research was conducted at the English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training Lancang Kuning University Pekanbaru. It is located on Yossudarso St. Rumbai-Pekanbaru.

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C. The Participant The participant of this research was one of the second semester students of English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training Lancang Kuning University Pekanbaru. She is the best student pronunciation on speaking class in class B.

D. Instrumentation There were two instruments that were used in this research; they were interview and documents (Pronunciation Score and Report). The interview was used to get the data about the student history or experience in improving his/her pronunciation skill. Gay and Mills (2009:387) state that: there are some characteristics of a narrative research, such as focus on an individual experience, concern a chronology of individuals experiences, focus on the construction of life story, restorying as a technique for constructing the narrative, negotiating researcher and participant of the final text, constructing on the question and then what happened. The participants record about his/her latest pronunciation score and lecturers note about him/her was used as other supporting data about participants experience in speaking class. According to Gay and Mills (2009:390) a researcher can access many other data sources that will contribute to the construction of narrative, such as lesson plan, parents newsletter, and personal philosophy.

E. Technique of Collecting Data The data of this research were collected through interview, and participants pronunciation record. First, interview helped the researcher to collect the data from the participant. The researcher interviewed the participant about his/her experience in learning English, particularly about his/her pronunciation skill development then she transcribed it. The last, the researcher collected all the participants pronunciation records. It was collected from his/her pronunciation final score and any records from his/her speaking lecturer.

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F. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of analyzing this research data was done after the data have been collected. After collecting the data through interview, and participants pronunciation record, they were analyzed through the following steps that are suggested by Creswell (2005:478), as follows: 1. Seeks to analyze the story by retelling the individuals story. 2. Seeks to analyze by identifying themes and or categories of information. 3. Seeks to situate the story within its place or setting. 4. Seeks to analyze the story for chronological information about the individuals past, present, and future.

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CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION

A. Finding This chapter presents the result of the data analysis and research finding. This research analyzes pronunciation used by Akzir Fitri Afiani at second semester of English Department at FKIP Lancang Kuning University. The research has been found by collecting it through some instruments, such as interview and participants pronunciation record such as, pronunciation final score and lecturers speaking note. All of these instruments also answer the research questions. The question was; how is students pronunciation ability? And what factors influence students pronunciation ability? In short, the result of the research is clarified in the following.

1. Identifying Students Pronunciation Ability The result for students pronunciation skill has been collected by some instruments, such as interview and participants pronunciation record was like pronunciation and speaking final score and lecturers recommendation. a. Interview Result of the Participant on 12 and 19 December 2011 in Campus It was primary data that has been collected by interviewing the participant for two times. Referring to the result of interview that has been taken on 12 and 19 December 2011, it can be clarified that Akzir Fitri Afiani as the participant of this research, she was born on October 20 1987 in Padang West Sumatera. She started studying at Elementary school in 1994 at Elementary School 008 Padang West Sumatera, Junior High School in 2000 at Junior High School 29 Padang and she moved to Junior High School 1 Mandau Duri when she was at the second grade and Senior High School in 2003 at Senior High School 2 Mandau Duri. One of questions showed that:

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Researcher : [How was your score during at elementary school?] Akzir : [Eeemy score was eeeplease enough I was one of the students often eeegot rank at the class such as the first rank or second rank yeaaabut I dont have I didnt have any achievement at elementary school because there was not competition at the time acceptation in junior high school I I ever followed cerdas cermat yeaaasuch like that.]

Based on interview above, the researcher found that Akzir was a smart student at her class. She always got first or second rank during she was at Elementary School but she did not have achievement at Elementary School because she thinks that there was not competition at the time. She was not only at Elementary school getting rank in her class but also at Junior High School and Senior High School. It can be seen in the following interview:

Researcher Akzir

Researcher Akzir

: [How was your score during at junior high school?] : [Eeeit would be a like, like before I ever got first rank for mmmannually two or three times I got the first rank and then mmmsecond rank, third rank Alhamdulillah I always being eeerank student at the time.] : [How was your score during at senior high school?] : [Eeeexactly I will be some enough to see your to deliver my score when I was being in senior high school at the first time because I was being the student at the time I could be getting high score but in second grade and third grade I was being naughty girl while the cross girl I didnt got rank any more at the time.]

The interview above showed that Akzir Fitri Afiani got rank at Junior High School. She got first, second, and third rank when she was at Junior High School. When she was at Senior High School, she got high score in the first grade, but when she was at the second and the third grade, she did not get rank because she said that she was being naughty girl. Akzir started learning English when she was at the first grade of Junior High School. Also she took at list for three month for having in English course in Duri when she was at Junior High School. The result of interview showed that:

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Researcher Akzir

: [When did you start studied English?] : [Mmmmy parents have eeetook me first in Duri if I am I am not mistaken I took at list for three month for having in my English course.]

Referring to interview above, it can be clarified that Akzir started to study in English when she was at Junior High School. After moving to Duri, her parents took her to study English at English Course to improve her English ability. She had high motivation to improve her English skill. Besides that, her parents always supported to get her English well. Akzir started learning pronunciation at the first semester of English Education Department of Universitas Lancang Kuning Pekanbaru such as in the following questions:

Researcher Akzir Researcher Akzir Researcher Akzir

: [Have you studied pronunciation subject?] : [Yes] : [When did you start studying pronunciation?] : [In Unilak] : [What do you think about pronunciation subject?] : [I cannot think any think about the pronunciation because pronunciation is part of English willingly we should learn about that.]

The result of interview above showed that Akzir was learning pronunciation when she studied in English Education Department of Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of Universitas Lancang Kuning Pekanbaru. She thinks that pronunciation subject is one of English subject that she should learn in English Education Department. For instance, Akzir has started to learn pronunciation since the first semester at English Education Department of Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of Universitas Lancang Kuning Pekanbaru. In another section of interview, the researcher asked hers about her understanding and her motivation in learning pronunciation such as in the following conversation:

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Researcher Akzir

Researcher Akzir

: [What do you know about pronunciation?] : [Yeaaaif I am not mistaken how to produce something we can call as a pronunciation when we try try to produce the sound it can be call as a pronunciation too and I dont know exactly.] : [What is your motivation in learning pronunciation?] : [I do hope so when I speak any body will understand what I say because when I can produce with pronunciation so it will be easier to be understood to anybody for my interviewer.]

Based on the result of interview above, it can be clarified that Akzir has understood the function of pronunciation. Pronunciation is the study to produce sound of the words. By using good pronunciation in speaking, the listener will understand the meaning of the speaker mean. Akzir think that if she has good pronunciation, anybody will understand what she says. As the reason to make anybody understand of the meaning when she says something to her friends, she motivated herself to study hard how to produce words correctly so that anybody understand what she means. Related to Akzirs effort and strategies in improving her pronunciation ability can be seen in the following questions:

Researcher Akzir

Researcher Akzir

Researcher Akzir

: [What is your effort in improving your English especially in pronunciation?] : [I do not have any special to extent or to enchase my pronunciation but sometime I over to univer I often to deliver myself to speak alone in my home, only that.] : [What are your strategies in learning pronunciation?] : [Eeeeexactly I dont have exact ways to eeeecase my time when I have real follow my English yeaaabut if I have spare time exactly I always speak alone at my home.] : [What your strategies in to motivate you in pronunciation at the time?] : [There is no strategy I do at the time but perhaps I have eeeone of the one of a rival he is name is Heru he motivate me to reach his hat way be better in English only that.

Referring to the interview above, it showed that Akzir often speaks alone at her home to increase her pronunciation. By speaking alone mostly at her home Akzir can improve her speaking and her pronunciation well. Besides that, Akzir22

did not have special strategy to improve her pronunciation but she has a rival, his name is Heru. Heru has given her good motivation in developing her English skill to be better. In short, Akzir has good motivation and way to develop her pronunciation. She never gives up trying to say some words in English to increase her English skill. Also, Akzir always manages her time to practices her pronunciation such as in the question bellow: Researcher Akzir : [How do you manage your time to practice your pronunciation?] : [I trying to say the word well and then try to look for to standard national especially in oxford.]

Based on the result of the interview above, it can be concluded that Akzir often try to say some words well and she looks oxfords dictionary to know how to produce sound of the words correctly. This way was effective to improve her pronunciation to be better. Hence, Akzir has the way to manage her time to practice her pronunciation ability effectively. Besides, Akzir has good motivation, strategies, and managing her time to develop her pronunciation also she has special one who has inspire hers in pronunciation as in the following interview:

Researcher Akzir Researcher Akzir Researcher Akzir

: [Do you have a special one who can inspire you in pronunciation?] : [Yes I have the special one and I I been being like them.] : [Who is she/he?] : [Eeeone of them is Miss Marwa and for the girl ehhhfor the boy is Mr. Yasir.] : [Why do you like her/him?] : [I just like their style when they try to say something in English.]

The interview above showed that Akzir got inspire to her pronunciation. They are Miss Marwa and Mr. Yasir. She said that Miss Marwa and Mr. Yasir have style when they say something in English. In conclusion, Miss Marwa and Mr. Yasir have motivated to speak and pronounce some English words correctly. Completely the result of interview can be seen on appendix 1.

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b. Participants English Record There were some records gotten from Akzir Fitri Afiani about her score in Learning English, particularly pronunciation subject. She gave the researcher the report of her English score since at the first grade of Junior High School until university level. At Junior and Senior High School, English was taught integrated. The pronunciation score automatically related to her English Score. Her score can be seen in the following presentation.

1). Junior High School Report Akzir Fitri Afiani started studying at Junior High School on July 17th, 2000. She spent three years to study in this school. Her English score was various from the first to the third grade. At the first quarter of the first grade she got 7, at the second quarter was 8, and the third quarter was 9. At first quarter of the second grade she got 6, at the second quarter was 8, and at the third quarter was 8. At the first semester of the third grade she got 7 and at the second semester she got 9. Referring to the previous English score, it can be concluded that Akzir Fitri Afiani had better score than others students during her studied in this school.

2). Senior High School Report Akzir Fitri Afiani had started studying at Senior High School since July 21st 2003 at Senior High School 2 Mandau Duri. She got high English Score during she studied at this school. At the first grade, she got 8 on the first semester and the second semester. At the second grade, she got 8 on the first and the second semester. At the third grade, she also got 8 on the first and the second semester. In conclusion, Akzir Fitri Afiani had good motivation and strategies in learning English. The English score report of Akzir Fitri Afiani from Junior High School to Senior High School can be seen on appendix 3.

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3). Akzir Activities in 2006-2010 After she finished her study at Senior High School in 2006, she continued her study at UIN SUSQA Pekanbaru for two semesters or one year. It can be seen in the following interview:

Researcher Akzir

Researcher Akzir

: [What you done 2006 at the time?] : [Ohor right 2006..2006..2006 I will graduated for my hmmfor my senior high school at yea I continue my study eeein State Islamic University or in UIN but I dont finish my study there I just three or two semester but I didnt confidence any more yea just like that.] : [How many years you study in UIN SUSQA?] : [HmmYeaaEffective for effective year for one year eeeI just came there at first and second semester and the third semester I was lazy enough to come and then in four or five semester also pay my seasoning and join activities in the class.]

The result of interview above showed that after finished her Senior High School in 2006, she continued her study at State Islamic University Susqa Pekanbaru. She did not finish her study at UIN Susqa Pekanbaru, she studied at UIN Susqa Pekanbaru for one year or two semesters. After studying English at UIN Susqa Pekanbaru for one year, she was lazy to come and join in her class in this university. Then, she also pays her semester and joins the activities in her class in the fourth and fifth semester but she did not finish her study in this university. In 2007, Akzir was still being one of under graduate student in UIN Susqa but she did not follow class activity like another student. In 2007 also, she was one of instructors at LP3I English course, it can be in the following questions:

Researcher Akzir

Researcher Akzir

: [In 2007 what did you done at the time?] : [Until, I was still being one of under graduate student in UIN Susqa, but I did joint I did not follow class activity like another student.] : [What did your activity at the time?] : [If I was not mistaken at 2007 I was being one of instructor one of English course in Pekanbaru eeeI was one of instructor in LP3I English course for one year.]25

Researcher Akzir Researcher Akzir

: : : :

[Its mean you follow LP3I in 2008?] [I forgot the exact time but may be yeaa.] [After you in LP3I what did you done at the time?] [WowheheheI have many activities and for telling you but one of them I have I have forgot what I have done at the time yeaaI just teach as a private teacher until now yeaaI did not join with any institution anymore because it respected my time but I until now I being teach a private.]

The result of the interview above showed that in 2007, Akzir was still a student at UIN Susqa Pekanbaru, although she did not join her class. Akzir always improve her English skill especially her speaking although she did not finish her study at UIN Susqa Pekanbaru. Also, she was an instructor at LP3I English course for one year. It means that until 2008, she was the instructor at EP3I English course. Besides that, she taught English to Elementary until Senior High School students to keep her English existence. She did not join any institution because she thought it respected her time and her English ability. In short, Akzir is a private English teacher until now. In 2009 until 2010, also, she was a private English teacher, she taught English in private course. And in 2010, she continued her study at Lancang Kuning University. It can be clarified as follows:

Researcher Akzir

: [What did you done at 2009 until 2010?] : [Hehehe2009 and 2010 or right I should remember again for my activity before it has been going two years before yeaaawhat can I talk to you yeaaI just being a teacher for private and may be its my paid activity like you see until now.]

Referring to the interviews above, it can be concluded that Akzir taught English in the common course in the school such as Elementary School, Junior High School, and Senior High School to get some money for her life and to spend her study at English Education Department of Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of Lancang Kuning University.

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4). Grade Point Average or Grade Point (GPA or GP) Akzir Fitri Afiani has started studying at university since September 13th 2010. She has studied at English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training University of Lancang Kuning Pekanbaru for three semesters. She has been recommended by her speaking lecturer as the best students pronunciation in speaking class. She got A on her pronunciation class at the first semester. Also, she got A on her speaking class at the first and the second semester. Based on her data at university, it can be concluded that she had her own strategies to develop her pronunciation and her speaking skill. The university transcript can be seen on appendix 4. c. The Lecturers Recommendation As the university supporting data of Akzir Fitri Afiani, particularly about her pronunciation in speaking class, the researcher interviewed the speaking lecturer, Marwa, M.A. the interview had been recorded on January 02nd 2012 at her home in Limbungan Rumbai Pesisir Pekanbaru. Based on the interview data, it can be clarified that Akzir Fitri Afiani is the best students pronunciation in speaking because of her some speaking indicators; one of them is pronunciation such as in the following: a. Comprehension: She has good comprehension in speaking because every performance in her speaking activities, she can give update information of the topics that are given by the lecturer. b. Grammatical: she knows well about her grammatical errors and she can improve it by herself. c. Fluency: she can present the material without having long pauses. d. Vocabulary: she can highlight the vocabulary on each topic. She often utters new vocabulary while the other students still have the same vocabulary. e. Pronunciation: she has good pronunciation even though it is not like native. In every presentation, her pronunciation can be understood, and she never gets any correction from her speaking lecturer. Completely, the result of the lecturers interview can be seen on appendix 2.

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2. Identifying the Factors Influence Akzir Fitri Afianis Pronunciation a. Interview on 12 and 19 December 2011 in Campus Referring to the interview result, it can be clarified that there are some factors influence her pronunciation. 1). High Motivation She has had good motivation in learning English since at the first grade of Junior High School; she had the best strategies to improve her pronunciation such as speak alone at her home, clarify the pronounce of words on oxfords dictionary, and reading aloud at her home. Also, Miss Marwa and Mr. Yasir have given inspire to her pronunciation. She said that Miss Marwa and Mr. Yasir have style when they say something in English. Besides that, Akzir has a rival who give her motivation to be good English skill, his name is Heru. In conclusion, Miss Marwa, Mr. Yasir, and Heru have given motivation to hers to speak and pronounce some English words correctly.

2). Active Speaking English Akzir realized that English is very important to communicate with another people from different countries in the world and she always speaks English with her friends. Akzir often speaks alone at her home to increase her pronunciation. By speaking alone mostly at her home Akzir can improve her speaking and her pronunciation well.

3). Various Strategies to Develop her English At university, she has various strategies to develop her English such as having discussion with her friends, keep practicing continuously, and teaching English in English course. By doing discussion, practice, and teaching English, Akzir can share and increase her knowledge in English. Hence, discussion, practice, and teaching English are the best ways to develop and keep her English ability.

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b. Lecturers Recommendation Based on the result of lecturers interview, Marwa, M.A to get more information of Akzir Fitri Afianis pronunciation in speaking, she said that Akzir Fitri Afiani has good pronunciation in speaking. She could express and develop her pronunciation in speaking. Besides, she has good understanding about speaking components such as comprehension, grammatical, fluency, vocabulary, and pronunciation.

B. Discussion As clarified previously, the findings of this research show Akzir Fitri Afianis experience in learning English and develop her pronunciation in speaking. After some data, it can be decided that Akzir Fitri Afiani is the best students in speaking especially in pronunciation. For instance, Akzir Fitri Afiani is one of the best students at English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of Lancang Kuning University. Akzir Fitri Afiani was born on October 20 1987 in Padang West Sumatera. She started studying at Elementary school in 1994 at Elementary School 008 Padang West Sumatera, Junior High School in 2000 at Junior High School 29 Padang and she moved to Junior High School 1 Mandau Duri when she was at the second grade and Senior High School in 2003 at Senior High School 2 Mandau Duri. At Junior High school, her English score was 7 at the first quarter of the first grade, at the second quarter was 8, and the third quarter was 9. At first quarter of the second grade she got 6, at the second quarter was 8, and at the third quarter was 8. At the first semester of the third grade she got 7 and at the second semester she got 9. At Senior High School, she got 7 at the first quarter of the first grade, at the second quarter was 8, and the third quarter was 9. At first quarter of the second grade she got 6, at the second quarter was 8, and at the third quarter was 8. At the first semester of the third grade she got 7 and at the second semester she got 9. And at university, she got A on her pronunciation class at the first semester. Also, she got A on her speaking class at the first and the second semester.

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Before studying at English Education Department of Faculty of Education and Teachers Training of Lancang Kuning University Pekanbaru, in 2006, she studied English at UIN SUSQA Pekanbaru. When she was studying English at UIN Susqa Pekanbaru for one year, she was lazy to come and join in her class in this university. In 2007, Akzir was still a student at UIN Susqa Pekanbaru, although she did not join her class. Akzir always improve her English skill especially her speaking although she did not finish her study at UIN Susqa Pekanbaru. In 2008, she was an instructor at LP3I English course for one year. Besides that, she taught English to Elementary until Senior High School students to keep her English existence. She did not join any institution because she thought it respected her time and her English ability. In 2009 until 2010, also, she was a private English teacher, she taught English in private course. And in 2010, she continued her study at Lancang Kuning University. Related to the above paragraph, Akzir Fitri Afiani can get good score on pronunciation and speaking class. She was recommended by the lecturer as the best student on pronunciation in speaking class because of some factors such as motivation, strategy, and environment. Firstly, Akzir Fitri Afiani has had motivation to study English since at Junior High School. In this level, she always got good score in English subject. Secondly, she has good strategies to improve her English skill especially pronunciation in speaking such as speak alone, clarify of words on oxfords dictionary, and reading aloud at home. Besides that, she has a rival and motivators who gave her inspire to increase her English skill. They were Miss Marwa, Mr. Yasir, and Heru who have given her good motivation in developing her English to be better. Akzir not want to tell more about her rival. In short, Akzir has good motivation and way to develop her pronunciation. She never gives up trying to say some words in English to increase her English skill. For instance, these factors have been success in developing her English pronunciation in speaking.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION, AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion Based on the findings and discussion previously, the data of this research can be concluded as in the following: 1. Akzir Fitri Afiani is the best student at English Education Department Faculty of Education and Teachers Training Lancang Kuning University. She has good English skills especially on pronunciation in speaking. 2. There are some factors influences her pronunciation. The factors are as follows: a. Motivation, Akzir Fitri Afiani has been interested in English since at Junior High School. b. Speaking alone at home, she likes speaking alone at her home to improve her pronunciation in speaking. c. Clarify the words on oxford dictionary, she always clarifies the words on dictionary to know how pronounce the words. d. Reading aloud, she likes reading aloud at her home. By reading aloud she can improve her pronunciation in speaking and her knowledge. 3. She has good English atmosphere. She has some English lecturers who can inspire and motivate her in English.

B. Implication With regard to the findings and discussion, there are some implications that can be seen as follows: 1. The Lecturer a. The lecturers will know how to motivate her or his students in English skills especially to improve the students pronunciation in speaking. b. The lecturers will have some strategies to increase students pronunciation in speaking.

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2. The students a. To the students, it is very important for them because having good motivation and strategy can develop their English skills. b. The students will find their own strategies to improve their pronunciation in English speaking.

3. The Researcher a. As a candidate of teacher, the researcher will know how to improve her pronunciation in speaking. b. It enriches the researcher knowledge so that the researcher will find her own strategy to develop her pronunciation in speaking.

C. Suggestion Based on the research finding and discussion, the researcher proposes some suggestion as in the following: 1. The lecturer should give motivation to the students to develop their English skill. 2. The lecturers should be inspired for their students so that the students will be interested in English specially in speaking. 3. The students have to find their own strategy to improve their English skills especially on pronunciation in speaking. 4. The students have to pay attention and listen to the lecturers explanation to increase their pronunciation. 5. The students may follow any strategies that have been used by Akzir Fitri Afiani in developing her pronunciation in speaking such as having high motivation, speak alone at home, clarify the words on oxford dictionary to know have to pronounce the words, and reading aloud.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Carlyle, Thomas. 1795-1881. Phonology: the sound patterns of language.

Clarey, Elizabeth. 1963. Pronunciation Exercises in English. Englewood Cliff, New Jersey. Eckersley, C.E and Eckersley, J.M. 1960. Comprehensive English Grammar for Foreign Students. Longman Group Limited. London. Eskenazi, Maxine. 1999. Using Automatic Speech Processing for Foreign Language Pronunciation Tutoring: Some Issues and a Prototype. Unpublished. Language Technologies Institute Carnegie Mellon University. Gay, L.R and Mills, E.G.2009. Educational Research (9th Ed). New Jersey: Pearson. Hedge, Tricia. 2003. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford University Press. Jones, Daniel. 1990. The Pronunciation of English, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kreidler, Charles W. 2004. The pronunciation of English A Course Book. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Mardliyatun. 2007. Children Songs as Media in Teaching English pronunciation. Unpublished thesis. Fkip Semarang. Nunan, David, 1999. Second Language Teaching & Learning. Heinle & Heinle. Publisher. Saibah. 2009. English Pronunciation Errors of English Students. Unpublished thesis. CV IKIP Semarang Press. Schaetzel, Kirsten, et al. 2009. Teaching Pronunciation to Adult English Language Learners. National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Tri Puspita, Wasis. 2007. An Analysis of Students Errors in Pronouncing English Vowels. Unpublished Thesis. Fkip Semarang.

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Parker, Frank. 1946. Linguistic for Non-Linguists. Department of English Louisiana State University. Taylor & Francis Ltd London. Wulandari, Anggar, et al. 2008. Improving Students Pronunciation Using Audio Visual Aids (AVAs) at the Fifth Year of Al-Azhar Syifa Budi Elementary school of Surakarta in Academic Year 2007/2008 (A Classroom Action Research). Unpublished Thesis. Fkip Surakarta. Zainuddin. 1999. Pronunciation is A Key to Have a Good Sound. Unpublished Book and compiled by Syaifullah. CV FKIP Pekanbaru press.

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Appendix 1: Interview Result of Meeting 1,2,3 and 4 Researcher Participant Place Date Time Meeting : Nurjannah : Akzir Fitri Afiani : Fkip Class A : Sunday, December 12th 2011 : At 09.45 Wib :1 Questions Answers 1. What is your name? 1. EeeI should say the told name or just the short name. Both of them?..or right eeeI am Akzir Fitri Afiani and commonly my friends great me Ezi. 2. Where were you born? 2. EeeI was born in Padang.

3. Where do you come from? 3. If you ask about my village eeeI am from Padang because I was born in Padang but my parents live in Duri. 4. How many brothers and 4. Eeeexactly we also include eeebig sisters do you have? family I have three brothers and five family and I am number 4 at my family. 5. What is your hobby? 5. Exactly I dont have the exact hobby but if you wanna ask my hobby may be one of them is a reading. at 6. Nononomy hmm parents did not have any money to deliver me to kindergarten. your 7. I was eeegraduated for elementary school level in Padang exactly I forgot the number but if I am not mistaken it was elementary school number 8.

6. Did you study kindergarten?

7. Where was elementary school?

8. How was your score 8. My junior high school address was in Duri during at elementary eeesenior mmmjunior high school school? number one state, junior high school. 9. Where was your junior 9. Eeemy score was eeeplease enough I high school? was one of the students often eeegot rank at the class such as the first rank or second rank yeaaabut I dont have I didnt have any achievement at my elementary school

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because there was not competition at the time acceptation in junior high school I I ever followed cerdas cermat yeaaasuch like that. 10. How was your score 10. Eeeit would be a like, like before I ever during at junior high got first rank for mmmannually two or school? three times I got the first rank and then mmmsecond rank, third rank Alhamdulillah I always being eeerank student at the time. 11. Where was your senior 11. My senior high school address was in Duri it high school? was hmmSMU number two. 12. How was your score 12. Eeeexactly I will be some enough to see during at senior high your to deliver my score when I was being in school? senior high school at the first time because I was being the student at the time I could be getting high score but in second grade and third grade I was being naughty girl while the cross girl I didnt got rank any more at the time. 13. When did you start studied 13. Mmmmy parents have eeetook me first English? in Duri if I am I am not mistaken I took at list for three month for having in my English course. 14. Have you study 14. Yes pronunciation subject? 15. When did you start studied 15. In unilak. pronunciation? 16. What do you think about 16. I cannot think any think about the pronunciation subject? pronunciation because pronunciation is part of English willingly we should learn about that. 17. What do you know about 17. Yeaaaif I dont mistaken how to produce pronunciation? something we can call as a pronunciation when we try try to produce the sound it can be call as a pronunciation too I dont know exactly. 18. What is your motivation in 18. I do hope so when I speak any body will learning pronunciation? understand what I say because when I can

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produce with pronunciation so it will be user to be understood by anybody for my interviewer. 19. Have you ever followed 19. Yes I ever any English competition? 20. For example what 20. Eeeedebate, debate match and then speech competition you have an English yeaaasuch like that. followed? 21. What is your effort in 21. I do not have any special to extent or to improving your English enchase my pronunciation but sometime I especially in over to univer I often to deliver myself to pronunciation? speak alone in my home, only that. 22. What are your strategies in 22. Eeeeexactly I dont have exact ways to learning pronunciation? eeeecase my time when I have real follow my English yeaaabut if I have spare time exactly I always try to speak alone at my home. 23. How do you manage your 23. I trying to say the word well and then try to time to practice your look for to standard national especial in pronunciation? oxport. 24. Do you have a special one 24. Yes I have the special one and I I been being who can inspire you in like them. pronunciation? 25. Who is she/he? 25. Eeeone of them is miss Marwa and for the girl ehhhfor the boy is Mr. Yasir 26. Why do you like her/him? 26. I just like their style when they try to say something in English.

Pekanbaru, Researcher,

December 2012 Participant,

Nurjannah

Akzir Fitri Afiani

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Researcher Participant Place Date Time Meeting

: Nurjannah : Akzir Fitri Afiani : Puskom (Pusat Computer) : Sunday, Desember 19th 2011 : At 11.49 Wib :2 Questions Answers 1. How are you? 1. Ooonot so bad 2. Are you fine? 2. Oooyeah finelah

3. What do you usually do after 3. Eeecommonly I teach some of my campus? students because I am still alone and I try to hmmmspend all my life by myself so that I need to teach. 4. What do you usually when you 4. AaaI have different activity almost are home? in every day it, at home sometime I read a book, sometime I watch a TV, sometime I do not do anything, sometime I wash a cloth yeach many activities I do. 5. What time do you usually go 5. EeeI dont have exact time to go bed bed? but some for the common time is around 10.a clock PM. 6. What do you usually do before 6. Teaching oh yeaaajust teaching going bed? because most of night I have schedule for teaching and I will take it my dormitory at nine and then I will go to bed at ten. 7. What time do you usually get 7. 05.30 Around 05.30. up? 8. What do you usually doing after 8. Wow yeaaasometime I not sometime getting up? yeaaaI doing praying subuh yeaaait must after that if I have my schedule in the morning yeaaaI prepare myself to attend the class. 9. May be just it my questions for 9. Yadont take it mine. you and I say thank a lot for you as my participant?

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Researcher Participant Place Date Time Meeting

: Nurjannah : Akzir Fitri Afiani : Karya Baru, Panam : Sunday, January 7th 2012 : At 14.30 Wib :3 Questions 1. Hi Akzir? 1. Hi

Answers

2. After graduated from SMA did 2. A hmmexactly yeaaaI have eeI you continue your study? ever being one of the university student I UIN but I am only that study there at list one year or one year and more one year and then I stop to my study there and then I continue in Unilak until now. 3. What you done at the time? 3. Okeooocommonly I try being mmm looking for money here because I ever talk to you that I am alone here I live a part of my parents willingly I should money for myself and then I try to keep the money for having my Taoism in the universityin theee new university in unilak .

4. Did you ever follow some privat 4. Yesthats my profession until now. teaching? 5. What privat you have done? 5. EeeCommonly the common course in the school such as from elementary school I taught most the courses and for junior high school and senior high school some time I thought math and English. Pekanbaru, January 2012 Researcher, Participant,

Nurjannah

Akzir Fitri Afiani

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Researcher Participant Place Date Time Meeting

: Nurjannah : Akzir Fitri Afiani : Karya Baru, Panam : Saturday, February 4th 2012 : At 22.17 Wib :4 Queastions Answers 1. What you done 2006 at the time? 1. Ohor right 2006..2006..2006 I will graduated for my hmmFor my senior high School at yeaI continue my study eeein state Islamic University or in UIN but I dont finish my study there I just three or two semester but I didnt confidence any more yea..Just like that. 2. How many years you study in UIN 2. Hmmyeaaeffective for effective SUSKA? year for one year eeeI just came there at first and second semester and the third semester I was lazy enough to come and then in four or five semester I also pay my seasoning and join activities in the class. 3. In 2007 what did you done at the 3. Until, I was still being one of under time? graduate Student in UIN Suska but I did joint I did not follow class activity like another student. 4. What did your activity at the time? 4. If I was not mistaken at 2007 I was being one of instructor one of English course in Pekanbaru eeeI was one of instructor in LP3I English course for one year. 5. Just one year. 6. I forgot the exact time but may be yeaa.

5. Until what year you follow LP3I? 6. Its mean you follow LP3I in 2008?

7. After you in LP3I what did you 7.WowheheheI have many activities done at the time? and for telling you but one of them I have I have forgot what I have done at the time yeaaI just teach as a private teacher until now yeaaI did

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not join with any institution anymore because it respected my time but I until now I being teach a private. 8. Are you teach English? 8. Mmmnot all my student take English with me most of them I teach in elementary level so that I thought them for their level at the school epseption for senior high school student I teach English for them.

9. What did you done at 2009 untill 9. Hehehe2009 and 2010or right I 2010? should remember again for my activity before it has been going two years before yeaaawhat can I talk to you yeaaI just being a teacher for private and may be its my paid activity like you see until now. 10. When did you like English? 10. I like English I was in junior high student exactly at the first class.

11. What your strategies in to 11. There is no strategy I do at the time motivate you in pronunciation at but perhaps I have eeeone of the the time? one of the a rival he is name is Heru he motivate me to reach his hat way be better in English only that. 12. Did you improve pronunciation at the time? your 12. Yes, I almost practice my speaking every day yeaaaif I have time certainly take ten minute for speaking alone and then I try to look dictionary to look for many idiom idiom vocab and try to say it myself I almost do my speaking every day so that so that my strategy to intro my English and aches my English.

13. Who is inpire you before enter to 13. My lecturer before in UIN that Unilak? Islamic university he is name is Yasir and he has good pronunciation and he I prod of him so that I try being like him.

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Appendix 2: Lecturer Recommendation Interview Result from Speaking Lecturer Researcher Lecturer Place Date Time : Nurjannah : Mrs. Marwa, M.A : Limbungan : Monday, January 2th 2012 : At 03. 50 Answers 1. I am fine thank you.

Questions 1. How are you today Miss?

2. What do you know about Akzir Fitri 2. Ok..I know that she is one of the Afiani? And how is Akzir Fitri best students and during teaching Afiani in her class when learning and learning process she always process? shows her best activities and performance and one of my students that often get A you know speaking A ehin speaking one and also in speaking two she is get A and may be in speaking three you knowshe will be get A too. 3. Does Akzir Fitri Afiani have good 3. Yes she does pronunciation in her speaking class? 4. How do you think about her English 4. Oke, I think she is one of our pronunciation? students that has best pronunciation compared to other friends you knowin speaking hmmI am as a lecturer you knowhave some criteria you knowto score speaking activity for my students performance you knowand one of the criteria is pronunciation or I would like to say that speaking has indicators so there are some yes there are 5 indicators content and then hmmlanguage use or grammars and then fluency you know and pronunciation too and then use of vocabulary oke..and you know indicators of pronunciation you know, almost no mispronounce yeaaaof words you know during my class so I almost you know I42

never gave any correction you know to her while she is eaaa you knowperforming for activity like discussion you knowI think is perfect you know she speaks fluently no mispronouncing of a word and hmmalso ouchyou know ooobackground knowledge of her speaking you know ouhh.. She has good hmmmeducational background hmmI am so sorry whatprior knowledge. Prior knowledge yeaaprior knowledge when she is talking about ouh.. Special topic given during the classoke.

Pekanbaru, Researcher,

January 2012

Speaking Lecturer,

(Nurjannah)

(Marwa, M.A)

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Appendix 3: Students report from junior high school to Senior high school

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Appendix 4: University English Transcript

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