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THE USE OF MODELING FOR LIFECYCLE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN SHALE DEVELOPMENT Authors: David Alleman, Dan Arthur, P.E., SPEC, Jeff Cline, Bill Hochheiser ALL Consulting Tulsa, Oklahoma GWPC’s 2013 UIC Conference Sarasota, Florida

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    Authors: David Alleman,

    Dan Arthur, P.E., SPEC, Jeff Cline, Bill Hochheiser

    ALL Consulting Tulsa, Oklahoma

    GWPCs 2013 UIC Conference

    Sarasota, Florida

  • ABSTRACT Managing water through the shale development process can be more complicated than is often anticipated. In the process of developing shales, water must be sourced, tracked, transported, blended, staged, used, produced, and recycled/disposed. Operators must plan for the pace of development, water requirements for drilling and fracturing must be defined (volume and quality), water losses (e.g., evaporation) must be accounted for, water conditioning and/or treatment must be designed and planned, transportation must be arranged (e.g., trucking, overland piping, etc.), storage must be arranged, permitting must be completed, and many other tasks. The complexity of the planning process has created a demand for a variety of modeling techniques to be used to more easily facilitate the planning process and to allow for change management when drilling and/or completion plans are modified. Determining the pace of water and storage demand alone can be complicated, but when considering the volume of water required in a very short timeframe for high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF), planning must be spot on. As part of three separate U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research projects, ALL Consulting (along with many cooperators) have developed models that ease the water management planning process. This includes the Water Planning Tool (originally developed for Coal Bed Methane water planning), Water Blending and Scale Affinity Model, Water Treatment Catalog, along with others. This paper will present these and other tools while also discussing the challenge of lifecycle water management.

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 2 January 2013

  • 4


    1 Introduction

    Water Model Examples

    Closing Thoughts


    3 Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 January 2013


    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 4 January 2013

  • 5

    Water Management Considerations

    Water Sourcing -Surface water -Groundwater

    -Alternative Sources

    Water Treatment

    Road and Lease Construction

    Well Drilling

    Well Completions

    Water Transportation

    Water Storage & Evaporation

    Produced Water

    Frac Fluid Flowback

    Disposal Well



    Land Owner Concerns

    Evolving Regulations






    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 January 2013

  • Lifecycle Water Management Planning 6 A lifecycle approach is needed to address the

    many issues important to industry: Regulatory timing &

    vulnerabilities Legislative changes Public opposition Historical Activities Competition for

    resources Flowback recovery Third-party options and

    risks Environmental risks Cumulative Impacts Etc

    Pre-Development Assessment

    Water Sourcing Availability & Issues

    Well Site Construction & Drilling

    Water Conditioning/Pre-Treatment

    Well Completion/Fracturing

    Flowback/Produced Water

    Reuse/Disposal/Beneficial Use

    November 2012 6 Copyright (c) 2012 ALL Consulting

  • Water Targets for Fracture Fluid Parameter Value Range

    TDS 0 40,000 mg/L

    pH 5.5 8.5

    Chlorides 0 25,000

    Total Hardness 0 500 mg/L

    Iron 0 50 mg/L

    Calcium 0 3,000 mg/L

    Bi-carbonate 0 500mg/L Source: ALL Consulting from discussions with various operators, 2009 NOTE: The above is a representation of target water quality levels that several companies are considering and evaluating in an effort to use lower quality water for hydraulic fracturing. These targets are likely to change as technical feasibility continues to be analyzed in various basins.


    Shale development may have specific quantity and quality targets for fracture fluid water.

    Source water for fracturing may originate from multiple sources

  • Water Reuse & Blending Prod. Water TDS


    Theoretical Volume of PW that could be used

    to create a blended water of 5,000 mg/L

    TDS (gal)

    Theoretical Volume of PW that could be used to

    create a blended water of 40,000 mg/L TDS (gal)

    30,000 508,474 900,000 (+)

    50,000 303,030

    900,000 (+)

    100,000 150,753 900,000 (+)

    150,000 100,334


    200,000 75,187


    NOTE: For example purposes only, the above data assumes 3-million gallon fracture fluid volume, 30% recovery of fracturing fluids, and combining that recovered water with fresh water having a TDS of 500 mg/L to create a blended water for fracturing totally 3 million gallons. Source: ALL Consulting

    8 Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 8 January 2013

    In some plays, water blending is critical to meet both water sourcing demands and management of produced water

    Water blending can also be used to engineer water to reduce chemical additives in fracturing.

  • Managing Water Options

    Under active development scenarios, water management can be complex in any play.

    Planning must consider current and future development plans, locations, logistics, water sources, quality requirements, and more.

    Models become a beneficial means to effectively meet water management demands.

    Various models may be used for purposes such as: Planning water needs and disposal alternatives, Assessing treatment alternatives, Staging and blending water Etc.

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 9 January 2013

  • Example Models Models are available from a wide variety of

    sources. Model examples developed by ALL as part of

    research with the U.S. DOEs NETL, GWPC, IOGCC and industry include: Water Assessment Tool (WAT) Water Catalog and Decision Tool Mixing and Scale Affinity Model

    Basic analytical models are also commonly used for planning and compliance.

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 10 January 2013


    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 11 January 2013

  • Water Assessment Tool (WAT)

    Rapidly analyze various water management portfolio options in the design phase.

    Three components Water Balance Module Economic Analysis Module Water Mixing Model.

    Components can be utilized individually or in tandem.

    The WAT is an advanced planning tool that incorporates development needs with water requirements.

    12 Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 January 2013

  • WAT Modules Water Balance -

    Determine the viability of a conceptual water management portfolio. Allows the user to rapidly assess the ability of a potential water

    management portfolio to handle the estimated peak volume of produced water

    The water management portfolio can be adjusted through an iterative process until a satisfactory water management portfolio is determined

    Economical Analysis Estimate and compare costs, both capital and operational, associated

    with the different water management portfolios chosen in the water balance model.

    Compare estimated total cost of multiple potential water management portfolios for a project on a relative basis

    Water Mixing Estimate the change in water quality values of a receiving body of

    water when produced water discharge (whether it be raw water or treated water) into a surface water (such as a river) is anticipated.

    Calculates mix ratios of electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) after mixing of treated water with untreated raw water and average historical surface water data.

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 13 January 2013


    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 14 January 2013

  • Scale Affinity and Mixing Model Predicts resultant chemical composition of

    mixed waters, allowing the user to see how waters are predicted to react when mixed.

    Addresses the mixing of multiple source waters, identifying the affinity for scale formation and the potential species of scale formed.

    Provides the ability to analyze multiple water sources and mixing ratios to identify the most favorable mix ratio of available waters to meet specified targets for quality parameters.

    Allows the development of an engineered water by specifying the desired limits for various constituents and then determining the optimum mix of up to three different waters

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 15 January 2013

  • The Water Blending Model Uses an established and verified aqueous

    geochemical model developed by the US Geological Survey (PHREEQC).

    Allows user to input multiple source water compositions and analyze the resultant chemical composition of water by mixing of different ratios of these fluids.

    The program predicts speciation formation through the calculation of saturation-indices, allowing the user to identify potential for the formation of the most common Carbonate and Sulfate scale-forming species.

    Model reacts mixed water solutions by allowing water chemistry to come to equilibrium on select species and then allows user to use that reacted water in subsequent modeling.

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 16 January 2013

  • Scale Affinity Indices Calculated Skillman Index

    Analysis for CaSO4Scale Model Limited to Temp of

    25oC Larson-Skold Index

    Addresses Chlorides, Sulfates, and Alkalinity

    Developed for Great Lakes quality cooling water

    Ryznar Stability Index Analysis for CaCO3 Scale Multiple interpretation

    regimes Ryznar Interpretation(1942), Carrier Interpretation (1965)

    Puckorius Scaling Index Analysis for CaCO3 Scale

    Langelier Saturation Index Analysis for CaCO3 Scale TDS Limit

  • Mixed Water Quality Outputs Scale Model

    Output Example

    Mixed Water Composition Output Example

    Mineral Saturation Indices Example Outputs

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    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 19 January 2013

  • Water Treatment Catalog Provides a description of the water

    treatment technologies applicable to shale gas development, profiles of the known vendors that are active in the project basins, and links to vendor sites.

    Provides a system that guides users to the treatment technologies that best fit the users water quality, water management and regulatory situation.

    Provides a tool to predict the detailed chemical reactions that will take place when the users produced water sources are mixed with their fresh water and provides relevant scale indices.

    Provides federal, state, or river basin commission agencies that regulate shale gas produced water management as well as links to both the regulations and to the agency web-sites.

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 20 January 2013

  • Treatment Companies by Play

    Treatment Technology

    Shale Play Where company is Active

    Barnett Marcellus Fayetteville Woodford Eagle Ford Bakken

    Thermal Evaporation/ Distillation

    Fountain Quail INTEVRAS

    Technologies GE Water &

    Process Technologies

    212 Resources Fountain Quail

    Altela Aquatech Intevras

    Technologies GE Water & Process

    Technologies Eureka Resources

    Fountain Quail


    GE Water & Process


    Fountain Quail 212 Resources

    Purestream 212 Resources

    Reverse Osmosis Geopure Water Technologies Ecosphere

    MI SWACO GreenHunter Water

    Veolia Water Solutions

    Ecosphere Geopure Ecosphere Ecosphere Ecosphere

    Crystallization Intevras Technologies

    Veolia Water Solutions

    Crystallization Aquatech

    Eureka Resources

    UV Light and Ozone Ecosphere Halliburton Ecosphere Ecosphere Ecosphere Ecosphere

  • Technology Highlights Feed water stream divides Flows through distillate and concentrate preheat exchangers that recapture

    process heat (sensible heat) from recirculating/treated distillate and concentrated brine Flows are recombined Enters a recirculation loop that moves fluid from a separator vessel through a

    circulation pump to the evaporator exchanger and back to the separator vessel Steam moves to evaporator exchanger Condenses into distilled water

    Aqua-Pure Ventures Inc., Fountain Quail Water Management LLC

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2012 22 December 2012

    Treatment Category Thermal Distillation/Evaporation

    Treatment Subcategory Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    Technology Name NOMAD Mobile Evaporator Surface Footprint Approximately 2,500 ft2 Feed Capacity Approximately 2,500 bbls/day Output Approximately 2,000 bbls/day Costs Approximately $3.00 to $5.00 per bbl

    (includes transportation, power consumption, and labor); approximately $3.00 per bbl to treat only.

    Fountain Quail MVR NOMAD Facility

  • Treatment Category Reverse Osmosis/UV & Ozonation

    Treatment Subcategory Membrane and Microbe Removal

    Technology Name OzonixTM Surface Footprint Approximately 380 ft2 Feed Capacity EcoFracTM, 120 barrels per minute;

    EcosBrineTM, 300 BBls per hour, Ozonix (to include RO), 100 gpm.

    Feed Water Quality 20,000 30,000 mg/L, approximately 50%-70% water recovery

    Costs EcosFrac, $0.60 to $0.75 per bbl; EcosBrine, approximately $2.00 per bbl; OzonixTM Process to include RO, $3.50 - $4.00 per bbl

    Technology Highlights

    As part of the Ozonix process, super-saturated ozonated water is flash mixed with influent and dual-frequency ultrasonic transducers initiate the dissolved gas flotation of oils and suspended solids and the conversion of ozone to hydroxyl radicals

    Nano-cavitation bubbles imploding provide the liquid-gas interface that is instantaneously heated to approximately 900oF, which in turn oxidizes all known organic compounds.

    Ultrasonic cavitation cleaves larger particles into smaller particles for faster removal by flotation.

    The last step of the Ozonix process, if required, separates brine from fresh water by using RO technology

    Ecosphere Technologies, Inc.

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2012 23 December 2012

    Ecospheres EcosFrac (EF-600) Tank

  • Technology Highlights

    Combination of pre-treatment, microfiltration, and RO are operated in series to treat produced water compositions and generate clean water stream that can then be discharged or reused for fracing

    Depending on the quality of the feed water, the process implements various pretreatment processes to remove dispersed oil, suspended solids, or dissolved hydrocarbons

    Pretreated water is then further purified with polymeric microfiltration and RO

    GeoPure Hydrotechnologies

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2012 24 December 2012

    Treatment Category Membrane Treatment Subcategory Reverse Osmosis

    and Micro-Filtration Technology Name AdvancedHydro

    System Surface Footprint Not Reported Feed Capacity 5,000 bbls/day Feedwater TDS Approximately 15, 000 mg/L,

    approximately 50% water recovery Costs $0.94 bbl (based on costs reported for

    Barnett Shale study)

    GeoPure Water Treatment Site

  • Technology Highlights

    EVRAS utilizes low-grade waste heat (typically from compressors) to concentrate and/or crystallize large volume wastewater streams

    The EVRAS system has three main components: Conventional heat exchanger Direct contact floating bead (DCFB) heat exchanger Crystallizing undulating film air contacting chamber

    The conventional heat exchanger uses a waste heat source to warm a coolant which then warms the systems heat transfer liquid (HTL)

    INTEVRAS Technologies, Inc.

    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2012 25 December 2012

    Treatment Category Thermal Distillation/Evaporation

    Treatment Subcategory Crystallization or ZLD

    Technology Name EVRAS Surface Footprint 820 ft2 Feed Capacity 1,200 Bbls of fresh water

    can be evaporated out of 3,000 bbls of saltwater

    Feedwater TDS 310,000 mg/L, % water recovery not applicable with technology.

    Costs Not Reporte

    EVRAS unit in the Barnett Shale


    Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 26 January 2013

  • Summary Planning for the entire water management

    lifecycle is essential (including compliance). Water planning in any play is complicated when

    development includes high drilling and completion activity.

    Water management considerations can be very complex with one decision affecting multiple other decisions.

    Use of models provides comprehensive, consistent consideration of options.

    Modeling also enables strategic innovative planning and incorporation of sustainable solutions.

    27 Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 January 2013

  • David Alleman ALL Consulting

    [email protected]

    Citation Information: Alleman, David, D. Arthur, P.E., SPEC, J. Cline, W. Hochheiser, ALL Consulting. The Use of Modeling for Lifecycle Water Management Planning in Shale Development. Presented at the Ground Water Protection Councils 2013 UIC Conference, January 22-24, 2013, Sarasota, Florida.

    28 Copyright (c), ALL Consulting, 2013 January 2013

    The Use of Modeling for Lifecycle Water Management Planning in Shale DevelopmentABSTRACTOutlineIntroductionWater Management ConsiderationsLifecycle Water Management PlanningWater Targets for Fracture FluidWater Reuse & BlendingManaging Water OptionsExample ModelsWater Analysis ToolWater Assessment Tool (WAT)WAT ModulesWater Mixing & Scale Affinity ModelScale Affinity and Mixing ModelThe Water Blending ModelScale Affinity Indices CalculatedSlide Number 18Water Treatment Catalog (for Shales)Water Treatment CatalogTreatment Companies by PlayAqua-Pure Ventures Inc.,Fountain Quail Water Management LLCEcosphere Technologies, Inc.GeoPure HydrotechnologiesINTEVRAS Technologies, Inc.Closing ThoughtsSummarySlide Number 28