The Rwandan Genocide 100 Days of Slaughter April 6, 1994-July 18, 1994

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The Rwandan Genocide 100 Days of Slaughter April 6, 1994-July 18, 1994. Source: David Simon, The Teaching of Africa, PIER, Yale University , July 11, 2005. Rwandan Genocide. Massacre of an estimated 800,000 1,071,000 ethnic Tutsis & moderate Hutus carried out by two Hutu extremist groups - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Rwandan Genocide100 Days of SlaughterApril 6, 1994-July 18, 1994Source: David Simon, The Teaching of Africa, PIER, Yale University , July 11, 2005Rwandan GenocideMassacre of an estimated 800,000 1,071,000 ethnic Tutsis & moderate Hutus carried out by two Hutu extremist groups The killings lasted about 100 days in 1994The United Nations had little response to the genocideThe BeginningStarted with a plane crash (April 6, 1994)2 Presidents killedJuvenal Habyarimana (Rwanda) Cyprian Ntayamira (Burundi)Neighboring CountryThe BeginningHutu extremists are considered responsible for the crashPresident of Rwanda was about to sign a Peace AccordThe extremists disapprovedIn BetweenBrutality period in betweenGenocide of the Tutsi population by the radical Hutu populationThe EndEnded with a rebel victory by Tutsis Rwandan Patriotic Army chase out FAR (Tutsis)Genocide ended with their victory800,000 people killedThe killings beginThe same night of the plane crashThe Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and Hutu militia begin killing Tutsis Hutu moderatesThe killings BeginRoadblocks set up to capture Tutsis and Hutu moderatesMachetes are the weapon of choice for killingsWhy????The role of the U.N.Fails to interveneOnly allowed to monitor the situationThe killing of Belgian soldiers10 Belgian soldiers who work for the United NationsGuarding the Hutu prime minister at his homeHutu radicals kill him and the Belgian soldiersDefining GenocideThe Question of GenocideDefinition:any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. One or Two?Elimination of Tutsis was an explicit goalMassacres of Hutus not part of an elimination planOr Zero?: Are Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups?Hutu and Tutsi DifferencesSpeak same languageSame customsBut..Tutsis had a history of having more powerCauses Ethnic ConflictHistorical RelationsColonialGermans and Belgians divided the 2 groups in 1916Rigid boundariesID cardsBelgians gave the Tutsis superiorityWhy?Causes Ethnic ConflictTutsi SuperiorityBetter jobsMore educational opportunitiesThis leads to resentment by the Hutus.Causes Ethnic ConflictHutu Revolt in 1959Hutu population begins to leave Rwanda for bordering countriesRwandan independence1962 Belgians leave RwandaHutus still feel hostility towards TutsisEconomic TensionsGrowth in 70s and 80sBut dependent on:CoffeeAidPre-genocideUN Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)Recommended: about 10,000 soldiers (a.s.a.p.) Proposed: 5200 starting 9/93Actual: no one before 10/93minimal equipment before 1/94Maximum force of 2500 (in April 1994)During the genocideUnited Nations Ten Belgians killed immediatelyForces (mostly) withdrawn, 4/20/94United StatesDenialNon-cooperationAfricaNo force to get involvedThe AftermathInternational Tribune for RwandaFirst recognition of rape as an offense of genocide60+ indictmentsRwandan courts125,000 detainees2000 cases handled after 4 yearsjustice on the grassCountrywideInformalWhy study Rwanda??A unique case or all too common?International politicsHuman interaction Hotel RwandaHotel RwandaThe movie is based on the true events that took place during the genocidal violence that erupted in Rwanda Between the Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups in 1994 The central character is Paul Rusesabagina, a Hutu who managed a four-star in Kigali, the Capital of RwandaPaul R. helped to save 1,268 Tutsi & Hutu refugees Paul Rusesabagina

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