the restoration 1625-1798 charles ii (r. 1625-1649)

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The Restoration 1625-1798

The Restoration 1625-1798

Charles II (r. 1625-1649)The English Civil WarCharles Is clashes with Parliament led to revolt and his execution in 1649.The Puritan Oliver Cromwell and Parliament ruled until Cromwells death in 1658, but his policies had alienated much of the country.

The Restoration of the MonarchyTired of the wars and contention of the past 20 years, Parliament invited Charles II back from exile In FranceCharles brought back with him a love of fashion, theater, and the arts.

More TroubleJames II succeeded Charles II in 1685.A devout Catholic, James clashed with Parliament over religion.

The Glorious RevolutionIn 1688 Parliament invited Mary, the protestant daughter of the king, and her husband, William of Orange to rule jointly.Charles II fled to France, no blood was shed, and there was much rejoicing.

Limiting Royal PowerIn 1689 Parliament passed a bill of rights, limiting the power of the monarchyIn succeeding years, a cabinet of ministers led by the prime minister would gradually begin to rule England.

Social TrendsAs agricultural practices improved, towns and cities grew because less workers were needed on farms. Industrialization and inventions after 1750 led to growth of large factories in cities and increased wealth.

The Enlightenment--The Age of ReasonHow questions replaced Why questions about nature, the human body, and the universe.

Most philosophers and scientists remained very religious.View of God changed, with Deism becoming widely accepted among intellectuals.

Superstitions concerning natural phenomena were dispelled. The Enlightenment--The Age of ReasonEdmund Halley predicted the path of comets and when they would occur.By the end of this era progress, for many, was equated with misery. The Enlightenment--The Age of Reason

Some began to lose faith in mans ability to solve every problem with reason.The style was witty, sophisticated, and self-conscious. Writing of the RestorationThere was a fondness for satire.

Aphorismsshort statements that express a viewpoint or truthwere popular. Samuel JohnsonInfluenced by Greek and Roman writers. Writing of the RestorationOften referred to myths, gods, and heroes of ancient times.Writing is often called neoclassical.

Alexander Pope