The Nano-Micro Interface: Bridging the Micro and Nano Worlds

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<ul><li><p>BOOKS &amp; MEDIA UPDATE</p><p>December 200464</p><p>A materials science primerGonzlez-Vias and Mancini have produced a helpful guide to materials sciencefor those who want to familiarize themselves with the subject quickly, saysSiegmar Roth.</p><p>This book is a useful introduction to materials science.</p><p>It is especially helpful for undergraduate students and</p><p>other newcomers who want to become quickly</p><p>informed about the basics of the field. It aims at a</p><p>qualitative understanding rather than a rigid</p><p>mathematical treatment. </p><p>Readers can easily familiarize themselves with the</p><p>principles of solid-state physics. The crystalline lattice</p><p>is introduced and, using only a few lines, so is the</p><p>reciprocal lattice (a hard task, but there is no easy way</p><p>to cover the reciprocal lattice, no matter how many</p><p>lines you use). Based on the concept of energy bands,</p><p>the difference between metals and semiconductors is</p><p>discussed, and semiconductor</p><p>physics is elaborated so far that</p><p>even p-n junctions, polar</p><p>transistors, and field-effect</p><p>transistors are presented. A short</p><p>outline of X-ray diffraction is also</p><p>given; just enough to catch the</p><p>essentials. A chapter is devoted to</p><p>imperfections and defects (point</p><p>defects, excitons, and dislocations)</p><p>and a very short chapter covers</p><p>mechanical and thermal properties</p><p>(including the introduction of</p><p>phonons). In a concise and useful</p><p>way (using only one diagram!), the</p><p>most important parameters of</p><p>elasticity are demonstrated.</p><p>Magnetic, dielectric, and superconducting materials are</p><p>treated somewhat more extensively. Not only the</p><p>basics, but also high-temperature superconductors, the</p><p>Josephson effect, and Josephson junctions are</p><p>discussed. More space is used for optical materials</p><p>(including solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers, and</p><p>nonlinear optics) and for noncrystalline solids (glasses,</p><p>glassy metals, amorphous semiconductors, and a</p><p>surprisingly detailed section on quasicrystals).</p><p>The chapter on polymers is the longest. This gives a</p><p>very useful overview of the classification of polymers,</p><p>chemical structures of common polymers, and the</p><p>most important polymerization procedures. Order in</p><p>chains, as well as molecular weight and methods of</p><p>obtaining molecular distribution curves, are discussed. </p><p>I find such diagrams as the phase diagram of oligomers</p><p>and polymers of ethylene (showing the path from</p><p>liquids over greases and waxes to soft and hard</p><p>plastics) very instructive. There are several practical</p><p>tables with material properties of polymers (glass</p><p>temperature, melting temperature, thermal</p><p>conductivity, electrical conductivity, etc.). These tables</p><p>allow quick orientation for someone who has to use</p><p>polymers and wants to know which class of polymers</p><p>is worthwhile to inspect more closely. </p><p>The book also contains a few pages on surface science</p><p>and even fewer (six pages!) on new materials:</p><p>fullerenes, liquid crystals, and biocompatible materials.</p><p>Personally, I regret that there is not more space</p><p>devoted to these exciting new materials and that they</p><p>have not been used as an incentive</p><p>to attract people to the topic.</p><p>Actually, very little effort is made</p><p>to attract readers. There are no</p><p>color figures or fancy photographs,</p><p>and there is no speculation on</p><p>spectacular futuristic applications.</p><p>Anyone who has not yet decided to</p><p>become a materials scientist will</p><p>hardly be motivated to do so by the</p><p>book, but those who want or have</p><p>to learn the essentials of materials</p><p>science, and have only a few days</p><p>to devote to the task, will certainly</p><p>benefit from scanning over the</p><p>pages. They will manage this within</p><p>a few days because the book does</p><p>not have more than 170 pages. But it does contain</p><p>details on everything a material scientist has to know. </p><p>I will pass the book to new members of my team and</p><p>tell them to read it first before they pick up</p><p>monographs from the library or download review</p><p>articles from the Internet. They should read it to be in</p><p>a position to ask questions at seminars and</p><p>conferences. The price is perhaps too much to buy a</p><p>personal copy for each team member but, if two or</p><p>three copies float around in the coffee corner, the</p><p>investment will not be wasted.</p><p>Siegmar Roth is at the Max-Planck-Institut fr</p><p>Festkrperforschung in Stuttgart, Germany.</p><p>Wenceslao Gonzlez-Vias and Hctor L. ManciniAn Introduction to Materials SciencePrinceton University Press (2004), 200 pp., ISBN: 0-691-07097-0$60.00 / 38.95 </p><p>Three-Dimensional X-rayDiffraction Microscopy</p><p>Henning F. PoulsenSpringer (2004), 154 pp.</p><p>ISBN: 3-540-22330-4</p><p>$149 / 88.50 / 114.95</p><p>Poulsen presents a comprehensiveaccount of three-dimensional X-raydiffraction microscopy for thestructural characterization ofpolycrystalline materials. Thismethod allows the position,morphology, phase, strain, andorientation of hundreds of grainswithin a specimen to be determined.The dynamics of structural elementscan be monitored during annealing ordeformation processes. </p><p>Nanotechnology andNanoelectronics</p><p>W. R. Fahrner (ed.)Springer (2005), 269 pp.</p><p>ISBN: 3-540-22452-1</p><p>$79.95 / 54 / 69.95</p><p>Subtitled Materials, Devices, andMeasurement Techniques, this is aconcise overview of the state-of-the-art in functional nanostructures. Itcovers the production andcharacterization of structures in thenanometer size range. Applications inelectronics are covered alongside anevaluation of the future prospects ofnanotechnology. </p><p>The Nano-MicroInterface: Bridging theMicro and Nano Worlds</p><p>Hans-Jrg Fecht and MatthiasWerner (eds.)John Wiley &amp; Sons (2004), 351 pp.</p><p>ISBN: 3-527-30978-0</p><p>$135 / 70 / 105</p><p>Micro- and nanotechnology mergewhere the top-down miniaturizationof microelectronics meets thebottom-up assembly ofnanostructures. Contributions to thisvolume discuss issues at the nano-micro interface including materialssynthesis, fabrication technologies,characterization methods, electronicdevices, and bio-interfaces. </p><p>Expert</p><p>Graduate</p><p>Undergraduate</p></li></ul>


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