The Holocaust Never forget. Never again. 1938-1945.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Holocaust Never forget. Never again. 1938-1945 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> What is a holocaust? an act of mass destruction and loss of life (especially in war or by fire); Example: "a nuclear holocaust. wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn The word origin is originally from the Greek language, meaning total destruction by fire. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> What was The Holocaust? The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, government-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews and six million other minorities by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. (United States Holocaust Museum) The Holocaust was the worst modern-day genocide. Genocide means the murder of a specific racial or ethnic group; ethnic cleansing. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> What began the Holocaust? Germany experienced a terrible economic depression after losing World War I (1914-1918) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Treaty of Versailles: 1919 In addition to the billions of dollars Germany had already spent on World War One, the Treaty of Versailles forced Germany to make reparations (payments) to the allied countries and took away some of Germanys land. This impoverished Germany even further. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> The Rise of the Nazi Party The National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) was a small political party that gained power and influence by promising to make Germany stronger and more powerful than ever through hard work, unswerving loyalty, and the creation of a racially pure citizenry. Adolf Hitlers biography, Mein Kampf (My Struggle) explained these ideas and its publication helped the party gain more influence. They gained control of Germany in 1933. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> A scapegoat is someone who is blamed for someones problem. In this case, the Jews were blamed for Germanys financial crisis. It seemed to the Nazi party that the Jews were thriving financially while the rest of Germany was having such hard times. Anti-semitism (persecution of Jews) had raged throughout Europe since Medieval times, so this was nothing new. The Nazi party was able to gain power in Germany by fanning the flames of anti-semitism that had been smothered in recent years. They promised to rebuild Germany and make it stronger than ever.but first, they had to get rid of the people who were weakening the countrythe Jews. Jews were easy scapegoats. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Nuremberg Laws: The First Step *marry non-Jews *vote or run for political office *own businesses *serve in the military *attend school with gentiles (non-Jews) *go to restaurants or other public places owned by non-Jews. *practice medicine or law for non-Jews. *drive cars and later, ride bicycles. And many others. First written in 1935 in the German city of Nuremberg, these laws stripped Jews of their citizenship rights. Jews were no longer able to: Nazi guards hold signs saying, Germans! Protect yourselves! Dont buy from Jews! </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> The Yellow Star Jews were forced to wear the yellow Star of David on their clothing whenever they appeared outside of their homes. This identified them as Jews and subjected them to scorn and discrimination by the public. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> The Ghetto: the Next Step The word ghetto has been around since medieval times in Europe. Its an enclosed area of a city where Jews were forced to live. Hundreds of ghettos were set up in Nazi-dominated countries, and Jews were forced to leave their homes and live in these unsanitary, overcrowded places. Conditions were terrible and people died by the hundreds daily. However, Jews set up schools for children and tried to survive. People smuggling food into the Warsaw Ghetto. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Images from the Warsaw Ghetto, Poland Overcrowded conditions,yet trying to celebrate Passover and maintain hope. Nazi guards supervise. Death by starvation and disease. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Kristallnacht The Night of Broken Glass November 910, 1938 The Nazi party was dissatisfied with the Nuremberg laws; they wanted to send a stronger message to the Jews of Germany. On November 9, the German government staged a 30-hour riot that attacked Jewish businesses and synogogues. In just a 30 hour time period: 267 synagogues were destroyed, 7,500 Jewish businesses were looted, and at least 91 people were killed. They also vandalized Jewish cemeteries, hospitals, schools, and homes. 30,000 Jews were sent to Buchenwald, Dachau, and Sachsenhausen, where hundreds died within weeks of arrival. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Aftermath of Kristallnacht A destroyed synagogue in Berlin People being arrested during Kristallnacht. You can see buildings burning in the background. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> The Final Solution After Kristallnacht, Hitler stepped up the violence and began his plan to exterminate all the Jews of Europe. He set up concentration camps, many in occupied Poland, to kill millions of Jews and other undesirables quickly, cheaply, and efficiently. Most people were deported by cattle cars, a torturous experience itself, where people were denied seats, food, water, light, restrooms, and were packed in like sardines. Some didnt survive the ride. Children being deported to Chelmno concentration camp. People spilling out of cattle cars, weakened and terrified by the journey. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Arrest of small child at Warsaw Ghetto. Deportion to concentration camps. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Work makes you free. Slogan upon entering Auschwitz. Auschwitz was the largest and most brutal of the camps; approx. 1 million of the 6 million Jews were murdered here. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Selection Upon entering the concentration camp, the people were separated into males and females. Then, both groups were selectedfor slave labor, if healthy enough, or for immediate death if too sick, too old, or too young to work. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Mass Execution (before the use of gas chamber and crematoriums) Often, the prisoners had to dig their own graves just moments before being killed. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> A group of children selected for the gas chamber. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Medical Experiments Dr. Josef Mengele and other medical doctors used concentration camp prisoners for medical experimentation. These brutal experiments included injections into the eyes to change color, amputations, burning and freezing skin, pressure chambers, testing drugs, performing surgeries without anesthesia. Mengele was most interested in twin studies and tortured many twin children. These people were put to death afterwards so they would not reveal any information. Mengele was known as The Angel of Death because of the power he held over so many peoples lives. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Gas Chambers and Crematoria The Nazis were continually trying to find the least expensive and most efficient manner of killing people and disposing of the bodies. The shootings and mass graves were expensive, time consuming and messy so they invented the gas chambers. Prisoners were marched into hermetically-sealed chambers that looked like shower rooms. Instead of water, poison gas poured from the openings. After the people in the chamber died, their bodies were burned in the crematorium. Modern day photos of gas chamber (left) and crematorium (right) at Auschwitz museum. Survivors often say that the smell of burning bodies was a daily reminder of death in the camps. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Inside the Barracks </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Aftermath </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Other Minorities in the Holocaust Gypsies (Roma) peoples Homosexuals People with physical or mental disabilities Jehovahs Witnesses German-Gypsy family at a concentration camp. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Animated map of Europe before, during, and after Nazi domination. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/ media_nm.php?lang=en&amp;M oduleId=10005143&amp;MediaI d=3372www.ushmm.org/wlc/ media_nm.php?lang=en&amp;M oduleId=10005143&amp;MediaI d=3372 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Rwanda experienced Africa's worst genocide in modern times From April to July 1994, members of the Hutu ethnic majority in the east-central African nation of Rwanda murdered as many as 800,000 people, mostly of the Tutsi minority. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Genocide spread throughout the country with staggering speed and brutality. Ordinary citizens were incited by local officials and the Hutu Power government to take up arms against their neighbors. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> A Hutu man who did not support the genocide had been imprisoned in the concentration camp, starved and attacked with machetes. He managed to survive after he was freed and was placed in the care of the Red Cross, Rwanda, 1994. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> The massacre at Nyarabuye took place in the grounds of a Catholic Church and school. Hundreds of Tutsis, including many children, were slaughtered at close range, Rwanda, 1994. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> At the Red Cross clinic in Nyanza. Tutsis who had been freed from the death camp were treated for their wounds, Rwanda, 1994. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Survivors of the death camp new Nyanza were in extremely poor condition when they were liberated by Tutsi rebel forces, Rwanda, 1994. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> By the late 1980s, arbitrary rule and economic collapse culminated in civil war when Charles Taylor's National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) militia overran much of the countryside, entering the capital in 1990. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Taylors boys </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Around 250,000 people were killed in Liberia's civil war and many thousands more fled the fighting. The conflict left the country in economic ruin and overrun with weapons. The capital remains without mains electricity and running water. Corruption is rife and unemployment and illiteracy are endemic. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13729504 </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> http://www.cbn.com/cbnnews/wo rld/2011/August/Houses-of- Horror-North-Koreas-Secret- Prison-Camps/ North Korea Democide democide: mass killing of people by a government 1948 through 1987 the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was ruled by Kim Il-sung, a communist dictator People were so tightly controlled in all their activities that very little information about executions, or concentration and forced labor camps filtered out of the country. Perhaps from 710,000 to slightly over 3,500,000 people have been murdered, with a mid-estimate of almost 1,600,000. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> THE MASS-STARVATIONS OF THE 1990s widespread famine devastated North Korea killed 2.5 million, and perhaps more than 3.7 million North Koreans (more than 10 percent of the population) By the end of the 1990s, only 6 percent of the population who received food through the Public Distribution System were fed only 128 grams per person per day about 1 cup of food. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> October 1997, Hwanghae, North Korea: Young child suffering from malnutrition newly admitted to Tosan City Hospital, North Hwanghae Province. World Food Program provided relief food to institutions such as hospitals, orphanages and kindergartens. (c) WFP/Tom Haskell 1997 </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Why? </li> </ul>