1 holocaust: completely burnt yom hashoah: holocaust remembrance
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Holocaust: Completely burnt
Yom Hashoah: Holocaust Remembrance
*The Holocaust: Topics of DiscussionQuestions Students AskSignificant DatesMaps of Jewish PopulationWhat is Propaganda and how was it used?Groups targeted by the Hitler and the Third ReichThe Master Race: Racism, Eugenics, & LebensbornMethodology of the Third Reich or German EmpireShoah: A Calamity (Historical Photo Essay)What the Allies and Liberators foundChildren in Crisis: Voices of the HolocaustRighteous Among the Nations: The RescuersHolocaust-related ThemesHolocaust-related Literature & filmProactive: What can you do?References
*Questions Students Often Ask
*Why is it Important to Remember the Holocaust?Apathy indifference, disinterest, or lack of concern can bring about a repetition of historical mistakes
As stated by Martin Niemoller (1892-1964), a German pastor, summarizing a lesson we all can learn, In Germany, the Nazis came for the Communists and I didnt speak up because I was not a Communist. Then they came for the Jews and I didnt speak up because I was not a Jew. Then they came for the labor unionists and I didnt speak up because I was not a labor unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I was a Protestant so I didnt speak up. Then they came for me.By that time there was no one to speak up for anyone.
Denial because there are individuals and groups who do not want to face the truth, even when evidence is overwhelming; so we need to confront denial and teach those who are willing to learn the truth, hoping that these horrors will not happen again.
*What does Holocaust mean?Holocaust (from the Greek holkauston from olon completely and kauston burnt.) Holocaust means a burnt sacrifice or complete destruction by fire, a mass destruction of any kind, a sacrifice that is totally consumed by fire. Another term is Shoah (A Calamity).
The Holocaust refers to a specific genocidal event in twentieth-century history: the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945. Jews were the primary victims.
*Were there other groups targeted by the Nazis? Roma (Gypsies) targeted on racial grounds as Roma or work shy and asocial, unproductive & socially unfit (among the first to be transported to the Lodz ghetto & the first to be killed in mobile gas vans) one million gypsies lived in Europe, 220,000 were killed by the Germans & their allies.
Poles & Slavic peoples Nazis considered them inferior; they were slated for subjugation, forced labor, and eventual annihilation. Poles who were considered ideologically dangerous, including thousands of intellectuals and Catholic priests. Between 1939 to 1945 1.5 million Poles were deported to German territory for forced labor. Estimate is 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish citizens were killed.
Jehovahs Witnesses refusing to salute Hitlera part of their religious beliefs, thousands were killed (Helene Gotthold beheaded on Dec. 8, 1944 for her beliefs)
*Other Groups Targeted by the NazisThe Mentally & physically challenged (or disabled)Euthanasia Program- In Nazi usage, euthanasia was a euphemistic term for a clandestine program which targeted for systematic killing institutionalized mentally and physically disabled patients, without the knowledge or consent of themselves or their families. the Nazis murdered 200,000 individuals with physical & mental disabilities.
Homosexuals - The Nazis also persecuted male homosexuals, whose behavior they considered a hindrance to the preservation of the German nation. Chronic" homosexuals, between 5,000 and 15,000 gay men, were sent to concentration camps; thousands of other individuals accused of so-called "asocial" or criminal behavior. These prisoners were marked by pink triangle badges and, according to many survivor accounts, were among the most abused groups in the camps. (below: a writer)
Political & religious dissidents (intellectual/conscientious objectors)
Nazi ideology identified a multitude of enemies and led to the systematic persecution and murder of many millions of people, both Jews and non-Jews.
*Other Groups Targeted by the NazisAntisemitism and racism pervaded the Nazi world view. Hitler emphasized racial purity and the superiority of the "Germanic race" -- the so-called Aryan master race. As part of the drive to "purify" and strengthen the German population, a 1933 law permitted physicians to perform forced sterilizations of psychiatric patients and congenitally handicapped persons, Gypsies, and Blacks Some 500 teenagers--pejoratively called the Rhineland bastards--were forcibly sterilized after 1937.
Buses were used to transport physically & mentally disabled to Euphanasia Centers (bus windows were painted so no one could see in).
*First Concentration Camps (1933-1939)First concentration camps in which people were confined in harsh conditions (disregarding their human or legal rights) began in 1933 after Hitlers rise to power.The first victims were political & intellectual dissidents (communists, socialists) and Roma (gypsies, homosexuals, Jehovah Witnesses)(Right) Political Prisoners arrive at Oranienburg concentration camp. Oranienburg, Germany, 1933.
*What is Genocide?The term "genocide" did not exist before 1944. It is a very specific term, referring to violent crimes committed against groups with the intent to destroy the existence of the group. Human rights, as laid out in the U.S. Bill of Rights or the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, concern the rights of individuals. Etymology of the word Genocide: Greek word genos (race, tribe) and the Latin cide (killing).
Post WWII, on December 9, 1948, the United Nations approved the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide.
*Why didnt all of them (Jews) just leave?Jews had been assimilated (absorbed, taken in) into German society for hundreds of years, many over a thousand years; over 10 thousand fought in WWI and were honored with medals for their valor & servicewhether lower, middle, or upper class, they thought of themselves as Germans first, then Jews, & were well-assimilated by the 20th century.
The oppressive prewar measures targeting Jews, e.g., the 1933 Nuremburg Laws, were passed & enforced gradually.
No one at the time could foresee or predict killing squads and killing centers.
Permission had to be obtained for passports, selling their homes, leaving the country, etc.
*Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom November 9-10, 1938 On the evening of November 9-10, 1938 -- Kristallnacht, "The Night of Broken Glass, rioters burned over 1,000 synagogues, vandalized and looted 7,000 Jewish businesses and homes, and killed dozens of Jews in an assault instigated by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. What is a pogrom? An organized killing of a minority; a planned campaign of persecution or extermination sanctioned by a government and directed against an ethnic group, especially against the Jewish people in tsarist Russia, later in Nazi Germany.
*Kristallnacht: A Nationwide PogromNovember 9-10, 1938View of the destroyed interior of the Hechingen synagogue the day after Kristallnacht. Photos of broken windows of businesses, broken windows of synagogues, synagogues on fire.
*The St. Louis a.k.a. The Voyage of the DamnedHope Deferred May 13, 1939, the St. Louis, a ship carrying over 900 Jewish passengers, trying to escape Nazi Germany, left Hamburg, Germany to find safety in Cuba; they were turned away by Cuba, and then the United States. They were compelled to return to Nazi-controlled , thus sentencing more than half of them to death. A film was later made of this tragic event entitled Voyage of the Damned.
*How it is possible that all these people followed Hitler; he was just a little man they say. So why did they allow this to happen?
(The response from a survivor of the Terezin Ghetto in Czechoslovakia): I try to explain how easy it can be to get drawn into a group and blindly follow. Not just the extremist groupings that some young people join. But even to follow the example of a class leader or bully that they do not always agree with.
So I say, Well, why do you fall in line?"
*How did Hitler kill millions of people?Hitler did not do this by himself, although he had a tremendous amount of responsibilityhe and his colleagues (Heinrich Himler, Josef Goebbel, Hermann Goering, Reinhard Heydrich, Adolf Eichmann, & more) & organizations (Der Strmer, the Einsatzgruppen [mobile killing units], the Gestapo [Secret State police] SD [security service of the Nazis], propaganda, etc.) had willing participants to help, which made the machinery of the Third Reich operate so efficiently. It was systematic.
*What is the Third Reich?the German state or empire, especially the Holy Roman Empire (9261806) or First Reich; the German Empire (18711919) or Second Reich; or the Nazi state (19331945) or the Third Reich.Adolf Hitler became Chancellor in 1933 and instituted a policy of coordination of Nazi Goals (culture, economy, education, & law came under the control of the Nazis).After President Paul von Hindenburg died in August 1934, Hitler became the Reich President (head of state); Reich Chancellor (head of government); & Fuehrer (head of the Nazi party)essentially, a megalomaniac (the enjoyment of having power over people & a craving for it) and dictator.
*Was Hitlers grandmother Jewish?Adolf Hitlers father Alois Schickelgruber Hitler (52 years old) was an Austrian customs official. He was registered as illegitimate and h