the cardiorespiratory system

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The Bodys Transport System. The Cardiorespiratory system. The Cardiovascular System. Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. . The Cardiovascular System. The cardiovascular system carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Cardiorespiratory system

The Cardiorespiratory systemThe Bodys Transport SystemThe Cardiovascular SystemConsists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

The Cardiovascular SystemThe cardiovascular system carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells. Blood contains cells that fight disease.

Delivering Needed MaterialsBlood carries oxygen from your lungs to your other body cells.

Blood also transports glucose cells use to produce energy.

Removing Waste ProductsThe cardiovascular system removes wastes from cells. The waste product of carbon dioxide is passed from cells into the blood and carried to the lungs where it is exhaled.

Fighting DiseaseThe cardiovascular system also transports cells that attack disease-causing microorganisms.

The HeartThe heart is a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the blood vessels of the body.

In a year, the heart pumps enough blood to fill more than 30 competition size swimming pools.

Your Heart It is about the size of your fist. The heart lies beneath the sternum and inside the rib cage.It is made of cardiac muscle, which contracts over and over again without getting tired.

The Hearts StructureHas a right and left side.Separated by a wall of tissue called the septum.Each side has two compartments or chambers.

Each of two upper chamber of the heart are called atrium. The pacemaker is located in the right atrium. The pacemaker is a group of heart cells that send out a signal for the heart to beat.

The Heart Atria

The Ventricles of the HeartEach lower chamber, called a ventricle, pumps blood out of the heart. The atria are separated from the ventricles by valves. A valve is a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backwards.

Patterns of Blood FlowFlow of blood is like a figure 8Two loops cross at the heartThe first loop travels from the heart to the lungs and back to the heartThe blood is oxygen-poor therefore it is dark red.

Have students trace the path of blood from the right atrium to the right ventricle to the lungs and back to the heart. 13Going to the LungsLarge vessels branch into smaller onesCapillaries are the site of gas exchangeOxygen moves from the lungs into the capillariesCarbon Dioxide moves from the capillaries to the lungs to be exhaled

Gas exchange happens at the site of the capillaries and the lungs. Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse from an area of high concentration to one of low. Have the students explain this.14To the Body and BackLeft atrium fills with blood from the lungsContinues into left ventricleBlood is then pumped into the aorta, the largest artery in the body.Blood then flows to different parts of your body.

Back to the heartBlood vessels are in close contact with body cellsOxygen moves out of the blood and into body cellsCarbon Dioxide passes from the body cells into the blood and back to the right atrium of the heart.

Have students trace the path of a drop of blood, from various parts of the circulatory system. 16Types of Blood VesselsArteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

Artery StructureHave very thick wall structureCan withstand enormous pressure of pumped bloodCoronary arteries branch off the aorta and carry blood to the heart

Regulating Blood Flow

The layer of muscle in the artery adjusts the amount of blood sent to the different organs.

What happens to the blood supply when you are digesting your food? What happens when you are running and exercising? When muscles contract, the arterial opening becomes smaller. When muscles relax, the opening becomes wider. 19VeinsVeins are blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. The walls are much thinner than arteries.Contraction of skeletal muscles help push the blood alongValves prevent backflowBreathing exerts squeezing pressure against veins forcing blood towards heart

CapillariesFrom the arteries, blood flows into tiny, narrow vessels called capillaries. Substances are exchanged between the blood and body cells. Capillaries are only one cell thick

Materials are exchanged between the blood and body cells by diffusion. Glucose is more highly concentrated in the blood than in the body cells. Where will it flow and why? 21PulseYour pulse is caused by the expansion and relaxation of the artery wallThe hearts ventricles contract and send out a spurt of blood This spurt causes the artery to expandThe artery walls relax after the spurt has passed on

Have students take their pulse and determine how fast their heart is beating. Compare and contrast athletic pulses vs. non athletic pulses.22Blood PressureBlood pressure travelling through blood vessels exerts a force against the walls of the blood vessels. This is called blood pressure.Blood pressure decreases as blood moves away from the heart

Blood pressure in your capillaries and veins is much lower than in your arteries.23Measuring Blood PressureBlood pressure is measured with an instrument called a sphygmomanometer

Blood is expressed in mmHgFirst # is when ventricles contractSecond # is when ventricles relax

A typical blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/80 or lower. The two numbers are expressed as a fraction; the contraction pressure over the relaxation pressure. 24The Respiratory SystemThe Respiratory System removes oxygen from the outside environment into the body. Carbon Dioxide and water are removed as waste products from the body.

OxygenThe process in which oxygen and glucose undergo a complex series of chemical reactions inside cells is called respiration.Your cells cannot burn enough glucose without oxygen to keep you aliveBreathing is movement of air into and out of the

Breathing is the movement of air into and out of the lungs. Respiration (also known as cellular respiration) refers to the chemical reactions inside cells that release the energy that fuels growth and other cell processes. 26The Path of AirAs air travels from the outside to the lungs, it passes through the nose, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi.

The NoseAir enters here into the nasal cavitiesMucus produced here warms the air and keeps lining from drying outCilia sweep mucus into the throat, where it is swallowed

The PharynxAir enters the pharynx or throat. Both the nose and the mouth connect to the pharynx

The TracheaFrom the pharynx, air moves into the trachea, or windpipeComposed of a series of cartilage ringsLined with cilia and mucus, help sweeping mucus towards the pharynxEpiglottis seals off trachea when swallowing to prevent choking

balthil@verizon.net30The Bronchi and LungsAir moves from the trachea to the bronchi in the lungsBronchi are passages that direct air into the lungsThe lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system

BronchiolesEach bronchus divides into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchiolesThey resemble branches of a tree

AlveoliAlveoli are tiny sacs of lung tissue at the end of the bronchioles. These are specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood.

Gas ExchangeBecause the walls of both the alveoli and the capillaries are very thin, gases can easily diffuse through them.Oxygen passes thru the alveolus then thru the capillary into the blood.Carbon Dioxide passes from the blood, to the capillary and into the alveoli.This is called gas exchange.

Gas Exchange and Pulmonary CirculationPulmonary circulation carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back againCarbon Dioxide moves from the blood into the alveoli and out the lungsThe blood that returns to the heart is rich in oxygen

Gas ExchangeDuring gas exchange, oxygen moves from alveoli into the blood and carbon dioxide moves from the blood into the alveoliHow is the structure of the alveoli important for gas exchange?36Surface area and Gas exchangeYour lungs can absorb a large amount of oxygen because of the large surface area of the alveoli.300 alveoli million in adult lungsAble to supply needed oxygen during strenuous athletic performances

What gases are exchanged at the alveoli? What structure in the small intestine also provides a large surface area?37How You breathe!!Controlled by musclesLungs surrounded by intercostal musclesDiaphram is the large, dome-shaped muscle at the base of the lungs that contracts and relaxes during breathing

Breathing in!!When you inhale, the rib muscles contract, lifting the chest wall up and outward. The diaphragm contracts and moves downward.

Breathing out/ExhalingRib muscles and diphragm relaxSize of chest cavity is reducedAir is squeezed out of lungs

What muscles cause the chest to expand during breathing?40

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