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The Art and Science of Teaching : Using Research-Based Classroom Strategies to Improve Student Achievement (Without Driving Ourselves Crazy) Lancaster School District Designed for Teacher Leaders Secondary Edition, Round II Facilitated by Tim Westerberg May 12, 2008. Session Objectives. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The Art and Science of Teaching:Using Research-Based Classroom Strategies to Improve Student Achievement (Without Driving Ourselves Crazy)Lancaster School DistrictDesigned for Teacher LeadersSecondary Edition, Round IIFacilitated by Tim WesterbergMay 12, 2008

  • Session ObjectivesConsider the utility of Marzanos 10 Instructional Design Questions as a comprehensive framework for effective teaching.Review and analyze the successes and challenges of teacher leadership and the turnkey process thus far and consider implications for future work. Develop a working understanding of two additional CITW strategies ( Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers and Generating and Testing Hypotheses), and of what they look like in practice in secondary classrooms.

  • Prescribing professional development to fix teachers without providing opportunities for job-embedded professional learning squanders a powerful opportunity to grow strong professional cultures in schools.Daniel Baron. Imagine: Professional Development That Changes Practice. Principal Leadership: High School Edition. January 2008, Pages 56-58.

  • So, Hows the Teacher-Leader Business Going?Reflecting on your work this year in your departments:React to each of the two statements on the following slide.On a scale of 1-5 (1 = Not at all, 3 = Somewhat, 5 = A great deal), to what extent have teachers embedded the two CITW strategies into their teaching? Are you satisfied with the progress thus far?What worked well for you?What obstacles did you encounter? What, if anything, will you do differently this time around?What have you learned about leading? About teaching?What help/resources/training/do you need?What questions do you have for the group?

  • Dylan Wiliam. Changing Classroom Practice. Educational Leadership Vol. 65, No. 4: December 2007/January 2008. Pages 36-42.Knowing that is different from knowing how. (Page 38)It is generally easier to get people to act their way into a new way of thinking than it is to get them to think their way into a new way of acting. (Page 39) From Millard Fuller, Habitat for Humanity

  • Identifying similarities and differencesSummarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognitionHomework and practiceNonlinguistic representationsCooperative learningSetting objectives and providing feedbackGenerating and testing hypothesesCues, questions, and advance organizers

  • Instructional Design Questions:Bob Marzano. The Art and Science of Teaching. (2007)What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success?What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge?What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge?What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge?What will I do to engage students?

  • Design Questions(Continued)What will I do to establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures?What will I do to recognize and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures?What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students?What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students?What will I do to develop effective lessons organized into a cohesive unit?

  • Generating and Testing Hypotheses

    Problem SolvingDecision Making Systems AnalysisExperimental InquiryInvestigation

  • Generating and Testing Hypotheses

    What will I do to help students:

    ? ?????

  • Generating and Testing Hypotheses

    What will I do to help students:Move to a deeper level of knowing?Not just add to, but actually reorganize, their knowledge?Question their knowledge?Make predictions and then confirm or disconfirm those predictions?Understand the importance of and guidelines for providing support for a conclusion?

  • Design Question # ?

  • High-achieving countries have assessments that require students to conduct research and scientific investigations, solve complex real-world problems in mathematics, and defend their ideas orally and in writing.This focuses students and teachers attention on skills that democracy, higher education, and 21st-century jobs will require.Democracy at Risk. The Forum on Education and Democracy, April, 2008. Reported in Forum Seeks A New Vision For U.S. Role, David J. Hoff. Education Week Vol. 27, No. 34: April 23, 2008. Pages1 & 24.

  • By Greg Toppo, USA TODAYThe typical child in the USA stands only a one-in-14 chance of having a consistently rich, supportive elementary school experience, say researchers who looked at what happens daily in thousands of classrooms.

    The findings, published today in the weekly magazine Science, take teachers to task for spending too much time on basic reading and math skills and not enough on problem-solving, reasoning, science and social studies. They also suggest that U.S. education focuses too much on teacher qualifications and not enough on teachers being engaging and supportive.

    Funded by the National Institutes of Health, educational researchers spent thousands of hours in more than 2,500 first-, third- and fifth-grade classrooms, tracking kids through elementary school. It is among the largest studies done of U.S. classrooms, producing a detailed look at the typical kid's day.

    The researchers found a few bright spots kids use time well, for one. But they found just as many signs that classrooms can be dull, bleak places where kids don't get a lot of teacher feedback or face time.Among the findings on what teachers and students did and how they interacted:

    Fifth-graders spent 91.2% of class time in their seats listening to a teacher or working alone, and only 7% working in small groups, which foster social skills and critical thinking. Findings were similar in first and third grades.Greg Toppo. Study gives teachers barely passing grade in classroom. USA TODAY. 3/29/07

  • Published: March 14, 2007Student EngagementHigh school students say they are bored in class because they arent interested in what theyre studying or they dont have enough interaction with their teachers, says a report from Indiana Universitys Center for Evaluation and Education Policy.More than 81,000 high school students from 110 high schools responded to the centers High School Survey of Student Engagement. The survey found that fewer than 2 percent of students say they are never bored in high school; 75 percent of students said they were bored in at least one class because the subject they were studying wasnt interesting; and 31 percent cited lack of interaction with teachers as the primary reason for classroom boredom. "High School Survey of Student Engagement" is posted by Indiana University's Center for Evaluation and Education Policy. By Michelle R. Davis Vol. 26, Issue 27, Page 14

  • Survey: Many U.S. high school students bored in classPOSTED: 12:15 p.m. EST, February 28, 2007 : CHICAGO, Illinois (Reuters) -- A majority of U.S. high school students say they get bored in class every day, and more than one out of five has considered dropping out, according to a survey released Wednesday.The survey of 81,000 students in 26 states found two-thirds of high school students complain of boredom, usually because the subject matter was irrelevant or their teachers didn't seem to care about them."They're not having those interactions, which we know are critical for student engagement with learning," said Ethan Yazzie-Mintz, who led the annual survey by Indiana University researchers.Half of the students surveyed said they had skipped school without a valid excuse at least once, and 22 percent said they had considered dropping out. More than half said they spent an hour or less per week reading and studying.

  • Step 1: Teach Students About Effective Support

  • How/where/when do you/could you do this?

  • Step 2: Problem Solving1. Identify the goal you are trying to accomplish3. Identify different solutions for overcoming the barriers or constraints and hypothesize (predict) which solution is likely to be the most effective.4. Try your solution either in reality or through a simulation.2. Describe the barriers or constraints that are preventing you from achieving your goalthat are creating the problemand predict their impact .5. Explain whether your hypothesis was correct. Determine if you want to test another hypothesis, using a different solution.

  • GoalProblem SolvingGoal

  • GoalProblem Solving

  • GoalProblem SolvingGoal Achieved

  • Problem Solving

    From zone to man-on-man defense

    Leave out all of the conjunctions

    ?

  • Brainstorming.

    Think of a specific unit and learning goal (s) you taught this year. How did you/could you incorporate problem solving into the unit?

  • Step 3: Experimental InquiryObserve something of interest to you, and describe what has occurred.Explain what you have observed. What theories or rules could help you explain? Based on your explanation, make a prediction. Set up an experiment or activity to test your prediction. Explain the results of your experiment in light of your explanation. If necessary, revise your explanation or prediction or conduct another experiment.

  • Experimental InquiryI think that the explanation for this is

  • Experimental InquiryI think that the explanation for this is

  • EXPERIMENTAL INQUIRYPeople who were in high school and college during the 1960s are now in their forties and fifties. Consider this population. Some would say that it is interesting that there seems to be no lasting effect of the 60s on these people. One possible explanation for this is that the effect is there, but it is very subtle. Try to determine what effects the experiences of the 60s are having on the lives of these people now. Test your hypothesis and report on OR

  • EXPERIMENTAL INQUIRY---ContinuedDuring the late 80s, there was a renewed interest in the Vietnam War (movies, books, documentaries). Hypothesize a possible explanation for this. Set up an experiment or other activity to test your hypothesis. Report ona)your hypothesis and how you tested your hypothesisb) your findingsc)your conclusions

  • Using Technology with Classroom Instruction that WorksPitler, Hubbell, Kuhn, and MalenoskiASCD/McREL, 2007

  • Brainstorming.

    Think of a specific unit and learning goal (s) you taught this year. How did you/could you incorporate experimental inquiry into the unit?

  • Step 4: Decision MakingIdentify a decision you wish to make and the alternatives you are considering. Predict which alternative will be selected.Identify the criteria you consider important.Assign each criterion an importance score.Determine the extent to which each alternative possesses each criterion.Multiply the criterion scores by the alternative scores to determine which alternative has the highest total points.Contrast the actual outcome with your predicted outcome.Based on you reaction to the selected alternative, determine if you want to change importance scores or add or drop criteria.

  • Decision Making?CriteriaNutritious Tasty Inexpensive

  • Decision Making?CriteriaNutritious Tasty Inexpensive

  • What is most important communication mechanism invented?

    CriteriaTele-phoneEmailTele- graphWire- less phoneFaxInter- net chat

  • Alternatives

    CriteriaRomeo & JulietOf Mice & MenScarlet Letter2001: A Space OdysseyPeople still read it todayBroad appealspeaks to manyMeaningful message about lifeExtends, breaks, or creates techniques with the form

  • Research shows that when a learner makes a decision based on the basis of an authentic question, this process engages the executive functions of the prefrontal cortex. The executive functions are analogous to a gate that opens up to new information. Neuroscientists have identified the executive functions,and they are crucial to complex learning that lends itself to real-world performance and application.Cain & Cain. The Way We Learn. Educational Leadership, 9/06.

  • DECISION MAKINGIt is 1969. You are on the Board of Time Magazine. For the cover of the December issue, your want to select a Person of the Decade. Your job is to decide which person should be selected and then justify your decision to the publishers by listing the people that were considered, the criteria you used, and how each person was rated under each criterion. Report onThe criteria you used and the importance you placed on each;The individuals you considered and the extent to which they met your criteria; andYour final selection

  • Brainstorming.

    Think of a specific unit and learning goal (s) you taught this year. How did you/could you incorporate decision making into the unit?

  • Step 5: Systems Analysis3. Identify a part of the systems, describe a change in that part, and then hypothesize (predict) what would happen as a result of the change.4. When possible, test your hypothesis by actually changing the part or by using a simulation to change the part.2. Describe how the parts affect each other.1. Explain the purpose of the system, the parts of the system and the function of each part.

  • Systems Analysis

  • CinderellaSystems AnalysisPrinceStepsistersStepmotherFearsLovesAdmiresLovesDoesnt CareLoves

    Adores

    ResentsAdores

  • RespiratorySystems AnalysisDigestiveCirculatoryNervous? ??????????????????????????

  • Systems AnalysisExplain would happen to the balance of trade, the price of oil,if the value of the dollar falls by 20%.Describe how our government would function differently if there was no right of judicial review.Body systemsEcosystemsAngle B in Figure 3 was increased by 10 degreesThe __________movement in music (art) had

  • Brainstorming.

    Think of a specific unit and learning goal (s) you taught this year. How did you/could you incorporate systems analysis into the unit?

  • Step 6: Investigation Historical Investigation: What really happened? Why did X happen?Why did Homo sapiens survive and flourish when Neanderthals died out?How were the pyramids of Egypt built with the limited technology of the day? Projective Investigation: What would happen if? What would happen if the laws in the United States required a passport to travel from one state to another?What would happen if the temperature of Earth rose 1 degree Fahrenheit over a five-year period of time?Definitional Investigation: What are the important features of_____? What are the defining characteristics of_____?What are the defining characteristics of Baroque art and architecture? Isosceles triangles? Pluto was recently downgraded from a planet to a dwarf planet. What are the defining characteristics of each?

  • InvestigationClearly identify the past event to be explained (historical investigation), the future or hypothetical event to be explained (projective investigation), or the concept to be defined (definitional investigation). Make an initial prediction about the question under investigation.Identify what is known or agreed upon and what is confusing or contradictory.Seek out and analyze evidence to determine if your hypothetical (predicted) scenario is plausible. If necessary, continue to refine your hypothetical scenario.

  • PROJECTIVE INVESTIGATIONSelect a major movement from the 60s that involved civil disobedience. Consider what would have happened if there had been no civil disobedience as part of the movement. Identify a different method of seeking change. Describe1)how the movement during the decade might have played out differently, and2)how the present would be different.if there had been no civil disobedience and, instead, the method of change you identify had been used exclusively.

  • Using Technology with Classroom Instruction that WorksPitler, Hubbell, Kuhn, and MalenoskiASCD/McREL, 2007

  • Brainstorming.

    Think of a specific unit and learning goal (s) you taught this year. How did you/could you incorporate investigation into the unit?

  • Step 7: Consider the Extent to Which Cooperative Learning Structures will be Used.

  • CUES, QUESTIONS, AND ADVANCE ORGANIZERS

  • CUES, QUESTIONS, AND ADVANCE ORGANIZERS

    (Activating Prior Knowledge)

  • Instructional Design Questions:Bob Marzano. The Art and Science of Teaching. (2007)What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success?What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge?What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge?What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge?What will I do to engage students?

  • Design Questions(Continued)What will I do to establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures?What will I do to recognize and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures?What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students?What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students?What will I do to develop effective lessons organized into a cohesive unit?

  • Design Question # ?

  • Identifying similarities and differencesSummarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognitionHomework and practiceNonlinguistic representationsCooperative learningSetting objectives and providing feedbackGenerating and testing hypothesesCues, questions, and advance organizers

  • Which of the other CITW strategies fit under D. Q. # 2?

    Other strategies teachers use to facilitate students actively processing (interacting with, thinking about) content?

  • RESEARCH AND THEORY ON CUES AND QUESTIONSCues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.Higher level (inference & analysis) questions produce deeper learning than lower level (recall or recognize) questions.Waiting briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the depth of students answers.Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before learning experience.

  • Strategic Reading, Purposeful Reading, Deep Reading

    Theres no mystery here: such reading starts with good questions and prompts. (Pg. 490)

    Mike Schmoker. Radically Redefining Literacy Instruction: An Immense Opportunity. Phi Delta Kappan 88, no. 7 (April 07): 488-493.

  • CITW With ELL

  • Using Technology with Classroom Instruction that WorksPitler, Hubbell, Kuhn, and MalenoskiASCD/McREL, 2007

  • Advance organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.Higher level advance organizers produce deeper learning than the lower level advance organizers.Advance organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized.Different types of advance organizers produce different results.

  • Using Technology with Classroom Instruction that WorksPitler, Hubbell, Kuhn, and MalenoskiASCD/McREL, 2007

  • Preview the Content Prior to a Critical-Input Experience

    What do you think you know?Overt linkagesPreview questionsBrief teacher summary (expository advance organizer)Stories (narrative advance organizer)SkimmingTeacher-prepared notesGraphic organizers

  • Brainstorming.

    Think of a specific unit and learning goal (s) you taught this year. How did you/could you incorporate cues, questions and advance organizers into the unit?

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