The 3 kingdoms

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<ul><li><p>Mangroves, Seagrass and Coral:The Three Kingdoms</p></li><li><p>Mutual benefits among mangrove, sea grass, and coral reef ecosystemsMangroveSeagrassCoral ReefLagoonSeagrass &amp; algaeCoral formationsPhysical bufferVaried habitat, feeding and spawning areaUses nutrients efficientlyBinds sedimentsNursery, feeding and spawning areaProduces nutrientsPrevents erosionNursery areaProduces nutrientsFunctionsExports</p><p>Fish and invertebrate larvaeProtection from waves and currentsCarbon and nitrogen</p><p>Maturing fishOrganic nutrients</p><p>Maturing fish and crustaceans</p></li><li><p>So why is this important?The Philippines has rich marine biodiversity with 400 species of corals; 900 species of seaweeds; and 1,400 species of fish and crustaceans Fish and seafood provide 50% of the animal protein in the Philippines Over one million Filipinos dependent on fishing for livelihoodTourism brings in more than P225 billion a year</p></li><li><p>MANGROVESMangroves are adapted for life in brackish (mix of salty and fresh) water. They serve as feeding and nursery grounds, and as a refuge for many fish, birds and other sea creatures.</p></li><li><p>Decline of mangrove resources in the PhilippinesMangroves in Trouble!</p></li><li><p>SEAGRASSSeagrass is a marine plant that occurs in shallow, near-shore waters. They are often found between coral reefs and mangrove areas, living in the soft, sandy/muddy bottom.</p></li><li><p>SeagrassSeagrass beds are home to a wide variety of sea creatures that all play an important role in the marine ecosystemSeagrass beds support at least:172 species of fish46 species of invertebrate (like clams and shrimp 51 species of seaweed45 species of algae1 species of sea turtle 1 species of Dugong</p></li><li><p>Loss of seagrass beds 20% of fish catch supply from seagrass beds!Loss of seagrass beds is caused by the following:Land use activities such as reclamation and improper shoreline development (like the construction of structures that disrupt natural water movement)Use of destructive fishing gear that scours and scrapes the seagrass bedsSedimentation and siltation from upland areas (usually caused by deforestation)Pollution from domestic and industrial waste</p></li><li><p>CORAL REEFCorals are actually tiny animals called polyps that live in colonies underwater, either in patches or reefs.</p></li><li><p>Philippine coral reefs host:more than 2,000 species of fish5,000 species of clams, snails and other mollusks488 species of corals981 species of bottom-living algaethousands of other marine organismsIt is estimated that one square kilometer of healthy coral reefs can produce up to 20 tons of fish per year. Destroyed reefs on the other hand only produce less than 4 tons of fish per square kilometer per year.</p></li><li><p>Requirements for healthy coral reef growth</p></li><li><p>Coral reef degradationStatus of Philippine coral reefs at 14 localities(85 reefs samples)</p></li><li><p>Illegal destructive activitiesBlast fishing, use of poisons, superlights, muro-ami or fine mesh nets in fishingTurning mangroves and seagrass habitats into open land or fish pondsMining sand and beach mining/quarryingHarvesting banned species including coral, whale sharks, manta rays, giant clams and endangered marine speciesNot observing shoreline construction regulationsInappropriate tourism activities/developmentPollution of the ocean by dumping untreated sewage, garbage or industrial waste</p></li><li><p>Remember these stats?Rich marine biodiversity with 400 species of corals; 900 species of seaweeds; and 1,400 species of fish and crustaceans Fish and seafood provide 50% of the animal protein in the Philippines Over one million Filipinos dependent on fishing for livelihoodTourism brings in more than P225 billion a year</p></li><li><p>The fish catch is declining</p></li><li><p>And fewer fish are being caught</p></li><li><p>- allows the fisher to use poison, collect almost anything, and to seriously disturb the bottom habitatCommon fishing gear in the Philippines and the potential damage caused by the gearCompressor fishing- destroys the reef and fish habitat along with the fishBlast fishing</p></li><li><p>A few things to rememberThe mangrove, seagrass and coral ecosystems are all interrelatedThe Philippines relies on the ocean for food, livelihood and income from tourismThese three ecosystems are under threat from illegal fishing, pollution and improper coastal development</p></li><li><p>ThankYou!</p><p>*This presentation was put together by Owen Scott, and includes slides from presentations by Johnjoe Cantos and Paul Saludar from the WWF in Puerto Galera, as well as slides from a series of presentations by USAID/FISH.******************</p></li></ul>