Solid Waste Collection

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Vehicle Route Optimization

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<ul><li><p>University of RedlandsInSPIRe @ Redlands</p><p>MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects Geographic Information Systems</p><p>8-2013</p><p>Solid Waste Collection Vehicle RouteOptimization for the City of Redlands, CaliforniaDene L. O'ConnorUniversity of Redlands, dlo7676@gmail.com</p><p>Follow this and additional works at: http://inspire.redlands.edu/gis_gradproj</p><p>Part of the Geographic Information Sciences Commons, Infrastructure Commons, and theUrban Studies Commons</p><p>This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Geographic Information Systems at InSPIRe @ Redlands. It has been accepted forinclusion in MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects by an authorized administrator of InSPIRe @ Redlands. For more information, please contactgabriela_sonntag@redlands.edu.</p><p>Recommended CitationO'Connor, D. L. (2013). Solid Waste Collection Vehicle Route Optimization for the City of Redlands, California (Master's thesis,University of Redlands). Retrieved from http://inspire.redlands.edu/gis_gradproj/201</p><p>http://inspire.redlands.edu?utm_source=inspire.redlands.edu%2Fgis_gradproj%2F201&amp;utm_medium=PDF&amp;utm_campaign=PDFCoverPageshttp://inspire.redlands.edu/gis_gradproj?utm_source=inspire.redlands.edu%2Fgis_gradproj%2F201&amp;utm_medium=PDF&amp;utm_campaign=PDFCoverPageshttp://inspire.redlands.edu/gis?utm_source=inspire.redlands.edu%2Fgis_gradproj%2F201&amp;utm_medium=PDF&amp;utm_campaign=PDFCoverPageshttp://inspire.redlands.edu/gis_gradproj?utm_source=inspire.redlands.edu%2Fgis_gradproj%2F201&amp;utm_medium=PDF&amp;utm_campaign=PDFCoverPageshttp://network.bepress.com/hgg/discipline/358?utm_source=inspire.redlands.edu%2Fgis_gradproj%2F201&amp;utm_medium=PDF&amp;utm_campaign=PDFCoverPageshttp://network.bepress.com/hgg/discipline/1066?utm_source=inspire.redlands.edu%2Fgis_gradproj%2F201&amp;utm_medium=PDF&amp;utm_campaign=PDFCoverPageshttp://network.bepress.com/hgg/discipline/402?utm_source=inspire.redlands.edu%2Fgis_gradproj%2F201&amp;utm_medium=PDF&amp;utm_campaign=PDFCoverPagesmailto:gabriela_sonntag@redlands.edu</p></li><li><p>University of Redlands </p><p>Solid Waste Collection Vehicle Route Optimization for the City of </p><p>Redlands, California </p><p>A Major Individual Project submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements </p><p>for the degree of Master of Science in Geographic Information Systems </p><p>by </p><p>Dene L. OConnor </p><p>Mark Kumler, Ph.D., Committee Chair </p><p>Douglas M. Flewelling, Ph.D. </p><p>Fang Ren, Ph.D., </p><p>August 2013 </p></li><li><p>Solid Waste Collection Vehicle Route Optimization for the City of Redlands, California </p><p>Copyright 2013 </p><p>by </p><p>Dene L. OConnor</p></li><li><p> v </p><p>Acknowledgements </p><p>I express appreciation to the City of Redlands, California for suggesting this project to </p><p>the University of Redlands Master of Science GIS program. The City of Redlands GIS </p><p>Supervisor Tom Resh and his staff were very helpful and responsive to any requests </p><p>throughout the year. Thank you to all the Esri instructors who shared their knowledge, </p><p>expertise and real world GIS experiences with our cohort. Very special thanks to Dr. Jay </p><p>Sandhu from Esri. His extensive knowledge of GIS and Network Analyst expertise </p><p>helped contribute to the success of this project. Dr. Sandhu was always very patient, </p><p>responsive and accessible whenever I had questions or issues specific to the ArcGIS </p><p>Network Analyst software extension. Thanks to the entire faculty at the University of </p><p>Redlands MS GIS program. Special thanks to my advisor Dr. Fang Ren for her support </p><p>and guidance in the early stages of the project and thanks to Dr. Mark Kumler for </p><p>stepping in to help support the projects completion. </p><p>Cohort 22, thanks for all the good times, great memories and long study sessions </p><p>together. Id like to thank my family, friends and girlfriend for all their support and </p><p>encouragement throughout a challenging year. </p></li><li><p> vii </p><p>Abstract </p><p>Solid Waste Collection Vehicle Route Optimization for the City of Redlands, California </p><p>by </p><p>Dene L. OConnor </p><p>The City of Redlands, California was interested in using a geographic information system </p><p>(GIS) to help determine cost savings for the collection and transportation of its solid </p><p>waste. Studies have shown that 60% - 80% of a municipalitys waste budget goes </p><p>towards the collection and transportation phase. The city maintains a GIS department and </p><p>they would like to incorporate data, procedures and a workflow to help facilitate using </p><p>GIS to optimize solid waste collection. GIS technology can be used to help determine </p><p>optimal collection routes by matching real world travel conditions and patterns. This </p><p>study used a GIS to model current and proposed collection patterns using Esris ArcGIS </p><p>Network Analyst software. The software was used to determine optimal routes for small </p><p>collection groups and outlines the workflow and best practices for future analysis </p><p>throughout the city. </p></li><li><p> ix </p><p>Table of Contents </p><p>Chapter 1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 1 1.1 Client ................................................................................................................. 2 </p><p>1.2 Problem Statement ............................................................................................ 2 1.3 Proposed Solution ............................................................................................. 2 1.3.1 Goals and Objectives ........................................................................................ 2 1.3.2 Scope ................................................................................................................. 3 1.3.3 Methods............................................................................................................. 4 </p><p>1.4 Audience ........................................................................................................... 4 1.5 Overview of the Rest of this Report ................................................................. 4 </p><p>Chapter 2 Background and Literature Review ...................................................... 5 2.1 Methods Used to Optimize Solid Waste Collection ......................................... 5 2.1.1 Route Optimization Using ArcGIS Network Analyst Software Extension ...... 5 2.1.1 Vehicle Routing Problem Solver in ArcGIS ..................................................... 7 </p><p>2.2 Applications of GIS in Waste Management ..................................................... 7 2.3 Summary ........................................................................................................... 9 </p><p>Chapter 3 Systems Analysis and Design ................................................................ 11 3.1 Problem Statement .......................................................................................... 11 </p><p>3.2 Requirements Analysis ................................................................................... 11 3.2.1 Functional Requirements ................................................................................ 11 3.2.2 Non-Functional Requirements ........................................................................ 12 </p><p>3.3 System Design ................................................................................................ 14 3.4 Project Plan ..................................................................................................... 15 </p><p>3.4.1 Project Planning .............................................................................................. 15 3.4.2 Research .......................................................................................................... 15 3.4.3 Data Collection and Review ........................................................................... 16 </p><p>3.4.4 Project Implementation and Analysis ............................................................. 16 </p><p>3.4.5 Project Finalization and Delivery ................................................................... 16 </p><p>3.5 Summary ......................................................................................................... 17 </p><p>Chapter 4 Database Design ..................................................................................... 19 4.1 Conceptual Data Model .................................................................................. 19 4.2 Logical Data Model ........................................................................................ 20 4.3 Data Sources ................................................................................................... 22 4.4 Data Collection Methods ................................................................................ 23 </p><p>4.5 Data Scrubbing and Loading .......................................................................... 23 4.6 Summary ......................................................................................................... 24 </p><p>Chapter 5 Implementation ...................................................................................... 25 5.1 Road Slope Analysis Experiment ................................................................... 25 5.2 Road Network Dataset for Route Analysis ..................................................... 27 5.3 Vehicle Routing Problem Solver for Route Optimization .............................. 31 5.3.1 Orders .............................................................................................................. 32 </p><p>5.3.2 Depots ............................................................................................................. 34 5.3.3 Routes ............................................................................................................. 35 </p></li><li><p> x </p><p>5.3.4 Breaks ............................................................................................................. 35 5.3.5 Point Barriers .................................................................................................. 36 5.4 Executing the Vehicle Routing Problem Solver for New Routes ................... 37 </p><p>5.5 Configuring Existing Collection Routes for VRP Solver ............................... 37 5.6 Various Input Versions for VRP Solver ......................................................... 38 5.7 Network Analyst Route Solver ....................................................................... 39 5.8 Summary ......................................................................................................... 39 </p><p>Chapter 6 Results and Analysis.............................................................................. 41 6.1 New Routes from the Network Analyst VRP Solver...................................... 41 </p><p>6.2 Existing Routes from Network Analyst VRP Solver ...................................... 44 6.3 Results from Network Analyst Route Solver.................................................. 46 </p><p>6.4 How the City of Redlands Might Use the Results .......................................... 46 </p><p>Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Work ............................................................. 49 7.1 Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 49 </p><p>7.2 Future Work .................................................................................................... 50 </p><p>Works Cited ................................................................................................................. 77 </p></li><li><p> xi </p><p>Table of Figures </p><p>Figure 1-1: The Study Location ................................................................................... 1 Figure 1-2: Redlands Solid Waste Collection Districts ............................................... 3 </p><p>Figure 4-1: Conceptual Data Design Model .............................................................. 20 Figure 4-2: Logical Design Model ............................................................................. 21 Figure 5-1: Network Analyst Vehicle Routing Problem Solver Workflow .............. 25 Figure 5-2: Slope Analysis Experiment Workflow ................................................... 26 Figure 5-3: Network Dataset Construction Diagram ................................................. 28 </p><p>Figure 5-4: Restricted Roads Attribute Evaluator ..................................................... 30 Figure 5-5: Global Turn Delay Evaluator .................................................................. 30 </p><p>Figure 5-6: Vehicle Routing Problem Solver Detailed Workflow ............................ 32 Figure 5-8: Incorrect Order Location along the Network Dataset ............................. 34 Figure 5-9: VRP Depots and Study Area ................................................................... 35 Figure 5-10: Added Cost Point Barriers .................................................................... 37 </p><p>Figure 5-11: Network Analysis Vehicle Routing Problem Solver Layer Properties . 37 Figure 6-1: Anomalous Sequencing Results .............................................................. 42 Figure 6-2: Existing Route Collection Sequence Comparison .................................. 45 </p></li><li><p> xiii </p><p>List of Tables </p><p>Table 3-1. System Design Functional Requirements ........................................................ 12 Table 3-2. System Design Non-Functional Requirements ............................................... 13 </p><p>Table 6-1. Results Comparison Solving All 829 Collection Points.................................. 43 Table 6-2. Results Comparison Solving 87 Collection Points .......................................... 44 Table 6-3. Results from Network Analyst Route Solver .................................................. 46 </p></li><li><p> xv </p><p>List of Acronyms and Definitions </p><p>3D Three Dimensional </p><p>2D Two Dimensional </p><p>CPU Central Processing Unit </p><p>DTM Digital Terrain Model </p><p>GB Gigabyte </p><p>GPS Global Positioning System </p><p>MIN Minutes </p><p>MSW Municipal Solid Waste </p><p>NA Network Analyst </p><p>PC Personal Computer </p><p>QOL Quality of Life </p><p>RAM Random Access Memory </p><p>SWMP Solid Waste Management Program </p><p>UML Unified Modeling Language </p><p>VRP Vehicle Routing Problem </p></li><li><p>1 </p><p>Chapter 1 Introduction </p><p>The typical municipal garbage truck travels approximately 25,000 miles annually, gets </p><p>less than three miles per gallon, and uses around 8,600 gallons of fuel per year (Cannon, </p><p>2005). With four California cities already filing for bankruptcy in 2012, being fiscally </p><p>responsible and looking for cost saving measures should be a top priority for many cities. </p><p>The City of Redlands wanted to take a proactive approach and looked for solutions. </p><p>Redlands is located in San Bernardino County, 60 miles east of downtown Los </p><p>Angeles in a region called the Inland Empire (Figure 1-1). The city covers 36 square </p><p>miles and has a population of 68,747 (CensusViewer, 2013). Redlands is divided into 23 </p><p>sanitation collection districts. The citys sanitation fleet consists of 28 vehicles, servicing </p><p>19,000 residential and 1,800 commercial customers six days a week. Studies have shown </p><p>up to 75% of a sanitation departments budget goes directly to solid waste collection and </p><p>transport. This is clearly an area for city officials to evaluat...</p></li></ul>

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