SELF- EFFICACY, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND EFFICACY, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC ... efficacy, achievement motivation and academic procrastination with academic ... motivation scale

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  • Proceeding of the Global Summit on Education 2013 (e-ISBN 978-967-11768-0-1) 11-12 March 2013, Kuala Lumpur. Organized by WorldConferences.net 173

    071 - Proceeding of the Global Summit on Education (GSE2013)

    SELF- EFFICACY, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION AS PREDICTORS OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN

    PRE-COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Firouzeh Sepehrian Azar1 Assistant Professor in Psychology,

    Orumieh University, Iran f_sepehrian@yahoo.com, f.sepehrianazar@urmia.ac.ir

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between academic Self-

    efficacy, achievement motivation and academic procrastination with academic

    achievement and investigate predictive validity of them with academic achievement and

    interaction of them with gender to Academic achievement. To achieve this aim, Samples

    of 200 (100 male and 100 female) students were selected by multi-stage cluster

    sampling from high schools of Orumieh. All participants were asked to complete lays

    academic procrastination scale, Hermans achievement motivation scale and self -

    efficacy scale. The data were analysed using, mean, standard deviation, one-way

    ANOVA, t-test and regression analyses. The result of multiple regression analysis

    revealed that academic self-efficacy and gender were the best predicators and Academic

    procrastination inversely is a significant predictor of academic achievement. Also, extra

    result of t- test revealed that there is no significant between the mean score of girls and

    boys in academic procrastination (t= 0.47, p=0.64). There was significant difference

    among boys and girls, in terms of the level of achievement motivation (t=2.06, P=.04),

    academic achievement (t=.54, p=.000) and academic self-efficacy (t=094, P=0/01).

    Keywords: Self- efficacy, achievement motivation, academic procrastination, academic

    achievement, gender

    1. Introduction Academic achievement is one of the top priorities for schools. It is the outcome of education the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important. Individual differences in academic performance have been linked to differences in intelligence and personality (von Stumm, Hell, Chamorro-Premuzic, 2011).

    1 . Firouzeh Sepehrian , Assistant Professor in Psychology, Orumieh University , Iran

    E-mail: f_sepehrian@yahoo.com, f.sepehrianazar@urmia.ac.ir

    http://worldconferences.net/

  • Proceeding of the Global Summit on Education 2013 (e-ISBN 978-967-11768-0-1) 11-12 March 2013, Kuala Lumpur. Organized by WorldConferences.net 174

    Some factors play an important role to promote or decline academic achievement Such as Self- efficacy, achievement motivation, academic procrastination and gender. So, that is very important to recognize that and use them to improve the academic achievement of students. Self-efficacy is the measure of one's own competence to complete tasks and reach goals (Ormrod, 2006). Affects every area of human endeavor, by determining the beliefs a person holds regarding his or her power to affect situations, thus strongly influencing both the power a person actually has to face challenges competently and the choices a person is most likely to make. These effects are particularly apparent, and compelling, with regard to behaviors affecting health (Luszczynska & Schwarzer, 2005). Self-efficacy refers to judgments of a persons capabilities, and is a capability to carry out the actions needed to succeed in a Task. It is one of the strongest factors predicting performance in domains as diverse as sports, business, and education. In academic settings, self-efficacy is a strong predictor of performance (Klassen, Krawchuk, Rajani, 2008). Faruk Sirin (2011) studied role of academic motivation and academic self-efficacy on Academic procrastination in 774 students in Turkey. Their study results show a low relationship between academic procrastination and self-efficacy. Klassen, Krawchuk, Rajani (2008) believes self-efficacy strongly influences our task, choice, level of effort, persistence, and resilience. Another key to understanding academic achievement may be achievement motivation. It is obvious that students who are not motivated to succeed will not work hard. In fact, several researchers have suggested that only motivation directly effects academic achievement; all other factors affect achievement only through their effect on motivation (Tucker, Zayco, & Herman, 2002). Ahmad and Rana (2012) find how motivation influences academic performance of college students. Tella (2007) showed that gender difference were significant when impact of motivation on academic achievement was compared in male and female in Nigeria students. A third, key to understanding academic achievement is academic procrastination. Procrastination considered as one of the most serious problems in daily life and educational settings in modern societies. Studies throughout history show that it has been a damaging disaster for individuals at least from three thousand years ago (Steel, 2007). Procrastination may be defined as the postponement of task completion usually resulting in a state of unhappiness or subjective discomfort. Specifically, academic procrastination is a pervasive and potentially maladaptive behavior for many university and college students often resulting in feelings of psychological distress (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984 cited by Binder, 2000).The cognitive component of procrastination involves the discrepancy between intentions and actual behavior. Howell & Watson (2007) examined relations between procrastination, achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies on 170 undergraduate students. They showed that procrastination related negatively to a mastery-approach goal orientation. Sepehrian azar, Jabari Lotf (2011) showed that Problem-oriented coping style, inversely, is a significant predictor of academic procrastination. And, there was no significant difference among boys and girls, as far as the level of academic

  • Proceeding of the Global Summit on Education 2013 (e-ISBN 978-967-11768-0-1) 11-12 March 2013, Kuala Lumpur. Organized by WorldConferences.net 175

    procrastination concerns. In another study, Sepehrian azar & Hosaeinzadeh( 2012) proposed a structural modeling analysis of the relationship between coping styles with academic procrastination in students. Their proposed structural model on 157 undergraduate students showed that, task -oriented coping style had a negatively effect on academic procrastination and anxiety was significant predict of Academic Procrastination. Another result of them study revealed, perfectionism couldn't significantly predict of Academic Procrastination. There weren't significant differences among students groups of entrance and fields of study in Academic Procrastination. Regarding the above mentioned studies, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between academic Self-efficacy, achievement motivation and academic procrastination with academic achievement and investigate predictive validity of them with academic achievement and interaction of them with gender to academic achievement. In order to achieve these goals, the following hypothesis were devised and tested.

    - Self- efficacy, achievement motivation, academic procrastination and gender are meaningful predicators of students' academic achievement in university.

    - There is a meaningful difference between girls and boys who study at university regarding academic achievement.

    2. METHOD & PROCEDURES To achieve research aim, Samples of 200 (100 male and 100 female) students who study at the Orumieh University. The age range varied from 17 to 25. They were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling from high schools of Orumieh. All participants were asked to complete lays academic procrastination scale, Hermans achievement motivation scale and self - efficacy scale. The data were analyzed using, mean, standard deviation, One-way ANOVA, t-test and regression analyses. 3. RESULTS The result of multiple regression analysis revealed that academic self-efficacy and gender were the best predicators and Academic procrastination inversely is a significant predictor of academic achievement (Table1, 2).

  • Proceeding of the Global Summit on Education 2013 (e-ISBN 978-967-11768-0-1) 11-12 March 2013, Kuala Lumpur. Organized by WorldConferences.net 176

    Table1: Regression analysis for predicator variables of academic achievement among university student

    SE R R2 P F MS Df SS

    4.27 0.035 .186 .031 3.52 64.41 18.27

    2 197

    128.82 3599.82

    Regration resdual

    Table2: Regression analysis for predicator variables of academic achievement among university student

    P T Beta SE B

    Predicator variable

    Criterion variable

    Method

    .001 .04

    1.809 1.36

    .132

    .099 .044 .048

    .079

    .065 academic self-

    efficacy achievement

    motivation Academic

    procrastination

    academic achievement

    Simultaneous

    Also, Extra result of t- test revealed that there is no significant between the mean score of girls and boys in academic procrastination (t= 0.47, p=0.64). There was significant difference among boys and girls, in terms of the level of achievement motivation (t=2.06, P=.04), academic achievement (t=.54, p=.000) and academic self-efficacy (t=094, P=0/01). 4. DISCUSSION The aim of the present research was to examine the relationship between Self- efficacy, achievement motivation academic procrastination & academic achievement. Findings resulted from multi-variable regression show any meaningful relationship between academic self- efficacy and academic achievement (P>0.001). Findings suggest that academic self- efficacy is affective factor to predictor of academic achievement. Self-efficacy is one component of Social Cognitive Theory, a learning theory which identifies determinants governing thought, motivation, and human action. Self-efficacy beliefs are mediated through a variety of processes (cognitive, motivational, affective, and selective) which translate them into specific actions or behaviors (Bandura, 1997, cited by Habel, 2009). There is little doubt that academic self-efficacy is central to success in a range of performance areas. Higher academic self-efficacy is strongly associated with improved performance.

  • Proceeding of the Global Summit on Education 2013 (e-ISBN 978-967-11768-0-1) 11-12 March 2013, Kuala Lumpur. Organized by WorldConferences.net 177

    There is not any meaningful relationship between the academic achievement grade averages of boy and girl students (P>0.001). The result of t- test related to the second hypothesis of the research showed that there was significant difference among boys and girls, in terms of the level of achievement motivation. Also, Extra result of t- test revealed that there is no significant between the mean score of girls and boys in academic procrastination. There was significant difference among boys and girls, in terms of the level of achievement motivation and academic self-efficacy (t=094, P=0/01). Most studies show that, on average, girls do better in school than boys. Girls get higher grades and complete high school at a higher rate compared to boys (Jacobs, 2002). 5. Conclusions The need for developing students self-efficacy in school is essential for improving academic outcomes. This study is recommended to improve efficacy and motivation in male students will pay more attention. On the limitations of this research it can be said that this research was only conducted in Orumieh and with the high school students. So it is not possible to generalize the findings to students of other schools of the country. In spite of the mentioned limitations and according to the findings, the present research is recommended that future research study the relationship between academic procrastination with other variables. 6. REFERENCES

    Ahmad I., Rana S. (2012). Affectivity, Achievement Motivation, and Academic

    Performance in College Students. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research. Vol. 27(1),

    107-120.

    Binder K. (2000).The effects of an academic procrastination treatment on student procrastination and Subjective Well-Being. Thesis the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts. Faruk Sirin, E. ( 2011). Academic procrastination among undergraduates attending

    school of physical education and sports: Role of general procrastination, academic

    motivation. Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 6(5), pp. 447-455.

    Habel C. (2009). Academic self-efficacy in ALL: Capacity-building through self-belief.

    Journal of Academic Language & Learning. Vol. 3(2), A94-A104.

    Howell A J., Watson D C. (2007). Procrastination: Associations with achievement goal

    orientation and learning strategies. Personality and Individual Differences 43: 167178

  • Proceeding of the Global Summit on Education 2013 (e-ISBN 978-967-11768-0-1) 11-12 March 2013, Kuala Lumpur. Organized by WorldConferences.net 178

    Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Social cognitive theory. In M. Conner & P.

    Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behavior (2nd ed. rev., pp. 127169). Buckingham,

    England: Open University Press.

    Ormrod, J. E. (2006). Educational psychology: Developing learners (5th ed.). Upper

    Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.

    Sepehrian F., Lotf J J. (2011).The Effects of Coping Styles and Gender on Academic

    Procrastination among University Students. Journal of Basic Apply Science Research.

    1(12) 2987-2993.

    Sepehrian F., Hosaeinzadeh,M. (2012). Structural modeling analysis of the relationship

    between coping styles with academic procrastination in students. Journal of New

    Thoughts on Education. 7(4): 77-93.

    Tucker, C. M., Zayco, R. A., & Herman, K. C. (2002). Teacher and child variables as

    predictors

    of academic engagement among low-income African American children. Psychology in

    the Schools, 39(4), 477-488.

    von Stumm, S.; Hell, B.; Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2011). "The Hungry Mind: Intellectual

    Curiosity Is the Third Pillar of Academic Performance". Perspective on Psychological

    Science. 6 (6): 574588.

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