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TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 1
TREE IMPROVEMENTTREE IMPROVEMENTS I LS I LS I LS I LS I LV I C U LV I C U LV I C U LV I C U LV I C U LT U R ET U R ET U R ET U R ET U R E
Province ofProvince ofProvince ofProvince ofProvince ofBritish ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaBritish Columbia
Seed and Seedling Extension TopicsRobb Bennet - Editor
It is the policy of this newsletter to regularly shift editorshipresponsibilities between the Seed Services and NurseryServices Sections of Silviculture Branch. Eric van Steeniswill edit the next volume of Seed and Seedlings ExtensionTopics. All future correspondence should be addressed tohim at:
Nursery Extension Services14275-96th AvenueSurrey, BC V3V 7Z2Phone: (604) 582-6915Fax: (604) 775-1288E-mail: [email protected] have greatly enjoyed my two year term as editor and
look forward to serving again. For me it was an excellent
introduction to the reforestation business in BC and thepeople involved in it. Over the past two years newsubscriptions have steadily come in and the newsletter isnow mailed out to over 400 addresses in North America,Asia, and Europe.
In this issue we explore further the issue of seed orchardseed versus natural stand seed with a paper comparingseedlots germinated and grown under various conditions.Additionally there are articles on western white pinestratification trials, quick cone maturity determination, peatplugs, the BC Tree Seed Dealers Association, the 1993 seedorchard cone harvest (a bumper year), and insects as food aswell as a variety of shorter notes on diverse topics. Pleaseread on ...
Saanich Test Nursery Closing DownIn August 1993, BC Ministry of Forests Silviculture Branchdecided to close down Saanich Test Nursery on VancouverIsland. The test nursery program will be consolidated withthe Green Timbers Reforestation Centre in Surrey.
Saanich Test Nursery was started in the early 1980s byAllan MacDonald and Glen Matthews of SilvicultureBranch. Technical assistance on the site has been providedby Susan Zedel, Bevin Wells, and jean Hale. The move willnot result in the layoff of any regular staff as positions arebeing found in Silviculture Branch (Victoria) and at GreenTimbers.
Work at the nursery has been instrumental in thedevelopment of stryoblocks, media, fertilizer regimes, stocktypes, and many,other aspeqs of forest seedling culture in
BC. Trials have also included work on integrated pestmanagement for nurseries. Over the years, the test nurseryhas cooperated with a number of agencies in thedevelopment of these nursery production methods.Cooperators have included the Canadian Forest Service,Nursery Extension Services, Seed Orchard PestManagement (Silviculture Branch), Research Branch, BCResearch Corporation, University of Victoria, Simon FraserUniversity, Beaver Plastics, and ICI Chipman, to name afew. The nursery industry in BC has benefited greatly fromthe work at Saanich Test Nursery and the facility will bemissed.
Don SummersNursery Extension Services, Surrey
Tree Seed is the principal means of perpetuation of mosttree species from one generation to the next. Despite thefact that seed is such an essential componen of ahnost allreforestation programs in BC, it often does not receive asmuch consideration as other aspects of silviculture. The BCTree Seed Dealers Association was formed in 1990 to
The British Columbia Tree Seed Dealers Associationimprove and promote this aspect of the Forest Industry. Thepurposes of the Association are: to provide a forum for discussion of areas of concern
with both Forestry Canada and the BC Ministry of For-
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 2
TREE IMPROVEMENTTREE IMPROVEMENTS I LS I LS I LS I LS I LV I C U LV I C U LV I C U LV I C U LV I C U LT U R ET U R ET U R ET U R ET U R E
Province ofProvince ofProvince ofProvince ofProvince ofBritish ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaBritish Columbia
ests regarding cone and seed collection, seedcertification, cone and seed processing and handling,seed registration and testing, and seed distribution;
to act as a vehicle for conununication between seeddealers and users of tree seed;
to encourage cooperation between seed dealers in areasof mutual concern, particularly seed collection andtechnology transfer;
to encourage and assist both Forestry Canada and the BCMinistry of Forests with respect to the direction of foresttree seed research; and
to provide information to assist tree seed users and tohelp educate the general public as to the roie of-tree seedin the reforestation process.
HISTORYTree seeds have been commercially collected in British
Columbia since the 1920s. Tree seed was collected for thefirst tree seedling nursery in BC which started in Victoria in1927. This nursery moved to Green Tirnbers nearVancouver in 1930. About the same time, significantquantities of cones were collected, and after processing, theseed was exported to Europe, particularly Great Britain andGermany. Europeans were captivated by the unsurpassedqualities of British Columbias magnificent tree species.More recently the Scandinavian countries recognized thedesirability of Lodgepole pine and speculated that its rapidinitial growth would help to alleviate the gap in their woodsupply. Since 1970 Forestry Canada has been responsiblefor certifying the authenticity of origin and quality of seedscollected for export.
Today, in BC tree seedling nurseries, technologicaladvances in container production and precision sowinghave increased the demand for high quality tree seed. Treeseed must be high in germination, clean, and free of damageor disease. BC Tree Seed Dealers strive to provide the bestquality seed and services possible. Some of the servicesthey provide include:
1. custom seed collection;2. sale of seeds from wild stands, seed production areas,
and seed orchards;3. custom seed extraction processing;4. seed testing,5. cone crop and seed evaluations;6. seed quality upgrading and treatment; and7. seed storage.
The following are members of the BC Tree Seed DealersAssociation.Pacific Forest Products Ltd. Tim Hale806 East Saanich Road. Phone: 652-1234RR #1, Saanichton, BC VOS IMO Fax: 652-2800
Reid Collins Nurseries Ltd. Paulus Vrijmoed2396-272nd Ave. Phone: 856-6408PO Box 430 Fax: 856-4218Aldergrove, BCVOX IAO
Silva Enterprises Ltd. Peter HelleniusBox 2888, Stn. B Phone: 963-8617Prince George, BC Fax: 962-3490V2N 4T7
Western Tree Seed Ltd. Frank BamardPO Box 144 Phone: 675-2463Blind Bay, BC Fax: 675-2202VOE 1HO
Yellow Point Propagation Ltd. Don Pigott13735 Quennell Rd. Phone/Fax: 245-4635RR #3, Ladysmith,BC VOR 2EO
The following are Associate Members.Forestry Canada Frank PortlockPacific Forestry Centre Phone: 363-0699506 West Burnside Road Fax: 363-0775Victoria, BC V8Z lM5
Ministry of ForestsSurrey Tree Seed Centre Heather Rooke18793- 32nd Avenue Phone: 574-0461Surrey, BC V4P IM5 Fax: 574-0262
Cone and Seed Evaluation Services.The following lists Silviculture Branch groups, members ofthe Tree Seed Dealers Association, and others who offercone and seed evaluation services in BC.Pest Activity. Identification of cone and seed insects and disease, life
cycle information, and significance of pests are reported. All persons involved in natural stand and orchard cone
and seed collection are invited to make use of these nocharge services.
Ministry of Forests Robb BennettSeed Pest Management Services Bev McEntire,Saanich Seed Orchard Michelle Hall7380 Puckle Road Phone: 652-7613Saanichton, BC VOS IMO Fax: 652-4204
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 3
TREE IMPROVEMENTTREE IMPROVEMENTS I LS I LS I LS I LS I LV I C U LV I C U LV I C U LV I C U LV I C U LT U R ET U R ET U R ET U R ET U R E
Province ofProvince ofProvince ofProvince ofProvince ofBritish ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaBritish Columbia
Cone and Seed Development and YieldHalf cone and seed sections are performed and an
estimate of # of filled seeds, seed development andcondition is reported. If pest activity cannot be positivelyidentified or if sample is of particular interest, a sub-samplewill be forwarded to the Seed Pest Management Servicesgroup.
Pacific Forest Products Kathy Cook(see above) Phone: 652-4023
Western Tree Seed Ltd. Frank Barnard(see above) (see above)
Yellow Point Propagation Ltd. Don Pigott(see above) (see above)
Silva Enterprises Ltd. Peter Hellenius(see above) (see above)
Reid, Collins Nurseries Limited Paulus Vrijmoed(see above) (see above)
Ministry of Forests Heather Rooke,Tree Seed Centre Dawn Stubley,(see above) Debbie Anderson
Ecosystems Management Ltd. Ingrid DavisP.O. Box 1596 Phone: 378-2116Merritt, BC VOK 2BO Fax: 387-2116
Scientificals Consulting Mishtu Banerjee9211 Arvida Drive Phone/Fax:Richmond, BC V7A 4K5 278-4904
Submitting Cone Samples Please contact to confirm whether or not a service charge
will apply. Generally (but not always) an as- sessmentfee is waived if cones are to be processed by either theTree Seed Centre or Licenced Tree Seed Dealerperforming the cone and seed evaluation.
Cone samples should be collected from the portion of thetree from which cones would be collected operationally,e.g. cone rake - upper crown, felling - from all conebearing portions.
At least 20 cones from a minimum of three trees(preferably six) should be collected from each site.
Contact agency I or 2 days in advance of sample arrival. Due to the amount of time required to analyze samples,
please keep sample numbers to a minimum. Freshly picked cone samples should be placed loosely, in
paper bags (one sample per bag), in a cardboard box andforwarded overnight by courier. Sample should includeinformation on requesting agency, sample ##, collectiondate and location, contact name, and phone and faxnumbers. Other information such as collection method isuseful.
If you like to eat such marine arthropodan delights asshrimp, lobster, and crab there is no reason you shouldquail at the thought of ingesting terrestrial arthropods. Infact, you are probably already doing this inadvertently on adaily basis at meal times but, generally, today few bipedalhominids actively seek out and eat insects or other land-dwehing creepy crawhes.
The reasons behind this Chauvinistic prejudice areprobably complex and remain unclear, but, recently,entomologists have been the central driving force behind arising tide of interest in insects as food.
I participated in my first Insects as Food workshopin the mid seventies more in the interest of disturbingthe sensibilities of the average Joe than in nutritionalextension education. I was quickly surprised to realize that,
not only are insects a major untapped source of protein,vitamins and micronutrients, but many of them taste verygood, too! Today, insectophagy in the western world isslowly losing its unwarranted stigma. No longer restrictedto a barely supressed grimace and convulsive swallow froman upturned bottle at the end of an evening of ritual mescalabuse, dining on raw and cooked insects is now a credible(indeed fashionable) culinary pastime.
In recent years, at their annual meetings, most of themajor North American entomological societies havefeatured insect dining options ranging from hors douevresto buffet items and desserts. At this years joint AnnualMeeting of the Entomological Societies of Canada andOntario, Yves Pr6vost put together a
Ancient Insect Control Methodology is Reborn
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 4
selection of delightful side dishes to tickle the palettes ofattendees at the evening mixer. Following are some of therecipes featured at the meeting. The culinary connoisseurwill note that the recipes are rather basic. Use yourimagination and perhaps you will view your next infestationof budworms or june beetle larvae more as a potentiallybounteous harvest than a headache.
Got an infestation of waxworm larvae in your bee hives?Waxworin Popcorn
Fry waxworm larvae in hot vegetable oil until they puffup (about 30 seconds). Drain on a napkin and serve ontoothpicks with dipping sauces.
What farmer or grain storage facility hasnt had aproblem with mealworms?Mealworm Balls
1 egg, beaten2 cloves garlic, minced2 tablespoons onion, minced1 teaspoon salt1/8 teaspoon red pepper6 tablespoons cornstarchI cup mealworrns, finely groundvegetable oilflourCombine eggs, garlic, onion, salt, pepper, and cornstarch.
Mix in mealworms until smooth then, with floured fingers,shape batter intoone inch balls. Sautde in hot oil (375F)until golden. Drain on a napkin and serve on toothpickswith dipping sauces.
Grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets eating up yourprofits? Recoup your losses and market those critters.Cricket Newburg
1/4 cup butter2 1/2 tablespoons flour3/4 teaspoon saltcayenne pepper (just a pinch)nutrneg (as above)
2 cups half and half cream2-3 tablespoons sherryhot pepper sauce to taste2 egg yolks2 cups cooked cricketsMelt butter and blend in flour and seasonings. Gradually
stir in cream and sherry until smooth and thick. Mix a littlehot sauce with the yolks then stir this into the sauce. Addcooked crickets. Serve warm on crackers.
Now that genetic engineers have developed silk-producing bacteria you may be wondering what to do withyour outmoded silk factory. Why not produce silkwormpupae for the supermarket?Spicy Silkworm Bisque
3 tablespoons butterI onion, finely choppedI red pepper, seeded, finely chopped2 sticks celeryI clove garlic, mincedpinch of dry mustardpinch of cayenne2 teaspoons paprika3 tablespoons flour4 cups fish stocksprig of thymeI bay leafI cup fresh silkworm pupaesalt, pepper, chivesGently cook onion, pepper, celery, and garlic in
melted butter until soft. Stir in mustard, cayenne, paprika,and flour. Stir over low heat about three minutes. Stir in fishstock until well blended. Add thyme and bay leaf and bringto boil. Simmer about 5 minutes or until thick, stirringoccasionally. Add pupae and cook 5 minutes. Season totaste with salt and pepper. Top with snipped chives.
Robb BennettSeed Pest Management Services, Victoria
New Publications AvailableProceedings of the Northeastern Area NurserymensConference, July 27-29, 1992. Contains 11 articles ontopics of nursery culture. Cost is $8.00 (US) payable to:
Northeastern State, Federal, and Provincial NurseryAssociation
Michigan Dept. of Natural ResourcesWyman State Forest NurseryRoute 2, Box 2004Manistique, MI 49854
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 5
Tree Planting in the United States - 1992. Moulton, R J.,R. D. Mangold, and J. D. Snellgrove. 1993,15 p. Pamphletavailable free of charge from:
USDA Forest ServiceCooperative ForestryPO Box 96090Washington, DC 20090-6090
Shelterbelt Varieties for Alberta. Casement, B., R. Escott,L. Maryniak, and G. Hooke. 1993, 68 p. Available free ofcharge from:
Alberta AgricultureAlberta Tree Nursery and Horticulture CentreRR #6Edmonton, AL T5B 4K3Phone: (403) 422-1789Fax: (403) 472-6096
A Sourcebook for Management of the Gypsy Moth.Nealis, V. G. and S. Erb. 1993. 48 p. ISBN 0-662-20907-9.Available free of charge from:
Conununications ServicesCanadian Forest Service, Ontario RegionGreat Lakes Forestry CentrePO Box 490Sault Ste Marie, ON P6A 5M7
Our Living Legacy - Proceedings of a Symposium onBiological Diversity. Fenger, M. A., E. H. Miller, J. F.Johnson, and E. J. R. Williams (editors). 1993. 392 p. ISBN0-7718-9355-8. Containing good to sublime presentationsby some world-class biologists (Suzuki, Wade Davis, E. C.Pielou, Geoff Scudder) interspersed with other selectionsranging in quality from mundane (but still interesting) toexcellent. A fine book valuable as a primer for the initiateand a resource for the professional. Available from:
The Royal British Columbia Museum675 Belleville St.Victoria, BC V8V lX4
Canadian Silviculture Magazine. The pren-tier issue ofCanadian Silviculture Magazine hit the streets in thesununer of 1993. This is a joint publication of the WesternSilviculture Contractors Association, the CanadianSilviculture Association, and other provincial associations.Featured in the first issue are articles on BCs and Ontariossilviculture strategies and their implications.This publication incorporates the old WSCA Newsletter andis available only by subscription from:
Canadian Silviculture Magazine#310-1070 W. BroadwayVancouver BC V6H IE7Tel: 604-736-8660Fax: 604-738-4080
Container Tree Nursery Manual UpdateEd. note: the following is taken from Forest Nursery Notes,July 1993. To subscribe to this newsletter or or moreinformation contact: Tom Landis, Western NurserySpecialist, USDA Forest Service, PO Box 3623, Portland,OR 97208-3623 (Ph: 503-326-2729, Fax: 503-326-5569).
As many of you know, Im working on a publicationcalled the Container Tree Nursery Manual (CTNM). Allseven volumes of the Manual are being serially publishedas. Agricultural Handbook 674, but are being issued out ofnumerical sequence. Four volumes of the Manual have beenprinted so far: Volumes Two, Three, Four, and Five.Currently, we are working on Volume One: ContainerNursery Planning, Development, and Management andhope to have it published by late this year. The publicationschedule and availability of the published volumes isoutlined in the following table (dates enclosed inparentheses are estimates):
Volume Title Date Publication StockNumber and Price
One Container Nursery Planning, (12/93) Development, and Mgmnt.
Two Containers and Growing Media 1990 001-001-00644-2(Free Copies Still Available) $9.50 (US)
Three Atmospheric Environment 1992 001-001-00648-3(Free Copies Still Available) $16.00 (US)
Four Seedling Nutdtion and Irdgation 1989 001-001-00635-1(Out of free copies) $15.00 each
Five Biological Influences: Nursery 1990 001-001-00633-5Pests and Mycorrhizae $30.00 (US)(Out of free copies) $37.50 (Foreign)
Six Seedling Propagation (1994) -
Seven Seedling Processing, Storage,and Outplanting (1995) -
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 6
ObituaryEd. note: thefollowing comesfrom Branch Lines Vol.4(2), the newsletter of the UBC Faculty of Forestry.
Dr. Vladin-dr Krajina passed away on May 31, 1993 atthe age of 88. Kraiina was the founder of BritishColumbias
As noted above, I still have a limited supply of freecopies of Volumes Two and Three. You can purchase copiesof any of the published CTNM volumes from the USGovernment Printing Office in Portland (address below).Several are in limited supply. We are working to get themreprinted but may run out of copies before the new onesbecome available. When ordering, use the stock numbersand prices listed in the Table. Prices include shipping andhandling (foreign orders have a 25% surcharge). You canorder by mail, phone, or FAX and all orders must be
prepaid by cash, check payable to Superintendent ofDocuments, or charged to Visa or Mastercard.
U.S. Government Printing Office1305 SW First AvenuePortland, OR 97201-5801USAPhone: 503-221-6217Fax: 503-225-0563
TomLandisUSDA Forest Service, Portland
The Advanced Forest Pest Management TrainingProgram (AFPM) is designed to provide forest managersand other interested parties with expert training in forestpest management. AFPM offers four courses:
1. Advanced Forest Herbicides,2. Forest Insect Management,3. Integrated Forest Pest Management, and4. Integrated Pest Management for Forest Nutseries.The courses are presented in two week blocks and
may be taken in any order. Lectures, group discussions,group projects, case studies, computer modelling sessions,field demonstrations, and field trips are integrated to - fordifferent learning styles. Approximately - instructors withinternational technical reputations and superior teachingskills are responsible for the effective delivery of coursematerial. The AFPM Co-ordinator is responsible for overallcourse continuity.
During the Practicum, course participants are dividedinto small groups. These groups are charged withdeveloping cost-effective and envirorunentally and sociallyacceptable pest management strategies and prescriptions foran assigned land base. The result of each groups work ispresented to an audience of instructors, other courseparticipants, and interested members of the public.
For information on eligibility, tuition, financial support,course content, et cetera, contact:
Eileen M. HarveyAFPM Co-ordinatorForest Pest Management Institute1219 Queen Street EastSault Ste Marie, OntarioCanada P6A 5M7Tel: (705) 949-9461Fax: (705) 759-5700
The Advanced Forest Pest Management Training Program
Biogeoclimatic Classification System and EcologicalReserve Program Few people have left such a lastingpositive legacy for forestry in British Columbia.
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 7
BC Seed Orchard Cone Harvest 1993Interior (Ministry) Seed Orchards (Maarten Albricht)
The interior seed orchards have produced the largestcone crop to date this year (Table 1). At the time of writingharvesting of lodgepole pine cones is still in progress.Figures for that species in the following table are estimates.The data presented cover only the 1993 crop year. Previousinventories for the producing orchards are not included. Aportion of the 5eed from the breed arboreta is class A seed(controlled pollination). The remainder is class B seed(wind pollinated). Where two or more seedlots are for thesame planning zone(s) the requirements were prorated onthe basis of the 1993 crop.
Coastal Seed Orchards (David Reid)Coastal seed orchards generally had a good year for cone
harvests (Table 2) especially with Douglas-fir and hemlock.This year saw the first sizeable collectablecrop at the Cobble Hill Englemann spruce orchard anda small first crop from the Surrey (Mid-Coast)Douglas-fir orchard. Seedling estimates were calculatedusing Silviculture Branchs latest estimates of yield perhectolitre of cones (updated September 1993).
Maarten AlbrichtInterior Seed Orchards, Vernon
David ReidCoastal Seed Orchards, Saanichton
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 8
Cone collection timing in a seed orchard situation is a atopic which has not been widely covered in currentliterature. At Kalamalka Seed Orchards we believe we havedeveloped an efficient, accurate field method ofdetermining collection readiness of interior spruce cones.
In a seed orchard, collection timing presents some issuesthat may be irrelevant to most wild stand collections. Conescan mature very quickly and unpredictably in the hotweather of the Okanagan.
Also, genetic variation in each orchard leads to widevariation in cone maturity timing in comparison to a singlewild stand collection (the timing of seed fall within oneorchard from the earliest to the latest ripening clones can beas great as five weeks). Clearly it would be -inappropriateto collect from theentire orchard as soon as the earliestclones are ready.
Assessing cone ripeness is essential to ensure good seed
A Quick Method for Determining Interior Spruce Cone Maturityquality as wellas for logistics reasons. Given a limitedsupply of ladders and orchard lifts it is important always tobe picking trees that are closest to the seed shed. As weneared harvest time in 1993, thousands of trees had to bechecked and prioritized for collection and then monitoredduring the collection period. The definitive seed cutting testfor seed maturity (where embryo length and endospermcondition are assessed) is too time consuming on a largescale. We required a quick test for maturity that is aseffective as the seed cutting test.
The outward appearance of cones is not a reliablepredictor of seed maturity. Before opening, some conesturn brown and soft as the seeds mature while others canbe brown and soft and still contain immature seed. Stillothers may be green and hard one day and fully open andshedding mature seed the next. We found
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 9
Ed. note: thefollowing is excerptedfrom Canadian FarestService Impact Note #5. Forfiirther iiifornwtion contact theNew Brunswick A4aritime Regional Office of CFS (PO Box4000, Fredericton, NB E38 5P7, Tel: 506-452-3500, Fax:506-452-3525.
Studies conducted at Natural Resources Canada(Maritimes Region) show that seedlings reared in mesh-covered peat plugs are superior to those reared in walledcontainers. Additional plantation establishment costs (whichmay run as high as $900/ha) can be substantially reduced oravoided as replanting will be less extensive. Establishedfree-to-grow seedlings will also experience increasedgrowth rates.
Peter Salonius of Natural Resources Canada, in theMaritiznes, observed that seedlings grown in mesh-coveredpeat plugs develop improved root form in comparison toseedlings from walled containers, whether they were rearedin the nursery for a few weeks or several months. Root
that examining the cone axis gives us the best estimate ofseed maturity. Cones are quickly cut in half lengthwise witha pair of pruning shears in the field. A brown, dried-outcone axis indicates a collectable cone (i.e., the tree is nolonger feeding the cone); moisture in the axis (easilydetected by running the pruner blade along the axis) showsthat materials are still being supplied to the cone by the treeand the seeds are probably immature and in little danger of
being shed. A desiccated axis indicates that and thereforethe cone can be picked.
The axis test is readily learned and understood byotherwise inexperienced staff. It enabled us to identify treesfor cone collection confidently, quickly, and easily.
Gary Giampa, Chris WalshKalamalka Seed Orchards, Vemon
Peat Plugs versus Styroblock Plugsgrowth occurs along the entire length of the mesh plug,resulting in better root regeneration capacity, highersurvival rates, and up to double the early growth rate.
Salonius reared jack pine and black spruce seedlings inwalled and mesh systems for various lengths of time beforeoutplanting. Three years after outplanting, he compared theseedlings root system. Of the walled container grownseedlings only fragile plugs (12 weeks from seeding)produced good support roots, but these plugs could not bereadily extracted from the cavities for typical piece workplanting operations. The firm plugs, amenable to normalhandling (more than 16 weeks from seeding), rooted mainlyfrom the bottom of the planted plug, greatly increasing therisk of toppling.
Planting stock specifications often demand rejection ofplugs that do not hold together when extracted. Seedlingsfrom mesh covered plugs have very low cull rates becausethe root systems are kept intact by the mesh. Walledcontainers have cull rates at shipping of up to 40%.
Ed. note: the following is reprinted from the introduction toCanadian Forest Service Technical Note #2845 by 1.Sweeney, K. Tosh, and W. MacKinnon. The complete reportis availablefrom the Maritime Regional Offices of CFS (POBox 4000, Fredericton, NB E38 5P7, PO Box 667, Truro NSB2N 5E5; PO Box 190, Charlottetown, PEI CIA 7K2).
Dirnethoate (Cygon 480-E) controlled damage bycone maggots and significantly increased filled seed yieldsin tamarack. The insecticide was applied to the foliage tothe point of runoff, at a rate of 0.25% active ingredient (5.2
mL of formulation per liter of water), using either ahydraulic sprayer or mist blower. The applications weremade 3 weeks after pollination, after most egg-lay by thelarch cone maggot, Strobilomyia laricis, was complete. Asecond application, made 10 days after the first, providedno better control than the single application. There was noevidence of phytotoxic effects on foliage, cones or seeds.An application has been made for minor use registration ofDimethoate 480 for control of cone maggots in tamarack.
Dimethoate Controls Cone Maggots in Tamarack Seed Orchards
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 10
Ed. note: thefollowing iiiforniation was extractedfrom BCPest Monitor, Vol 2(2), Nov. 1993.
DowElanco has the marketing rights in Canada toSpectnum the commercial product containing the fattyacid herbicide originally developed by Safers (TopGunis the domestic product). Results are reported to be visiblethe same day; treated areas can be replanted in 3 days.Because it has no systemic or translocation effect it can beused up to the base of trees. Technical and sales informationavailable from:
K. SanftlebenDowElanco Canada Inc.9639-45 Ave.Edmonton, AB T6E.5Z8Phone: (403) 436-6131Fax: (403) 437-3665
Ed. note: information on thefollowing two products wasextractedfrom Forest Nursery Notes, July 1993.
A new deer repellant has been developed by Plant Pro-Tect and is available for field trials. The garlic-basedrepellent is placed in biodegradable plastic stake dispensers
Sample Collection Method and Sequential Sampling Plans for Mites (Oligonychus ununguis)and Aphids (Cinara laricifex) on TamarackEd. note: thefollowing is reprintedfrom the introduction toCanadian Forest Service Technical Note #278 by R.Webster. The complete report is availablefroni MaritimeRegional Offices of CFS (PO Box 4000, Fredericton, NBE38 5P7; PO Box 667, Truro NS B2N 5E5; PO Box 190,Charlottetown, PEI CIA 7K2).
Spider mite (Oligonychtis sp.) and aphid (Adelgidae andAphidae - Cinara laricifex in particular) infestations are arecurrent problem in a number of seed orchards in NewBrunswick. High population levels caLi6e - yellowing offoliage, needle loss, and, presumably, loss of tree vigor.
Currently there are no established quantitative methods forsampling population levels of spider mites and aphids onany conifer species in seed orchards or plantations. For thisreason a study, funded by NBFRAC, was conducted by theResearch and Productivity Council (RPC) in 1990 todevelop suitable sampling methods for routine assessmentof black larch aphid (Cinara laricifex) and spruce spidermite (Oligonychus ununguis) populations on tamarack andblack spruce. Tamarack was chosen because populationlevels of the black larch aphid and the spruce spider mitehave been traditionally high.
New Products Available
Pacific Forest Products Limited is interested in trades and/or sales of natural stand and orchard seed for coastal BCtree species. For information contact:
Coastal BC Tree Seed
adjacent to indivdual seedlings or as a perimeter barrier.Plant Pro-Tect is actively seeking more efficacy data.Interested? Contact:
Jerry WaltersPlant Pro-Tect, Inc.PO Box 902Palo Cedro, CA 96073Phone/Fax: (916) 547-5450
A new, copper-based systemic fungicide/bactericide iscurrently registered in the US for Diplodia blight on pinesand fireblight on woody ornamental Rosaceae. Phyton 27apparently also is effective against Botryis but efficacy datais lacking for forestry crops. The producer is interested inobtaining such data. For information contact:
Andy PetersenSource Technology Biologicals, Inc.3355 Hiawatha Ave.Minneapolis, MN 55406Phone: (612) 724-7102Fax: (612) 724-1642
Gerry FraserSaanich Forestry CentrePhone: (604) 652-4023Fax: (604) 652-2800
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 11
Joint Annual Meeting of the Entomological Societies of Canada and Ontario
Spruce Cone Maggot - Two Species in BC?Two species of Canadian spruce cone maggots are nowknown to occur, at least in eastern Canada where one occurson white spruce and the other on black and red spruces.Possibly, some specimens of what we in BC havetraditionally identified as the spiral spruce cone borer,Strobilomyia neanthracina (or any one of its multitude ofolder names) may be S. appalachensis. Jean Turgeon andJon Sweeney (Canadian Forest Service) are interested inanswering this question.
This year produced bountiful spruce crops across BC butfew spiral spruce cone borers. The Seed Pest ManagementGroup of Silviculture Branch, with the help of SkimikinSeed Orchard staff were able to send Turgeon ordy a smallsample of Strobilomyia from interior spruce. 1994 mayshow an increase in maggot populations in BC. The SeedPest Management Group is interested in obtaining infestedspruce cone samples from anywhere in the province in 1994to aid in this research.
During the last week of September, 1993 about 250entomologists from across Canada and the United Statesattended the joint Annual Meeting of the EntomologicalSociety of Canada and the Entomological Society ofOntario in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Participants included anumber of British Columbia entomologists from theMinistry of Forests, Phero-Tech, the Universities (UBC,UVic and SFU), and the Pacific Forestry Centre. In additionto the presentation of a large number of scientificcommunications on a wide range of topics, severalsymposia of interest to seed orchardists, nursery managers,and other forestry workers were held. Following is a list ofthe symposia and their contents. For more information on aparticular symposium contact its organizer.
1. Improved Pesticide ApplicationsOrganizer: Alarn Sundararn (Forest Pest Management
Institute, 1219 Queen Street East, PO Box 490, Sault Ste.Marie, ON P6A 5M7). Thirteen papers presented includingthe following. Priorities for Forestry Insecticide Application
Technology Research. Campbell, R. A. and C. A.Howard.
Spray Cloud Behaviour and Off-Target Drift. Mickle,R. E.
The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources InsecticideProgramme - Future Operations. Scarr, T.
Field Application of Bacillus thuringiensis. Dubois,N. R.
Rain-Washing of Fohar Deposits of Dimilin WP-25Formulated in Four Different Carrier Liquids. Sun-daram, K. M. S. and A. Sundaram.
Spray Atomization Characteristics as a Function ofPesticide Formulation and Atomizer Design. Akes- son,A. B. and W. E. Steinke.
Droplet Trajectories and Deposition with an AirblastForestry Sprayer. Brown, R. B. and M. M. Sidahmed.
2. Natural Products for Insect Pest ManagementStrategies
Organizer: Blair Helson (Forest Pest ManagementInstitute, 1219 Queen Street East, PO Box 490, Sault Ste.Marie, ON P6A 5M7). Ten papers and three posterspresented including the following. Insect Toxins from Conifer Endophytes. Findlay, J.
Ed. Note: the following abstract is reprinted from Hostsand distribution of spruce cone maggots (Strobilomyia spp.)and first record of Strobilomyia appalachensis in Canada(jean Turgeon and loii Sweeney, 1993, CanadianEntomologist 125:637-642).
Two species of cone maggots, Strobilomyia spp., areknown to attack seed cones of spruces in North America.Seed cones of black, red, and white spruce fromNewfoundland to Alberta were collected to determine thenumber of host species and the distribution of thesemaggots. Strobilomyia appalachensis was obtained onlyfrom seed cones of black and red spruce, whereas S.neanthracina was obtained only from white spruce seedcones. Our observations represent the first record of S.appalachensis in Canada. We conclude that, like S.neanthracina, S. appalachensis has a transcontinentaldistribution, but exploits different hosts, namely black andred spruce. We also observed that S. appalachensis wascapable of extended diapause.
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 12
Resistance in Sitka Spruce to Pissodes strobi: a NewTheory and Developments. Sahota, T. et al.
Neem and Beyond: the Next Generation of BotanicalInsecticides. Isman, M.
Aphid Control Properties of Depitched Tall Oil, a Bo-tanical Insecticide. Xie, Y. and M. Isman.
Effect of Neem Seed (Azadirachta indica) Extract onOviposition by Noctuid Moths. Naumann, K. and M.Isman.
Natural Products and Analogues as Potential InsectControl Agents. Strunz, G.
Natural Products for Pine False Webworm Manage-ment. Lyons, D. B. et al.
3. Trends and Strategies in Insecticide DiscoveryOrganizer: Roger G. H. Downer (Dept. of Biology,
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3GI). Fourpapers were presented in this session. New Developments in Semiochemicals/Pheromones.
McNeil, J. N. Natural Products and Insecticide Development. Ama-
son, J. T. Molecular Biology and Insecticide Development.
Hutchinson, B. Biochemical and Physiological Targets for Insecticide
development. Downer, R.
4. Application of Recombinant DNA Technology forInsect Control
Organizers: Arthur Retnakaran, Reddi Palli (Forest PestManagement Institute, 1219 Queen Street East, PO Box490, Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 5M7). The following fivepapers were presented. Development of Neurotoxins as Pest Control Agents.
Recombinant DNA Techniques for Developing PestControl Agents. Palli, R.
Developing Transgenic Viruses as EnvironmentallyBenign and Effective Pest Control Agents. Thiem, S.
Bt at the Crossroads: Improvement for Pest Control. vanFrankenhyzen, K.
Development of Transgenic Plants resistant to Pests.Sammons, D..
5. Insect Pest Management in Seed Orchards Organizers:Jean Turgeon, Peter de Groot. (Forest Pest ManagementInstitute, 1219 Queen Street East, PO Box 490, Sault Ste.Marie, ON P6A 5M7). The following nine papers werepresented.
Ontarios Seed Orchard Program: an Update. Nitschke,P.
Cone and Seed Insect Problems of Pines, Spruces, andLarch. Bennett, R. G.
Entomofauna of Pine, Spruce, and Larch Seed Cones:Patterns of Exploitation. Turgeon, J.
Methods of Sampling Insects and Predicting Seed Loss.Sweeney, J.
Monitoring Insect Pests in Coniferous Seed Orchardswith Pheromones and Related Semiochemicals. Grant,G. G.
Status and Future of Insect Pest Management in SeedOrchards. DeBarr, G.
Monitoring Cone and Seed Losses in Jack Pine SeedOrchards: Why Bother? de Groot, P.
Pest Damage to Ontario Seed Orchards. Hopkin, T. Responsibilities for Pest Management in Ontario Seed
Orchards. Nitschke, P.Robb Bennett
Seed Pest Management Services, Victoria
INTRODUCTION.Western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) is well
known for its low and/or erratic germination (Larsen 1925;Advincula et al. 1983; Gansel 1986) due to the inherentdormancy of this species. The average germination ofwestern white pine (Pw) seedlots presently in storage at theTree Seed Centre (TSC) is 66%. Most of our conifersexhibit some degree of embryo dormancy (in which matureviable seeds are unable to germinate) which is generallyovercome through stratification. Conunonly, embryo
Stratification of Western White Pine
dormancy is caused by the presence of inhibiting substanceswithin the embryo. Some species specific dormancy is dueto the seed coat which may restrict water or oxygen uptake,contain inhibitors, or may mechanically restrain the radiclefrom emerging. Some species may exhibit both types ofdormancy. Embryo dormancy and mechanical restraint toemerging radicles may be the factors involved in the lowgermination of Pw (Pitel and Wang 1985).
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 13
Hoff (1987) looked at the effect of various tissues on Pwdormancy in 20 Pw families. He found that 93% ofunstratified seed exhibited dormancy attributable to:embryo dormancy (50%), the seedcoat inner membrane(34%), and the outer seedcoat (9%). The remaining 7%exhibited no dormancy. Stratification of 21 days removedthe inhibiting effect of the outer seedcoat but removal ofembryo dormancy required between 42 and 90 days. Innermembrane induced dormancy (perhaps a barrier to waterand/or oxygen absorption) was reduced with stratification,but even after 105 days of moist chilling 16% of the seedsstill failed to germinate.
MATERIALS AND METHODS.In order to obtain the maximum potential germination of
Pw seedlots, pre-sowing treatment methods must overcomeall factors inhibiting germination. In this trial tenoperational seedlots (8193, 10214, 27126, 28029, 30498,30495, 31520, 31683, 31755, and 32565), which representa large geographic range of both coastal and interiorprovenances, were subjected to seven treatments includinga control (Table 1).
The control treatment is the warin-cold stratificationtreatment recommended by Edwards and Meagher in 1986and is the current Pw treatment at the TSC. Although a 30day warm period (20'C) is recommended, it may beabbreviated if appreciable pre-gerniination occurs.Differences in pre-gennination were responsible for varyingdurations of warm treatment (14-32 days) for the varioustreatments. The temperature range of the operational warmtreatment was 15-25C.
Presoak. The addition of bleach (Tl) may reducesurface-bome organisms and improve germination in Pw(Advincula et al. 1983). Radicle end clipping (T5) andsulfuric acid (T6) have been successful in removingphysical barriers associated with the Pw seed coat (Pitel andWang 1985).
Soak. For all treatments except T4, a 48 hour runningwater soak was used. This is the current operational methodat the TSC for all requests greater than 60 grams in size.The T4 treatment involved a week of running water soakfollowed by 19 days in standing water (water changedperiodically). A long soak can increase germination and/orreduce (perhaps even replace) the warm period prior tostratification (Pacific Forestry Centre (PFC) unpublisheddata). A 5 day soak is an effective treatment to replace partof the warm period prior to stratification (Edwards 1987).In a study on one seedlot an increase in germination wasproportional to soak duration, up to a plateau of 14 days(PFC unpublished data). No detrimental effects wereobserved for soak durations up to 28 days. Ongoing labtrials at the TSC are comparing the standard pretreatmentwith a 14 day soak followed by various durations ofstratification.
Warm and Cold. For all treatments, seeds were rinsed inwater after the warm period just prior to being placed instratification to minimize the effect of mold on thegermination tests. lincreased stratification time treatments(90 days - T2, 120 days - T3) were conducted to determineif gains could be obtained simply by prolonging techniquescurrently used at the TSC (60 days). Extended stratificationpromotes germination rate which will probably influencecrop uniformity and widen the range of temperatures overwhich germination occurs (Wang 1987).
Germination Testing. After treatments were complete,seeds were placed in plastic germination dishes on moistkimpak and filter paper. The dishes were placed in agerminator with eight hours of light at 30"C alternated with16 hours of dark at 20C. Each treatment and seedlot hadfour dishes with between 40 and 60 seeds per dish. Theexperiment was originally designed for 100 seeds/dish butthe large number of
Table 1. Treatments used in western white pine stratification trial.
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 14
in 8 of the 10 seedlots examined and for those seedlots thegain over the control ranged from 3 to 23%. The warmperiod differed from 24 days in the control to 32 days in the90 (T2) and 120 day (T3) stratification treatments. Theresults suggest a limited effect of this difference as they areconsistent with the expected increase in germination withincreased stratification. Results for control, T2, and T3treatments are not statistically different, although anaverage 12% increase in germination was found for T3 overthe control (88% vs. 76%). Seedlot 28029 was slightlybetter (93% vs. 90%) with the 90 day stratification. Seedlot30-495 had the best germination using the prolongedsoaking treatment (80%), while it performed quite poorlyunder increasing levels of stratification (T2=27% andT3=52%).
The prolonged soak treatment (T4) was not significantlydifferent from the control (4% decrease) and it appears thatsoaking may be used as a replacement for warmstratification. Seedlots which show lower levels ofdormancy germinate more readily in the warm environment.The prolonged soak could insure against seed losses to pre-gennination. Initial results from ongoing lab trials show thata prolonged soak followed by prolonged cold stratificationbenefit germination.
DISCUSSIONExtending the stratification portion of the pretreatment
from 2 to 4 months produced an average 12% gain ingermination. The probability of lowered germination,compared to the control, was about 10% as one seedlotshowed substantially lower germination with extenedstratification. Extended stratification also increased the rateof germination (information available upon request) andmay lower the risk of temperature dependent non-gerrnination. The decision to use extended stratificationmust be based on knowledge currently available and theseed owners and nurseries strategy of dealing with risksinvolved with procedural changes.
With extended stratification the critical lirniting factor isthe additional time required for seed pretreatment. Currentmethodology requires a total of 14 weeks and extension (tothe best treatment tested) would require request approval 22weeks in advance of the sow date. Sowing requests can beapproved as early as July I of the year prior to sowing. I amrecommending that seed owners request an extension tostratification for western white pine when time permits.
We would like to offer Pw nurseries an opportunity
pre-germinants in some treatments reduced the number ofseeds which could be used to test germination. Gerininantswere counted on Monday, Wednesday and Friday for 28days.
RESULTSThe average germination capacity of all seedlots and
treatments ranged from 12% for seedlots with clippedradicles to 88% for seedlots receiving 120 days ofstratification (Figure 1). In the clipped radicle treatmentseedlots (T5), a large number of pre-germinated seeds(20%) and an obvious fungal problem resulting fromopening the seed coat caused the poor results. Thegermination test results for T5 are an underestimate of thetotal number of seeds germinated but they do reflect theproportion of seeds which would germinate if sentto the nursery after clipping.
Figure 1. The average results of 10 western white pineseedlots pretreated using 7 different treatments (treatmentswith the same letter are not significantly different at =0.05).
In both cases where chemical treatments were used (TI,T6) the reduction in germination capacity was significantlydifferent from the best treatment (T3). Both of thesetreatments produced equivalent levels of pre-germinatedseed (Tl=ll%, T6=13%). Again, I believe it is reasonable toevaluate these treatments based on their post stratificationperformance (i.e., nursery performance) although thetreatment may be more successful in terms of overcominggermination barriers than the results illustrate. Theremainder of the treatments produced between 1 and 5%pre-germinated seed. Seedlots, averaged over all treatments,varied in pre-germination from 3 to 9%.
The 120 day stratification (T3) was the best treatment
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 15
Summer Plant of Orchard and Natural Stand Spruce Seedlots
to operationally compare nursery performance of variouspretreatments. The time available before sowing willdetermine the type of treatments which can be attempted ateach nursery. I suggest that a comparison be made of threetreatments: 1) standard, 2) extended stratification, and 3)extended stratification with warm period shortened andsoak prolonged. The results would be reported withoutreference to nurseries involved and will help determine themost effective treatment to replace the current standard. Ifyou would like to be involved in this type of operationaltrial or want more information, please contact me at 574-0461.
LITERATURE CITEDAdvincula, B. A., A. D. Partridge, and J. Y. Woo. 1983. A
method for germination of western white pine seed.Western Forestry and Conservation AssociationConference, Portland, Oregon, Dec. 12-14,1983. p 28-32.
Edwards, D. G. W. 1987. Western white pine germinationreport - Progress Report. Western Forest and RangeSeed Council Meeting, Langley, BC 1987. 5 p.
Gansel, C. 1986. Comparison of seed stratification methodsfor western white pine. Western Forest NurseryCouncil Meeting, Tumwater, Washington. August 12-15, 1986. p 19-22.
Hoff, R. J. 1987. Dormancy in Pinus monticola seed relatedto stratification time, seed coat andgenetics. Can. J. For. Res., 17:294-298.
Larsen, J. A. 1925. Methods of stimulating germination ofwestern white pine seed. Journal of AgriculturalResearch, 31:889-899.
Pitel, J. A. and B. S. P. Wang. 1985. Physical and chemicaltreatments to improve laboratory germination ofwestern white pine seeds. Can. J. For. Res., 15:1187-1190.
Wang, B. S. P. 1987. The beneficial effects ofstratification on tree seed germination. In Proc.Nurserymans Meeting, Dryden, Ont. June 15-19,1987. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, p 56-75.
Dave KoloteloTree Seed Centre, Surrey
INTRODUCTION.Concerns about stock produced from seed orchard spruce
seedlots have been expressed by field staff (Hawkins 1993,in press). The concerns primarily focus on morphology (allspindly stock) and logistics (failure to meet shipment anddelivery dates for summer planting). A trial involvingSilviculture Branch, Research Branch, and Forest Regionstaff was established this season at Red Rock ResearchStation (RRRS) to address these and other related issues(Hawkins 1993).
METHODS.Fifty seedlots from three seed sources (natural stand,
seed orchard, and full sib controlled crosses) were sowninto 415B styroblocks on 17 February 1993 at RRRS andgerminated and grown under standard conditions. Short-daytreatment (blackout) was applied to 28 of the 50 seedlotsstarting in late May (Hawkins in press, Hawkins andKrasowski in press). Each of the 28 blackout treatedseedlots was paired with an untreated control and all wereplanted in a common garden at RRRS between 5 and 15July 1993. This planting will be monitored for the nextthree to five seasons. Additional treatment pairs from eachof the 28 seedlots (planted at the same time) will be
excavated in the late spring (May) of 1994 to compareeffects of treatment on over winter health and stem and rootgrowth during the season of establishment.
Six seedlots were selected from each of the three seedsources (Table 1) and the morphology (at planting in earlyJuly) of the treated and controlled seedlings grown fromthese seedlots was described (Table 2: height - HT, rootcollar diameter - RCD, coefficient of height variation - CV-HT, and sturdiness - HT:RCD). Two culling criteria wereused at summer lift: the plug must hold together and theseedling must be at least 10 cm tall. A liberal gradingapproach was used becauseof the low number of cavities sown for each seedlottreatment.
RESULTS.At planting, the blackout treated stock had detectable
buds and glaucous needles while the untreated stock, inmany instances, did not have detectable buds and was stillsucculent. Blackout reduced height, had no impact on rootcollar diameter, and increased seedling sturdiness (indicatedby reduced height to diameter
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 16
Table I Description of IS spruce seedlots detailed in thisreport. Elevation above sea level, Lat - latitude, Long -longitude, cc - controlled cross.
ratios) in all IS measured seedlots (Table 2). The effect ofblackout on the mean height response by seedlot was quitevariable. Seedlots with different growth rates prior toblackout had similar heights after treatment while seedlotswith similar growth rates before treatment had differentheights after treatment.
Seed orchard seedlot RCD was generally not as great asthat observed from the other seed sources. An unchangingdiameter coupled with the reduction in height resulted in asturdier seedling (a smaller HT:RCD ratio). There also wasno difference in root mass between blackout treated anduntreated seedlings at planting (data not presented). CV -HT tended to be least in controlled cross seedlots while seedorchard seedlots were the most variable. Generally the CV-HT of orchard seedlots was similar to that observed for thenatural stand seedlots (Table 2). The effect of nurserytreatment on height CV was variable: blackoutincreased it, left it unchanged or decreased it. This heldacross seed source origins.
DISCUSSION.Apparently seedlot response to blackout is not solely
related to its growth rate prior to treatment as has beensuggested within the nursery industry. In all likelihood, the
observed seedlot response to short-days is an interactionamong the phytochrome system, dormancy inductionprocesses, and inherent seedlot vigor. Such a mechanismcould account for the observed responses.
It is commonly believed that short-day treatment reducesseedling RCD. This view could have arisen because of thesevere blackout regimes used in the past. Analysis ofvariance for the 28 seedlot treatment pairs indicates RCDwas affected not by blackout but by seedlot. Even withliberal grading criteria, blackout methodology producedmorphologically suitable seedlings ready for planting inearly July regardless of seed source. Control seedlingsmeeting specifications at the end of the growing season(Hawkins 1993, Tables 2 & 3) often did not have thesturdiness displayed by the blackout treated stock in July(Table 2). This sturdy morphotype is generally moredesirable (Burdett et al. 1984). The general similarity ofCV-HT of seed orchard and natural stand seedlot seedlingsmay indicate they respond similarly in the nursery.
From a nursery view, it is of interest to look at the effectof conventional, conservative grading on the seedlottreatment pairs. As with most parameters monitored in thisproject, the effect was variable (Table 3). The effect ofblackout on recovery is almost seedlot specific. Thissuggests some seedlots may be more suitable for earlysummer plants than others. Most of the culling resultedbecause RCD was too small. Considering the timing of thehft, this is not as serious as it first appears because many ofthe culls were in the 2.5 to 2.6 mm range and would havemade specifications after a few more days in the nursery.Another approach would have been to let the seedlots growanother one cm (about 3 days) before the blackout treatmentwas applied. This should increase height and RCD in thetreated stock and improve recoveries. Generally the bestrecoveries were in the controlled crosses followed by theseed orchard and natural stand collection seedlots. Thisagain suggests that seed orchard seedlots are not displayingunusual growth responses (compared to natural stand) andthat blackout is a good way to manipulate a spruce crop,particularly the vigorous seedlots, to meet managementobjectives.
To date (October), mortality in the plantings is less thanone percent. The first major tests of these seedlings will beto survive the coming winter and grow to expectations nextgrowing season. These results will be reported in next fallsnewsletter. Evidence collected at RRRS over the past sevencultural seasons suggests that blackout should have littleeffect on field performance.
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 17
In summary, blackout resulted in less spindly seedlingsregardless of seed source, blackout allowed early summerplant dates to be met even though the stock was grown in ahigh latitude facility, and seed orchard seed does not resultin unusual seedlings for summer plant.
The efforts of the staff at Red Rock have made thisproject possible. K. Thomas is thanked for criticism of thearticle.
LITERATURE CITEDBurdett, A. N., L. J. Herring and C. F. Thompson. 1984.
Early growth of planted spruce. Can. J. For. Res., Vol.14:644-651.
Hawkins, C. D. B. 1993. Variability in spruce seed orchard
Table 2. Mean seedling morphology (assessed at planting)by seedlot and nursery treatment. TRT - treatment, C -control, SD short-day, other abbreviations in text.
Table 3. Mean seedling morphology culled to Forest Servicespecifications (415B summer shipment) by seedlot andnursery treatment. REC - estimated recovery by TRT basedon minimum RCD of 2.6 mm and HT between 14.0 and 28.0cm, other abbreviations in text.
seedlots. Seed and Seedlings Extenion Topics (BCMinistry of Forests, Silviculture Branch), Vol. 6(l):20-23.
Hawkins, C. D. B. In press. Genetic-induced variationof container nursery-cultured interior spruce in British
Columbia. Proc. 25th Can. Tree Imp. Assoc. Meet.,August 1993. Fredericton, NB
Hawkins, C. D. B. and M. J. Krasowski. In press. Good,bad, or ugly: genetic-induced variation of containernursery-cultured interior spruce? Proc. For. Nurs.Asoc. BC, September 1993. Courtenay, BC
Chris HawkinsRed Rock Research Station, Prince George
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 18
Ed. note: thefollowing abstract is reprintedf-rom the articleof the same name by G. E. Caron, B. S. P. Wang, and H. 0.Schooley in the Canadian Journal of Forestry Research23:1306-1313 (1993).
The effects of cone storage period and pre-germinationtreatment on seed maturity and dormancy were comparedfor cones of white spruce (Picea glauca) collected fromindividual trees in 1984 and 1988. Seeds were extractedfrom cones and germinated after 2 or 6 weeks of conestorage in 1984 and after 2, 4, 6, 10, or 14 weeks ih 1988.Based on cumulative degree-days, seeds were more matureat collection time in 1988 than in 1984. Seeds from 1984
Ed. note: thefollowing abstract is reprintedfrom the articleof the same name by B. 1. Hawkins in the Canadian Journalof Forestry Research 23:1408-1414 (1993).
Frost hardiness in yellow cypress (Chamaecyparisnootkatensis) was studied over the winter to determinethe relative influence of photoperiod and subzerotemperatures on the hardening and dehardening processes.Stecklings (rooted cuttings) of five clones from each of thethree provenances were grown outdoors and in twocontrolled-environrnent-chambers at 10:5C day:nighttemperatures and 12- or 6-h photoperiods. Half of the plantsin each photoperiod treatment were subject to a 4-h nightfrost, three times per week from December through toMarch. Frost hardiness was assessed at intervals using thefreeze-induced electrolyte leakage method. Variabilityin frost hardiness was greater among clones within
Photoperiod and Night Frost Influence the Frost Hardiness of Chamaecyparisnootkatensis Clones.
provenances than among provenances. Significantdifferences in hardiness among clones existed throughoutthe experiment; however, the ranking of clones by hardinesswas not consistent. Steckhngs in the 6-h photoperiod wereconsistently more hardy than their counterparts subjected to12-h photoperiods. Stecklings placed outdoors hadequivalent hardiness to those in the 6-h photoperiod untilthe advent of natural frosts in January. At this time, theoutdoor trees were the most hardy. Night frost alsosignificantly increased frost hardiness in stecklings incontrolled environments. Stecklings in all treatments beganto deharden between January and March. The outdoorplants dehardened most rapidly. Stecklings in the controlledenvironments dehardened slowly until the night-frosttreatment ended, whereupon previously frozen plantsdehardened more rapidly than their unfrozen counterparts.
Variation in Picea glauca Seed Germination Associated with the Year of Cone Collection
cones stored for 6 weeks matured during storage, and bothgermination percentage (GP) and rate of germination(GR) were significantly improved. In contrast, storage upto 14 weeks in 1988 did not increase GP and GR, as seedhad attained maturity prior to cone collection. Seeddormancy was present in both 1984 and 1988. Significantimprovements in GP and GR were achieved in 1984 with apre-germination treatment even before seed maturity wasattained. Prechilling of seed after 6 weeks of cone storageincreased GP from 60 to 95% in 1984 and 64 to 89% in1988.
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 19
White Pine / Spruce Weevil WorkshopJanuary 19-21, 1994
Best Western Richmond Inn7551 Westminster HwyRichmond, BC, CAN
Phone 1-800-663-0299 or (604) 273-7878This workshop will feature two days of papers anddiscussion on Pissodes strobi. Topics included are:
biology and damage, sampling systems and surveys,genetic resistance, control, pheromones, and decision
support systems.For rnore information contact:Francois Blain or Rene Alfaro
Pacific Forestry Centre506 West Burnside Rd
Victoria, BC, CAN V8Z IM5Phone: (604) 363-0600
Fax: (604) 363-0755
Integrated Pest Management in Landscapes16-17 February, 1993
Tsawwassen InnTsawwassen, BC
Phone (collect): (604) 943-9735For more information contact:
IPM Conference ManagerGood & Co.
2517 Tenipe Knoll DriveNorth Vancouver, BC
Phone: (604) 980-9735Fax: (604) 980-9745
2nd National Integrated Pest ManagementSymposium/Wokshop
19-22 April, 1994Riviera Hotel
Las Vegas, NV, USAFor more information contact:
R. J. KuhrDepartment of Entomology
Box 7613NC State University
Raleigh, NC, USA. 27695
Southern Forest Nursery Association MeetingJuly 11-14,1994
For more information contact:Ronald S. Jenkins
Virginia Dept. of ForestryPO Box 3758
Charlottesville, VA, USA 22903Phone: (804) 966-2201
Joint Meeting of the Western Forest NurseryAssociation and the Forest Nursery Association of
British ColumbiaAugust 15-19, 1994
For more information contact:Kas Dumroese
Forest Research NurseryUniversity of Idaho
Moscow, ID, USA 83843Phone: (208) 885-7017
Fax: (208) 885-6226
Making the Grade - An International Symposium onPlanting Stock Performance and Quality Assessment
September 11-15,1994Sault Ste. Marie, ON, CAN
For more information contact:Tom Noland or Peter Menes
Making the GradeOntario Forest Research Institute
PO Box 9691235 Queen Street E.,
Sault Ste Marie, ON, CAN P6A 5N5
lst International Symposium on Plant Dormancy(Patterned after the NATO Advanced Research
Workshop series.)August 4-6, 1994
For more information contact.-Gregory A. Lang
137 Julian C. Miller HallLousiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA, USA 70803-2120Phone: (504) 388-1043
Fax: (504) 388-1068
TREE IMPROVEMENT Volume 6 Number 2 December 1993 20
Maarten Albricht BC Ministry of ForestsInterior Seed Orchards -Administration3401 Reservoir RoadVernon, BC VIB 2C7(604) 549-5670, fax: 542-2230
Robb Bennett BC Ministry of ForestsSeed Pest Management Services31 Bastion SquareVictoria BC V8W 3E7(604) 387-3931, fax: 387-1467
Gary Giampa, BC Ministry of ForestsChris Walsh Kalamalka Seed Orchard
3401 Reservoir RoadVernon, BC VIB 2C7(604) 549-5669, fax: 542-9730
Chris Hawkins Red Rock Research StationRR#7, RMD#6Prince George V2N 2J5(604) 963-9651, fax: 963-3436
CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE
DEADLINE FOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO NEXT ISSUE
(Volume 7, Number 1) - March 31,1994
David Kolotelo BC Ministry of ForestsTree Seed Centre18793 32nd AvenueSurrey BC V4P lM5(604) 574-0461, fax: 574-0262
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