psychology 001 introduction to psychology christopher gade, phd office: 621 heafey office hours: f...

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Psychology 001 Introduction to Psychology Christopher Gade, PhD Office: 621 Heafey Office hours: F 3-6 and by apt. Email: [email protected] Class WF 7:00-8:30 Heafey 650 Slide 2 What are we going to focus on now? Attitude: an opinion that influences our behavior Attitude: an opinion that influences our behavior Persuasion: the changing or formation of an attitude through information Persuasion: the changing or formation of an attitude through information Central route to persuasion presenting an argument that seriously evaluates the evidence Central route to persuasion presenting an argument that seriously evaluates the evidence Peripheral route to persuasion presenting an argument based on unimportant factors (i.e. appearance) Peripheral route to persuasion presenting an argument based on unimportant factors (i.e. appearance) Slide 3 When are these techniques of persuasion effective? When the argument is When the argument is Of interest central routes Of interest central routes Of little interest peripheral routes Of little interest peripheral routes Tuition raising experiment example Tuition raising experiment example Not perceived as an attempt at persuasion Not perceived as an attempt at persuasion Forewarning effect: the reduced effectiveness of a persuasive message due to the awareness and resistance of the purpose of the message Forewarning effect: the reduced effectiveness of a persuasive message due to the awareness and resistance of the purpose of the message Note: the first argument is very important in central routes to persuasion Note: the first argument is very important in central routes to persuasion Inoculation effect: the reduced effectiveness of a good argument if it follows a weak one Inoculation effect: the reduced effectiveness of a good argument if it follows a weak one Slide 4 Specific Persuasion Strategies Foot-in-door technique Foot-in-door technique Start with modest request Start with modest request Door-in-the-face technique Door-in-the-face technique Start with an outrageous request Start with an outrageous request Bait-and-switch technique Bait-and-switch technique Start with a great deal and then make additional demands Start with a great deal and then make additional demands Thats-not-all technique Thats-not-all technique Make an offer, then improve it before the response Make an offer, then improve it before the response Slide 5 What principle do most of these persuasion techniques operate on? Most of us believe that our attitudes influence our behaviors, however, thats not true all of the time Most of us believe that our attitudes influence our behaviors, however, thats not true all of the time Cognitive dissonance: A change in attitude due to a change in behavior Cognitive dissonance: A change in attitude due to a change in behavior Festingers cog turning task Festingers cog turning task Participants performed a boring task during an experiment Participants performed a boring task during an experiment They were then asked to promote the task to the next participant They were then asked to promote the task to the next participant Some were told that they would be paid $1 for this, others were told that they would be paid $20 Some were told that they would be paid $1 for this, others were told that they would be paid $20 Participants were then asked to identify their actual enjoyment of the task Participants were then asked to identify their actual enjoyment of the task Slide 6 Conformity Why do we conform? Why do we conform? Forms of conformity Forms of conformity Conformity surrounding us Conformity surrounding us Conformity in ambiguous situations Conformity in ambiguous situations Conformity in unambiguous situations Conformity in unambiguous situations How do we increase conformity? How do we increase conformity? Do we conform in our lack of action? Do we conform in our lack of action? Slide 7 Why do we conform? Conformity maintaining or changing ones behavior to match the behavior or expectations of others Conformity maintaining or changing ones behavior to match the behavior or expectations of others But why do we conform? But why do we conform? Uncertainty? we dont know what to do in most novel situations, so we mimic the behavior of others Uncertainty? we dont know what to do in most novel situations, so we mimic the behavior of others Norms a set of behaviors or rules that define the proper behavior in a situations Norms a set of behaviors or rules that define the proper behavior in a situations classroom behavior classroom behavior Learned responses conformity can result from the continual presentation of appropriate responses to situations. Learned responses conformity can result from the continual presentation of appropriate responses to situations. Hi, hows it going? Hi, hows it going? Reflexes? a lot of our conformity is uncontrollable and even unrecognized Reflexes? a lot of our conformity is uncontrollable and even unrecognized Clapping example Clapping example Smiling/laughing example Smiling/laughing example Slide 8 Other forms of conformity in our environment Clothing Clothing Center of attention Center of attention Material being presented Material being presented Slide 9 Conformity in ambiguous situations A lot of our conformity is a result of the fact that there is no true appropriate behavior or responses in most situations A lot of our conformity is a result of the fact that there is no true appropriate behavior or responses in most situations When presented with ambiguous situations, people look to others in an attempt to perceive what is best to do well get back to this later When presented with ambiguous situations, people look to others in an attempt to perceive what is best to do well get back to this later This conformity in ambiguous situations has also been found to overlap into ambiguous stimuli as well This conformity in ambiguous situations has also been found to overlap into ambiguous stimuli as well Autokinetic effect example Autokinetic effect example Slide 10 But what about unambiguous situations? We conform to ambiguous situations because we often dont know what the right answer/response is, but we certainly dont conform to the group in situations where there is an obvious correct answer/response right? We conform to ambiguous situations because we often dont know what the right answer/response is, but we certainly dont conform to the group in situations where there is an obvious correct answer/response right? Solomon Aschs line study experiments Solomon Aschs line study experiments Slide 11 What influences the likelihood of conformity? The number of people in the majority The number of people in the majority The magic #3 The magic #3 The presence of an ally The presence of an ally The social situations requirement to conform The social situations requirement to conform Need for speed Need for speed Need for unanimity Need for unanimity The ambiguity of the situation (sometimes) The ambiguity of the situation (sometimes) The collectivist, or individualist nature of the individual being tested The collectivist, or individualist nature of the individual being tested Slide 12 Slide 13 Slide 14 Do we conform in our lack of action? Kitty Genovese example Kitty Genovese example Diffusion of responsibility we tend to feel less responsibility to act when other people nearby are equally able to act Diffusion of responsibility we tend to feel less responsibility to act when other people nearby are equally able to act Conversation example Conversation example Pluralistic ignorance assumption that everyone else has a better idea of how to act in a situation. Pluralistic ignorance assumption that everyone else has a better idea of how to act in a situation. Smoke example Smoke example Slide 15 The end of the conformity section Read the text to examine a number of conformity topics that we didnt have time to go over. Read the text to examine a number of conformity topics that we didnt have time to go over. For the next class, were now going to look at some social psychology concepts in action, come ready to participate For the next class, were now going to look at some social psychology concepts in action, come ready to participate