Present perfect simple & continuous

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<ul><li> 1. Western University 1</li></ul> <p> 2. Contents- Present Perfect Simple- Present Perfect Simple Vs Past Simple- Present Perfect Continuous- Present Perfect Simple Vs Continuous- Exercise2 3. Present Perfect Simple and ContinuousI. Present Perfect Simple1. FormPositive: Sub + have/has + past participle +objNegative:Sub + have/has + not + V3 + objQuestion:Have/Has + sub + V3 + obj ? 3 4. Wh-Question + have/has + sub + V3+objNegative: Have/Has + not + sub + V3 + obj? Wh-Question + have/has + not + sub + V3+ obj?2. DefinitionA. The Present Perfect Simple is used to express an activitywhich began in the past and continues to the present. Itpossibly goes on into the future, as well.4 5. Example:Ive lived in the same flat for five years. (From past untilnow) How long have you known each other? (From the startingtime till now) Ive met a lot of famous people. (Now you still meet them) 5 6. Comparison between For and Sincetwo monthsa few monthsForages1 year ago1979the end of year 1Since Valentine dayNovember6 7. Note: We use For with a period of time and Since with apoint of time.Since 2010 For 1 year2011 nowB. The Present Perfect is to express a past action that has apresent result. The action is usually in the recent past.7 8. Example: I have lost my wallet. (Ive not got it now.) The taxi hasnt arrived yet. (Were still waiting for it.) Ive just had lunch. (I am not hungry now.) The adverb expression Already, Just, and Yet are alsoused in this second definition.Note: Sub + have/has + yet + to + V1 = Sub + have/has + not + V3 + yet 8 9. Example: I have yet to think about getting married = I have notthought about getting married yet.C. Present Perfect Simple is used to express an experiencethat happen at some time in ones life.Example: Have you ever had an operation? Ive been to Preah Vihea twice. Its the first time he has lost $100. (He has never lost $100before.)9 10. Note: Ive been to United State. (Experience: I am not there now.) Ive gone to United State. (Present result: I am there now.)D. The Present Perfect is used to say that an action whichwe expected has not happened. We are still waiting for theaction to happen.Example: James has not finished his homework yet. (He wants tofinish.)10 11. Susan hasnt mastered Japanese but she cancommunicate. (She needs to master at it.) The rain hasnt stopped. (She wants to go out.)II. Present Perfect Simple Vs Past Simple The Present Perfect is for unfinished action or refers toindefinite time. The Past Simple is for completed actions or refers todefinite time by looking at the time expression used with thedifferent tense.Present Perfect Simple- I have lived in Phnom Penh for one year. (Now I still livethere.)11 12. - Rain has sung several songs. (He can still sing some more)- I have recently stopped speaking to her. (Indefinite time)- Have you seen Helen this morning? (it is still in themorning)Past Simple- I lived in PP for one year. (You now live somewhere else)- Rain sang tan popular songs. (He cant sing anymore)- I stopped speaking to her yesterday. (Definite time)- Did you see Helen this morning? (Now it is the afternoon orevening) 12 13. III. Present Perfect Continuous1. FormPositive:Sub + have/has + been + V-ing + objNegative:Sub + have/has + not + been + V-ing +OQuestion:Have/Has + S + been + V-ing + O?Wh-Question + have/has + S +been + V-ing + O?13 14. Negative Question:Have/Has + not + S + been + V-ing + O? Wh-Question + have/has + not + S +Example:been + V-ing + O? - You have been working here for three months. - We havent been waiting for him. - What have you been doing? - Have you been running?14 15. 2. DefinitionA . The perfect continuous expresses an activity, whichbegan in the past and is still continuing. One is used toexpress an activity that continuous to the present.Example:- Ive been learning English for four years. (You learned fromthe past until now.)- Rosaline has been trying to lose weight for ages. (Shealways tries to do this)- I have been looking for my cousins, but I havent foundthem yet.15 16. B. The present perfect continuous are used to express apast activity that has caused a present result.Example :- Im hot because Ive been running.- Has she been crying? Her eyes are red.- Look outside the window. It been has raining.- Her shoes are muddy; shes been digging in the garden.- I have been writing this book for one year. It still isntfinished. 16 17. IV. Present Perfect Simple Vs ContinuousSometime there is little or no difference in meaning with bothof them.Example:- How long have you worked here?- How long have you been worked here?- He has taught English for 12 years.- He has been teaching English for 12 years.- It has rained for days.- It has been raining for days.17 18. Think of the verbs that have the idea of long time, forexample wait, work, teach, learn, travel, play, etc, theseverbs can be found in present perfect continuous.Example:- Ive been playing football since I was ten years old.- Danny has been waiting here for hours.- They have been travelling abroad for two weeks.Think of the verbs that have the idea of a short time forExample find, start, buy, die, lose, break, stop, etc, and stateverbs such as :like, love, know, it is unusual to find theseverbs in the present perfect continuous. 18 19. Example:- My dog has died. (Not: has been dying)- My father has stopped smoking for mouth. (Not: has beenstopping)- Weve known each other for five years. (Wrong)- How long has john loved her?- How long has john been loving her? (Wrong)19 20. ExercisePut the verb in the brackets into correct tense, PresentPerfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous.1. I am exhausted! I (work) allday, and I (not finish) yet.2. Someone (take) my bike. I(look) for it for ages, but I..(notfind) them yet.3. I (visit) manycountries over the past few years.4. The government of Cambodia( Build) 50bridges. They are so easy to travel when we have a holiday. 20 21. 5. It is the first time of the girlI. (ever/meet).6. Tom now is unconscious.He.. (hit) by his enemy.7. Romeo and Juliet..(love) each other for ages.8. I.,... (write)two letters in Japan today.9. I(paint) my living room. I finished last night.10. Teacher.(teach)English at Western University for severalyears. 21 22. Thanks for your attention !Any Questions ?22 </p>