Prehistoric Western Europe.  The Stone Age ◦ Scholars divided the Western European Stone Age into three periods:  Paleolithic (“old stone”)—earliest

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Prehistoric Western Europe </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The Stone Age Scholars divided the Western European Stone Age into three periods: Paleolithic (old stone)earliest and longest period Mesolithic (middle stone)transition period Neolithic (new stone)from hunting-gathering to farming The periods are known as the Stone Age from mankinds use of stone tools and weapons during the era 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.2 </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Paleolithic (c. 1,500,000c. 8000 B.C.) Nomadic hunters and gatherers; lived communally Sculpture Carvinga subtractive process Modelingan additive process 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.3 </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 4 Venus of Wilendorf, 4.5 inches, 25,000 21,000 B.C., Limestone In the round completely detached from its original material </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.5 Venus of Laussel, from Laussel, Dorogne, France c. 25,000 23,000 B.C., Limestone 17 3/8 inches In relief more pictorial than sculpture in the round High relief Low relief or bas-relief Sunken This is an incised or sunken relief </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Paleolithic (c. 1,500,000c. 8000 B.C.) (continued) Painting Pigmentthe basis of color Medium or binderadheres the pigment to the support Vehiclealso known as a medium or binder Supportthe surface being painted The Chauvet Cave Ardche Valleysoutheast France Contains over 300 wall paintings Paintings radiocarbon-dated to as early as 30,000 B.C. 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.6 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 Left section of Lion Panel, Chuvet Cave, Ardece Vally, France, c. 25,000 17,000 B.C., Black pigment on limestone wall </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Paleolithic (c. 1,500,000c. 8000 B.C.) (continued) The Lascaux Cave Dordogne region of France A wide range of animals species adorn the walls Artifacts found at the site include painting materials Paintings are among the best examples of Paleolithic artists ability to create the illusion of motion Site dates to 15,000 B.C. 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.8 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 9 Hall of Running Bulls, Lascaux, Dordogne, France, c. 15,000 13,000 B.C. 13 -15 ft., paint on cave wall </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.10 Chinese Horse, Lascaux, Dordogne, France, Paint on Limestone rock c. 15,000 13,000 B.C. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Beyond the West Rock Paintings of Australia (c. 75,000/50,000 B.C.present) Stone tools and other objects suggest Australia was inhabited as long ago as 174,000 B.C. Carved and painted rocks date from roughly 70,000 B.C. Similarities between European Paleolithic and Aboriginal rock paintings, even though there was no contact or exchange 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.11 Men and Women Hunting Kangaroos, Unbalanya Hill, Amhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.12 http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/kids/people-places- kids/australia-rockart-kids/ </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Mesolithic (c. 8000c. 6000/4000 B.C.) Transitional period more noteworthy for its cultural and environmental changes than for its art Neolithic (c. 6000/4000c. 2000 B.C.) Revolutionary shift from hunting and gathering to farming contributed to the development of a new art form: monumental stone architecture Menhirsupright stone monoliths (single stones) Erected individually, in clusters, or in rows Dolmenschambers or enclosures consisting of two or more vertical stones supporting a large single stone 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.13 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.14 Menhir is from the Celtic word men meaning stone and hir meaning long </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.15 Dolmen, Carnac, Brittany, France, c. 4000 B.C. From the Celtic word, dol, meaning table </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Neolithic (c. 6000/4000c. 2000 B.C.) (continued) Cromlechsmegalithic structures in which menhirs form circles or semicircles. Stonehenge cromlech functioned as a celestial calendar Scholars theorize that rites, processions, and sacred dances were held in and around megalithic structures 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.16 Stonehenge, Salisbury, England, c. 2800-1500 B.C., the most famous Cromlech! Cromlech in the ancient Celtic language means circular place </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Post-and-lintel construction A construction method comprised of vertical support (post) and horizontal span (lintel) elements Mortice and tenon joinery used to fix the post and lintel 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.17 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.18 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.19 </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.20 Facts on Stonehenge Stonehenge was built between 3100 1100 BCE. but these dates vary greatly The circle was aligned with the midsummer sunrise, the midwinter sunset, and the most southerly rising and northerly setting of the moon. The ground plan and structural engineering of Stonehenge incorporate sophisticated mathematical and geometrical understandings on the part of its builders. There were two types of stones used in its construction: the bluestones (weighing as much as four tons and brought from 240 miles away) and the Sarsen stones (averaging eighteen feet in height and twenty-five tons in weight). It has been estimated that the construction of Stonehenge required more than thirty million hours of labor. More than nine hundred stone rings exist in the British Isles. Of these, Stonehenge is the most well known. The megalithic monuments of Britain and Europe predate those of the eastern Mediterranean, Egyptian, Mycenaean and Greek cultures. The Druids had nothing to do with the construction of the stone rings. Druids are known to have conducted their ritual activities mostly in sacred forest groves. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.21 Stonehenge Purposes Prior to the 1950s most archaeologists believed that Stonehenges use had been limited to the ritual activities of different Neolithic chiefdoms. However, it is now known that Stonehenge had another equally important function, which was its use as an astronomical observatory. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Oxford University engineer Professor Alexander Thom and the astronomer Gerald Hawkins pioneered the new field of archaeoastronomy - the study of the astronomies of ancient civilizations. Conducting surveys at Stonehenge and other megalithic structures, Thom and Hawkins discovered many significant astronomical alignments among the stones. This evidence indicates that Stonehenge and other stone rings were used as astronomical observatories. Stonehenge was simultaneously used for both astronomical observation and ritual function. By gathering data regarding the movement of celestial bodies, the Stonehenge observations were used to indicate appropriate periods in the annual ritual cycle. During those periods, among them being the solstices, equinoxes and different lunar days, festivals and ceremonies were held. </li> </ul>