organizational behavior: conflict and negotiation
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Conflict and Negotiation
ConflictFunctional (Constructive) conflict serves the organizations interests while
dysfunctional conflict threatens the organizations interests.Conflict: The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.
PositiveOutcomesLowModerateHigheBrowns Conflict ContinuumToo LittleConflictToo MuchConflictNeutralNegativeIntensityAppropriateConflict
TraditionalTransitions in ConflictThoughtHumanRelationsInteractionist
The Conflict ProcessSources ofConflict
Desired Outcomes of ConflictAgreement: Strive for equitable and fair agreements that last.Stronger relationships: Build bridges of goodwill and trust for the future.Learning: Greater self-awareness and creative problem solving.
Types of ConflictLine Staff Conflict
Cross Cultural Conflict
Antecedents of ConflictIncompatible personalities or value systems.Overlapping or unclear job boundaries.Competition for limited resources.Interdepartment/intergroup competition.Inadequate communication.Interdependent tasks.Organizational complexity.Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules.Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure.Collective decision making.Decision making by consensus.Unmet expectations.Unresolved or suppressed conflict.
Sources of ConflictGoalIncompatibilityDifferent Valuesand BeliefsGoals conflict with goals of othersDifferent beliefs due to unique background, experience, trainingCaused by specialized tasks, careersExplains misunderstanding in cross-cultural and merger relations
Sources of ConflictGoalIncompatibilityDifferent Valuesand BeliefsTaskInterdependenceThree levels of interdependence
Sources of ConflictGoalIncompatibilityDifferent Valuesand BeliefsTaskInterdependenceScarceResourcesAmbiguityIncreases competition for resources to fulfill goals Lack of rules guiding relationsEncourages political tactics
Sources of ConflictGoalIncompatibilityDifferent Valuesand BeliefsTaskInterdependenceScarceResourcesAmbiguityCommunicationProblemsLack of opportunity --reliance on stereotypesLack of ability-- arrogant communication heightens conflict perceptionLack of motivation -- conflict causes lower motivation to communicate, increases stereotyping
Conflict Management Styles: OrientationsWin-win orientationYou believe parties will find a mutually beneficial solution to their disagreementWin-lose orientationYou believe that the more one party receives, the less the other receivesTends to escalate conflict, use of power/politics
Tips for Managers Whose Employees Are Having a Personality ConflictFollow company policies for diversity, anti-discrimination, and sexual harassment.Investigate and document conflict. If appropriate, take corrective action (e.g., feedback or B Mod).If necessary, attempt informal dispute resolution.Refer difficult conflicts to human resource specialists or hired counselors for formal resolution attempts and other interventions.
Minimizing Inter-group Conflict: An Updated Contact Model Conflict within the group is high There are negative interactions between groups (or between members of those groups) Influential third-party gossip about other group is negative Work to eliminate specific negative interactions between groups (and members). Conduct team building to reduce intragroup conflict and prepare employees for cross-functional teamwork. Encourage personal friendships and good working relationships across groups and departments. Foster positive attitudes toward members of other groups (empathy, compassion, sympathy). Avoid or neutralize negative gossip across groups or departments.Recommended actions:Level of perceivedInter-group conflict tends to increase when:
Skills and Best Practices: How to Build Cross-Cultural RelationshipsBehavior RankBe a good listener 1Be sensitive to the needs of others 2Be cooperative, rather than overly competitive 2Advocate inclusive (participative) leadership 3Compromise rather than dominate 4Build rapport through conversations 5Be compassionate and understanding 6Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony 7Nurture others (develop and mentor) 8Tie
Stimulating Functional ConflictDialectic MethodDevil,s Advocacy
Conflict Management StylesIntegratingObligingDominatingAvoidingCompromisingHighLowHighLowConcern for OthersConcern for Self
View of Ethics in Conflict ManagementUtilitarian
Enlightened Self Interest
NegotiatingDistributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose. Integrative negotiation: More than one issue; win-win.Negotiation: A give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences.
Available Resources Primary Motivations Primary Interests Focus of Relationships Fixed Amount I Win, You Lose Opposed Short-Term Variable Amount I Win, You Win Congruent Long-TermIntegrativeBargainingDistributiveBargainingBargainingCharacteristicsThe Two Types ofBargaining Strategies
An Integrative Approach: Added-Value NegotiationClarify interests.Identify options.Design alternative deal packages.Select a deal.Perfect the deal.
Situational Influences on NegotiationLocationPhysical SettingTime Investment and DeadlinesAudience.
Your PositionsOpponents PositionsArea ofPotentialAgreementBargaining Zone Model
Decision-Making Biases That Impede NegotiationsEscalation of commitmentThe mythical fixed pieAnchoring and adjustmentsFraming negotiationsAvailability of informationThe winners curseOverconfidence
Effective Negotiator BehavioursPlan and Set GoalsGather InformationCommunicate EffectivelyMake Appropriate Concessions..
Improving Negotiation SkillsResearch your opponentBegin with a positive overtureAddress problems, not personalitiesPay little attention to initial offersEmphasize win-win solutionsCreate an open, trusting climate
Third Party NegotiationsMediatorArbitratorConciliatorConsultant
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) TechniquesFacilitation: Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively with each other.Conciliation: Neutral third party acts as communication link between disputants.Peer review: Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding.Ombudsman: Respected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially.Mediation: Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution.Arbitration: Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and renders a binding decision.
Unethical Negotiating TacticsLies PufferyDeception Weakening The OpponentStrengthening Ones Own PositionInformation ExploitationNondisclosureChange of Mind DistractionMaximization
***The traditional view of conflict has argued that it must be avoided because it indicates a malfunction in the group. Conflict was viewed negatively as being synonymous with violence, destruction, and irrationality. The view that all conflict is bad is simplistic. To improve group or organizational performance, all we need to do is address the causes of conflict and correct them. Although strong evidence disputes this view, many use it to evaluate conflict.The human relations view argues that conflict is a natural, inevitable outcome in any group. Since conflict is inevitable, it should be accepted. And there are even times when conflict may benefit the performance of a group. This view dominated conflict theory from the late 1940s through the mid-1970s.The current approach is the interactionist view. It encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, cooperative group is likely to become static and apathetic--unable to respond to the challenges of the global marketplace. The major contribution of this approach is to urge group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimal level of conflict--enough to keep the group alive, self-critical, and creative.
***Two negotiation methods are distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining.When negotiating the price of a used car, the buyer and seller are engaged in distributive bargaining. This type of bargaining is a zero-sum game: any gain that one party makes comes at the expense of the other party. So, the essence is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie.The next technique assumes that more than one win-win settlement exists. Generally preferable to distributive bargaining, integrative bargaining builds long-term relationships because each negotiator can leave the table feeling victorious. For integrative bargaining to succeed, negotiators must be open, candid, sensitive, trusting, and flexible. All things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining. The former builds long-term relationships and facilitates future cooperation. The latter, on the other hand, leaves one party a loser; so it can build animosities and deepen divisions when people have to work together on an ongoing basis.
****Irrational escalation of commitment occurs when people continue a previously selected course of action beyond what rational analysis would recommend. Such misdirected persistence can waste a great deal of time, energy, and cash.The mythical fixed pie. Bargainers assume that their gain must come at the expense of the other party. By assu