ob - conflict & negotiation
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DESCRIPTIONPartially based on the Kreitner/Kinicki (2009, McGraw Hill/Irwin) textbook with updated data from a variety of cited sources.
- 1.Chapter 13Managing Conflict &Negotiating BUSA 220Spring 2012Wallace Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
2. Conflict One party perceives itsinterests are beingopposed or set back byanother party Is conflict always bad? During a conflict, ifsomeone used the termwar vs.opportunity, howwould it make youfeel?Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 3. Conflict Intensity & OutcomesPositiveNeutral Too little AppropriateToo muchconflictconflictconflictNegative Low ModerateHigh IntensityKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 4. Functional vs. Dysfunctional Functional Conflictserves organizationsinterests Typically issue-focused Stimulates creativity DysfunctionalConflict threatensorganizationsinterests Typically person-focused Breeds hostility Stifles communicationKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 5. Dysfunctional Conflict Costs Fortune 500 senior executives spend 20percent of their time in litigation activities. Typical managers spend up to 30 percent oftheir time dealing with conflict. The turnover costs for an employee areanywhere from between 75 percent and 150percent of their annual salary. 16 percent of employees report conflictwith a supervisor as the main reason forleaving their last job. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 6. Why Conflict Matters The best insurance against crossing theethical divide is a roomful of skeptics. CEOs must actively encourage dissentamong senior managers by creatingdecision-making processes, reportingrelationships, and incentives that encourageopposing viewpoints By advocating dissent, top executives cancreate a climate where wrongdoing will notgo unchallenged.Source: The crisis in corporate governance, 5/6/2002, BusinessWeek Special Report Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 7. Leadership w/out Easy Answers There is a relationship between transformational leadership, organizational citizenship and follower performance. There is an even higher correlation between the level of debate among subordinates and management and higher levels of successful innovation. Adaptive conflict, the ability of followers to have input, be heard and acknowledged by management, is at the core of successful transformational leadership. (Heifetz, 1994) Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 8. Conflict Sources Incompatible personalities or value systems Role ambiguity/ overload Interdependent tasks Competition for limited resources What else can you think of?Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 9. Desired Conflict Outcomes1. Agreement: strive for equitable and fair agreements that last2. Stronger Relationships: build bridges of goodwill and trust for the future3. Learning: greater self-awareness and creative problem solvingKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 10. Personality ConflictsDirk and Linda are working closely togetheron a project. However, they have verydifferent personalities and working styles. Forexample, Dirk prefers to create plans andchecklists and Linda has a more free-flowingapproach to work. Linda is now so frustrated she is concerned the project will not get completed. What type of conflict is this? What should she do?Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 11. Advice All employees need to be familiar with and follow company policies for diversity, anti- discrimination, and sexual harassment Communicate directly with the other person to resolve the perceived conflict Avoid dragging co-workers into the conflict If dysfunctional conflict persists, seek help from directKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 12. Dealing with PersonalityChris works with Dirkon another project.Dirk approaches Chrisand begins tocomplain about Linda. What type ofconflict is this? As a third-party, what shouldhe do? Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 13. Personality Conflict/Incivility Common examples of incivility Berating bosses Employees who take credit for otherswork Assigning blame Spreading rumors Excluding teammatesSource: Porath, C. & Pearson, C. (2009). How Toxic Colleagues Corrode Performance, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 87, pg. 24.Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 14. Personality Conflict ImpactsTargets of incivility reported: 48% decreased their work effort 47% decreased their time at work 38% decreased their work quality 66% said their performance declined 80% lost work time worrying about theincident 63% lost time avoiding the offender 78% said their commitment to theorganization declinedSource: Porath, C. & Pearson, C. (2009). How Toxic Colleagues Corrode Performance, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 87, pg. 24.Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 15. Managing Conflict Sarah, Dirk and Lindas boss, has just been informed that the completion of the project is in jeopardy due to conflict between Dirk and Linda. Linda is now so frustrated she is concerned the project will not get completed. As their manager, what should she do?Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 16. Overcoming Group Conflict Recommended actions:Level of perceived Work to eliminate specificintergroup conflictnegative interactions betweentends to increase when:groups Conflict within theConduct team building togroup is highreduce intragroup conflict and There are negative prepare employees for cross-interactions between functional teamworkgroups Encourage personal friendships Influential third-partyand good working relationshipsgossip about other group across groups and departmentsis negative Foster positive attitudes toward members of other groups Avoid or neutralize negative gossip across groups or departments Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 17. Building RelationshipsBehaviorRankBe a good listener1Be sensitive to the needs of others 2 TieBe cooperative not competitive2Advocate participative leadership 3Compromise rather than dominate 4Build rapport through conversations 5Be compassionate and understanding6Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony 7Nurture others (develop and mentor) 8Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 18. What Do You Think?The manufacturing and research departments ofXYZ corporation often have differentperspectives resulting in conflict. Within groupcohesiveness is strong but animosity across thegroups is growing. To promote harmony andfunctional conflict between the groups thecompany should NOT:a. Keep the groups apart to minimize interaction and conflict.b. Establish cross-functional project teams so members of both groups work together.c. Stop people who gossip about the other group.d. Have the groups attend a social function together.Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 19. Stimulating Functional ConflictDevils Advocacy Approach1. Action proposed2. Devils advocate criticizes it3. Both sides presented to decision makers4. Decision is made and monitoredDialectic Decision Method1. Action proposed2. Assumptions identified3. Counterproposal generated on different assumptions4. Debate takes place5. Decision is made and monitoredKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 20. Conflict Management StylesIntegratingObliging HighConcern for OthersCompromising LowDominatingAvoiding HighLowConcern for Self Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 21. What Do You Think? Alfonso tends to be an agreeable person with a high need for affiliation. When he encounters conflict situations at work which conflict management style is he most and least likely to use, respectively.a. Dominating; Integratingb. Integrating;Compromisingc. Compromising; Avoidingd. Obliging; Dominatinge. Avoiding; Obliging Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 22. Third Party Interventions Considered less political with low risk ofdysfunctional conflict.1. Reroute complaints by coaching the sender to find ways to constructively bring up the matter with the receiver. Do not carry messages for the sender2. Facilitate a meeting with the sender and receiver to coach them to speak directly and constructively with each other3. Transmit verbatim messages with the senders name included and coach the receiver on constructive ways to discuss the message with the senderKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 23. Third Party InterventionsConsidered more political with high risk of dysfunctional conflict.4. Carry the message verbatim but protect the senders name5. Soften the message to protect the sender6. Add your spin to the message to protect the sender7. Do nothing. The participants will triangle in someone else8. Do nothing and spread the gossip. You will triangle in others Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 24. Alternative Dispute ResolutionResolve conflict throughfacilitation, conciliation, peerreview, ombudsman, and: Mediation Neutral third party guidesparties to make amutually acceptablesolution Arbitration Parties agree to accept thedecision of the neutralarbitratorKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 25. NegotiationGive and take process between two parties. Distributive negotiation: Single issue;fixed-pie; win-lose. Integrative negotiation: More than oneissue; broadening the pie;win-win.Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 26. Integrative Negotiation StepsSeparately Jointly1. Clarify Interests 1. Identify1. Discuss respectivetangible and needs2. Identify options intangible2. Discuss respectiveneedselements of value3. Design alternative deal2. Identify3. Exchange deal packages elements ofpackagesvalue4. Discuss and select4. Select a Deal 3. Mix and matchfrom feasible dealelements ofpackages be creative5. Perfect the dealvalue into5. Discuss unresolveddifferent deals issues; build 4. Analyze deal relationships for futurepackages negotiations; put inproposed writing Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 27. Unethical Tactics Lies Exaggerated praise Deception Weakening the opponent Strengthening ones ownposition Nondisclosure Information exploitation Change of mind Distraction Maximization Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 28. What Do You ThinkBefore entering a negotiation with a client overthe price of his companys service, Ben thinksabout the clients interests and his companysinterests. He then brainstorms several optionsthat would satisfy both needs. The approachBen is taking represents:a. Integrative negotiationb. Distributive negotiationc. I win, you lose negotiationd. Compromise negotiationKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 29. Managing Conflict Tips Speak your mind andheart Listen well Express strong feelingsappropriately Remain rational for aslong as you can Review what has beensaid Learn to give and ta