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- 1.CONFLICT NEGOTIATION & INTER-GROUP BEHAVIOR
2. UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT
- CONFLICT IS THE DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN TWO OR MORE INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS OVER AN ISSUE OF MUTUAL INTEREST
3. SOURCES OF CONFLICT
- ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
- PERSONALITY CLASHES
- DIFFERENCES IN VALUE SETS
- THREATS TO STATUS
- PERCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES
4. CLASSIFICATION OF CONFLICTS
- INTRAPERSONAL CONFLICT
- Incompatibility between needs of the individual and the goals of the organization,and the absence of role clarity.
- Individual may face stress, frustration while achieving the goals.
5. CLASSIFICATION OF CONFLICTS
- INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT
- Is the result of differences in perception and gaps in communication.
- Individual feels that his image is under threat because of the actions of another individuals.
- INTERGROUP CONFLICTS
- The conflicts between groups are referred to as intergroup conflicts
- May arise due to differences in viewpoints or competition
6. THE CONFLICT PROCESS
- 1)Potential opposition or incompatibility
- (First stage) - Stimulating factors
- Disturbances in communication channels
- Differences in interpreting things
- Non -availability of information
7. THE CONFLICT PROCESS
- Role clarity of individuals & departments
- Leadership style,diversity of goals and reward systems
- Personal Variables
- Differences in personalities & value systems
- People who are highly aggressive and authoritative & pusses low self esteem are more likely to be involved in conflict
8. THE CONFLICT PROCESS
- 2) Cognition and Personalization
- (second stage)
- Ifthe conditions have a negative impact on the interests of an individual , he will develop hostility towards the individual or group & the conflict reaches the second stage.
- The individuals may become emotionally involved
- The parties may experience tension, anxiety, frustration.
9. THE CONFLICT PROCESS
- 3) Intentions (third stage)
- The individual attempts to discover the intentions of the other person so as to choose an appropriate action.
- Conflict handling intentions
- Dominating-High internal focus & low external focus
- Avoiding-Tries to avoid the other party
10. THE CONFLICT PROCESS
- Takes place when one party tries to satisfy the interest of other by sacrificing its own interests.
- All parties fully cooperate with each other. (win-win solution) which benefits all the parties.Compromising-
- Parties need to give up some of their demands to resolve the problem
11. THE CONFLICT PROCESS
- 4) Behavior (Fourth stage)
- The conflict becomes obvious because of the behavior of the conflicting individuals.
- This may be considered as attempt by one party to implement its intentions.
- Ex: Disagreements,negative remarks,& challenging fall along the lower side of the continuum
- Some amount of conflict is necessary to induce healthy competition.
12. THE CONFLICT PROCESS
- Verbal attacks,threats,ultimatums,physical attacks come on the upper side of the continuum
- If the conflict level is too low & insufficient to be resolved the level of conflict needs to be increased.
- Managers use conflict management techniques likeStimulus and Resolution
13. THE CONFLICT PROCESS
- Outcomes (last stage)
- Outcomes are the consequences that result from interaction amongconflicting parties
- Outcome may have positive or negative impact on the organization.
- Outcomes are classified as
- Functional outcomes & Dysfunctional outcomes.
14. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES
- Functional outcomesare the constructive consequences of a conflict.
- Improves the performance of the group or organization.
- Constructive conflictprevents the group from accepting decisions based on inaccurate assumptions & helps in improving performance
- Improves quality of decisions & adds creativity & innovation
- Ex- Cultural diversity
15. Dysfunctional Outcomes
- Are the destructive consequences of a conflict
- The situation goes out of control & conflict intensifies.
- Reduced communication, lower group cohesion & precedence to personal interests are important outcomes.
- Research suggests that in routine tasks the probability of the destructive conflict is more
16. Negotiations 17. NEGOTIATION
- The best way to resolve conflict is throughnegotiations.
- Negotiation is a process in which one party agrees to exchange a product or service with another party in return for something.
- Ex: Collective bargaining between labor unions & management.
- Approaches to negotiation are
- Distributive bargaining & integrative bargaining
18. Distributive Bargaining
- Assumes that there can not be any solution that could result in win-win situation
- Operates underZero- sumcondition
- Whenever a one party gains a certain amount another party suffers an equivalent loss.
- Form of a win-lose situation.
- Each party has a target point
- Resistance pointrepresents lowest acceptable outcomes.
- If the outcome is below its resistance point the party prefers tobreak offnegotiations.
- The area between the target & the resistance point represents the aspiration range of each of the parties
19. INTEGRATIVE BARGAINING
- Existence of one or more solutions to a problem that results inwin-winsituation.
- Helps to develop long term relationships between the negotiating parties,eliminate differences & ensures cooperation of other party in future.
20. Negotiation process
- Preparation & planning:
- Understands the nature & background of the conflict.
- Identifies the self goals as well as other parties goals.
- The negotiator prepares the strategy to be adopted by collecting possible information.
- Understanding priority objectives of the other party.
21. Negotiation process
- 2 )Defining Rules :
- Both parties arrive at the negotiation table & establish the basic rules & procedures that will guide the negotiation process.
- 3)Clarification & justification:
- Both parties exchange their demands & justify them.
- Present documents in support of their position
22. Negotiation process
- 4) Bargaining & problem solving:
- The parties start bargaining with each other.
- Each party gives concession to another party.
- The critical issues may be settled later on.
- Negotiating parties should take a break to avoid heated arguments.
- 5)Closure & implementation:
- The bargaining process is complete & the final agreement is written & signed.
- Monitoring & implementation of agreement.
23. ISSUES IN THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS
- Biases in decision making:
- Ex: Making commitments without considering their feasibility.
- Believes like women negotiators are soft
- Decision based on only available information.
- Personality trait:
- While preparing for the negotiation process the focus should be onbargaining issuesand thesituationalfactors rather than personality traits.
24. ISSUES IN THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS
- Cultural differences :
- French people tend to beindifferentto what their opponents think of them which results in prolonged negotiations.
- TheChinese & Japanesebelieve in building long -termrelationships & work out minute details of the agreement & obtain commitment from the another party to work together.
- Americansareimpatientand tries to end negotiations as early as possible.
25. ISSUES IN THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS
- NorthAmericansdepends on objectivesfacts & logicto support their arguments & give importance to time & deadline.
- Arabsfollows subjective feelings &emotionsto achieve the end.
- Russiansfollowexamplesto support their arguments.
26. ISSUES IN THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS
- Third-Party Negotiation
- When negotiations between the parties fail to result satisfac