conflict negotiation

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  • 1.CONFLICT NEGOTIATION & INTER-GROUP BEHAVIOR

2. UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT

  • CONFLICT IS THE DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN TWO OR MORE INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS OVER AN ISSUE OF MUTUAL INTEREST
  • (24)

3. SOURCES OF CONFLICT

  • ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
  • PERSONALITY CLASHES
  • DIFFERENCES IN VALUE SETS
  • THREATS TO STATUS
  • PERCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES

4. CLASSIFICATION OF CONFLICTS

  • INTRAPERSONAL CONFLICT
  • Incompatibility between needs of the individual and the goals of the organization,and the absence of role clarity.
  • Individual may face stress, frustration while achieving the goals.

5. CLASSIFICATION OF CONFLICTS

  • INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT
  • Is the result of differences in perception and gaps in communication.
  • Individual feels that his image is under threat because of the actions of another individuals.
  • INTERGROUP CONFLICTS
  • The conflicts between groups are referred to as intergroup conflicts
  • May arise due to differences in viewpoints or competition

6. THE CONFLICT PROCESS

  • 1)Potential opposition or incompatibility
  • (First stage) - Stimulating factors
  • Communication
  • Disturbances in communication channels
  • Differences in interpreting things
  • Non -availability of information

7. THE CONFLICT PROCESS

  • Structure
  • Role clarity of individuals & departments
  • Leadership style,diversity of goals and reward systems
  • Personal Variables
  • Differences in personalities & value systems
  • People who are highly aggressive and authoritative & pusses low self esteem are more likely to be involved in conflict

8. THE CONFLICT PROCESS

  • 2) Cognition and Personalization
  • (second stage)
  • Ifthe conditions have a negative impact on the interests of an individual , he will develop hostility towards the individual or group & the conflict reaches the second stage.
  • The individuals may become emotionally involved
  • The parties may experience tension, anxiety, frustration.

9. THE CONFLICT PROCESS

  • 3) Intentions (third stage)
  • The individual attempts to discover the intentions of the other person so as to choose an appropriate action.
  • Conflict handling intentions
  • Dominating-High internal focus & low external focus
  • Avoiding-Tries to avoid the other party

10. THE CONFLICT PROCESS

  • Accommodating-
  • Takes place when one party tries to satisfy the interest of other by sacrificing its own interests.
  • Problem-solving-
  • All parties fully cooperate with each other. (win-win solution) which benefits all the parties.Compromising-
  • Parties need to give up some of their demands to resolve the problem

11. THE CONFLICT PROCESS

  • 4) Behavior (Fourth stage)
  • The conflict becomes obvious because of the behavior of the conflicting individuals.
  • This may be considered as attempt by one party to implement its intentions.
  • Ex: Disagreements,negative remarks,& challenging fall along the lower side of the continuum
  • Some amount of conflict is necessary to induce healthy competition.

12. THE CONFLICT PROCESS

  • Verbal attacks,threats,ultimatums,physical attacks come on the upper side of the continuum
  • If the conflict level is too low & insufficient to be resolved the level of conflict needs to be increased.
  • Managers use conflict management techniques likeStimulus and Resolution

13. THE CONFLICT PROCESS

  • Outcomes (last stage)
  • Outcomes are the consequences that result from interaction amongconflicting parties
  • Outcome may have positive or negative impact on the organization.
  • Outcomes are classified as
  • Functional outcomes & Dysfunctional outcomes.

14. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES

  • Functional outcomesare the constructive consequences of a conflict.
  • Improves the performance of the group or organization.
  • Constructive conflictprevents the group from accepting decisions based on inaccurate assumptions & helps in improving performance
  • Improves quality of decisions & adds creativity & innovation
  • Ex- Cultural diversity

15. Dysfunctional Outcomes

  • Are the destructive consequences of a conflict
  • The situation goes out of control & conflict intensifies.
  • Reduced communication, lower group cohesion & precedence to personal interests are important outcomes.
  • Research suggests that in routine tasks the probability of the destructive conflict is more

16. Negotiations 17. NEGOTIATION

  • The best way to resolve conflict is throughnegotiations.
  • Negotiation is a process in which one party agrees to exchange a product or service with another party in return for something.
  • Ex: Collective bargaining between labor unions & management.
  • Approaches to negotiation are
  • Distributive bargaining & integrative bargaining

18. Distributive Bargaining

  • Assumes that there can not be any solution that could result in win-win situation
  • Operates underZero- sumcondition
  • Whenever a one party gains a certain amount another party suffers an equivalent loss.
  • Form of a win-lose situation.
  • Each party has a target point
  • Resistance pointrepresents lowest acceptable outcomes.
  • If the outcome is below its resistance point the party prefers tobreak offnegotiations.
  • The area between the target & the resistance point represents the aspiration range of each of the parties

19. INTEGRATIVE BARGAINING

  • Existence of one or more solutions to a problem that results inwin-winsituation.
  • Helps to develop long term relationships between the negotiating parties,eliminate differences & ensures cooperation of other party in future.

20. Negotiation process

  • Preparation & planning:
  • Understands the nature & background of the conflict.
  • Identifies the self goals as well as other parties goals.
  • The negotiator prepares the strategy to be adopted by collecting possible information.
  • Understanding priority objectives of the other party.

21. Negotiation process

  • 2 )Defining Rules :
  • Both parties arrive at the negotiation table & establish the basic rules & procedures that will guide the negotiation process.
  • 3)Clarification & justification:
  • Both parties exchange their demands & justify them.
  • Present documents in support of their position

22. Negotiation process

  • 4) Bargaining & problem solving:
  • The parties start bargaining with each other.
  • Each party gives concession to another party.
  • The critical issues may be settled later on.
  • Negotiating parties should take a break to avoid heated arguments.
  • 5)Closure & implementation:
  • The bargaining process is complete & the final agreement is written & signed.
  • Monitoring & implementation of agreement.

23. ISSUES IN THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS

  • Biases in decision making:
  • Ex: Making commitments without considering their feasibility.
  • Believes like women negotiators are soft
  • Decision based on only available information.
  • Personality trait:
  • While preparing for the negotiation process the focus should be onbargaining issuesand thesituationalfactors rather than personality traits.

24. ISSUES IN THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS

  • Cultural differences :
  • French people tend to beindifferentto what their opponents think of them which results in prolonged negotiations.
  • TheChinese & Japanesebelieve in building long -termrelationships & work out minute details of the agreement & obtain commitment from the another party to work together.
  • Americansareimpatientand tries to end negotiations as early as possible.

25. ISSUES IN THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS

  • NorthAmericansdepends on objectivesfacts & logicto support their arguments & give importance to time & deadline.
  • Arabsfollows subjective feelings &emotionsto achieve the end.
  • Russiansfollowexamplesto support their arguments.

26. ISSUES IN THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS

  • Third-Party Negotiation
  • When negotiations between the parties fail to result satisfac