conflict and negotiation

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  • 1.Conflict and negotiation Everybody negotiates. Some people like it, others hate it but all agree that the ability to negotiate well is a valuable business skill and therefore its something worth doing well. As the Al Capone character in The Untouchables said You get more with a kind wordand a gun, than you do with just a kind word.

2. Conflict and negotiation Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. Eg incompatibility of goals, differences over interpretations of facts, disagreements based on behavioral expectations. 3. Transitions in conflict thought Traditional view the belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. Human relations view of conflict The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. Interactionist view The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively. 4. Task Interdependence Pooled interdependence Sequential interdependence Reciprocal interdependence 5. Types of conflict Functional conflict conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. Dysfunctional conflict conflict that hinders group performance. Task conflict conflicts over content and goals of the work (3 types pooled interdependence, sequential interdependence, reciprocal interdependence) Relationship conflict conflict based on interpersonal relationships. Process conflict conflict over how work gets done. 6. Conflicts happen because of - Personality clash Gender clash Customer needs Biased treatment Changed / new hierarchy Superiors Cross cultural difference 7. Conflict process Stage 1 potential opposition or incompatibility Conditions communication, structure and personal variables Stage 2 cognition and personalization Experience perceived conflict (awareness of conditions that create conflicts) and felt conflict (emotional involvement which creates anxiety, tenseness, frustration and hostility) 8. Stage 3 intentions decisions to act in a given way. Primary conflict handling intentions are Competing Collaborating Avoiding Accommodating compromising 9. Stage 4 Behavior Partys behavior / others reaction Stage 5 outcomes Increased group performance / decreased group performance. 10. Conflict mgmt techniques Problem solving Super ordinate goals Expansion of resources Avoidance Smoothing Compromise Authoritative command Altering the human variable Altering the structural variables 11. Conflict Manager must Create a win win situation Find opportunity in adversity Defuse the situation immediately 12. Conflicts happen because of - Personality clash Gender clash Customer needs Biased treatment Changed hierarchy Superiors Cross cultural differences 13. Avoidance styles Resignation Withdrawal Defusion buy time for dealing with a conflict Appeasement the main objective is to buy temporary peace. 14. A conflict manager has to Create win-win situation Find opportunity in adversity Defuse situation immediately 15. To solve conflicts Game theory use mathematical models to predict the outcome of negotiation situations. Win win approach PRAM model of negotiations ie Plans Relationships - Agreement - Maintenance 16. Negotiation A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them. Distributive bargaining negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win lose situation. The essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie. Fixed pie is the belief that there is only a set amount of goods or services to be divided up between the parties. Less obvious eg of distributive bargaining is good cop bad cop routine. 17. Integrative bargaining negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win win solution. Compromising may be your worst enemy in negotiating a win win agreement. This is because compromising reduces the pressure to bargain integratively. 18. Negotiation process Preparation & Planning BATNA the best alternative to a negotiated agreement, the lowest acceptable value to an individual for a negotiated agreement. Definition of ground rules Clarification and justification Bargaining and problem solving Closure and implementation 19. Issues in negotiation Role of mood Role of personality Gender differences Cultural differences 20. III party negotiations Mediator a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives. Arbitrator a third party who has the authority to dictate an agreement ( mediation & arbitration are two popular forms of alternative dispute resolution) Conciliator a trusted III party who provides an informal communication link between the two parties. 21. Consultant an impartial III party skilled in conflict mgmt who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis.