nirma project

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After carrying survey in depth, I found the following information about the NIRMA Ltd., Kalatalav, Bhavnagar Dist. India rank is in top five in a production of soap and detergent. We all know that, the population of India increase day-to-day. Therefore the demand of soap and detergent also increase. So here wide scope for the development of these sort of industries. In India, there are few large manufacturers of soap and detergent, and NIRMA is one of theme. In this era of technology and internet people are also aware of brand and quality offered by the company. Therefore, there is a strong need to research by using such type of survey. The project gives information about the structure of organization, structure of each department, like, production department, marketing department, Human resource department, finance department, purchase and distribution department etc. the skill gives information about the classification of the skill and steps taken to impart the necessary skill to the employees. The style gives information about the work culture; decision-making, of the organization, the strategy gives information about the strategies used by the organization. The system gives information about the training system followed in the organization. The H.R.Dept. Gives information about the number of employees different skills in the organization. The shared values talk about the values of the organization. The summary of the annual report gives the information about that the organization is doing well and it is making a very good amount of profit and also the organization in terms of its financial capability is very good.


The filed of study is related to management emphasis greatly on getting knowledge of all aspects of the business and its functioning. The course of MBA has been designed in such a manner that the student gets adequate theoretical as well as practical exposure to various aspects of the management. The syllabus of MBA also covers a subject of the practical studies for which the student has to take training in some industrial concern. As a student of MBA, I got my placement as an internships trainee at NIRMA ltd. (Bhavnagar). NIRMA ltd. Is one of the big soap and detergent production Industry, which manufactures soap, detergent and salt. It produces various types of soaps, and detergents in all over the India. Its products meets international ISO 90012000 standards, and accepted in all over the world. It can perform best in the world. In this field. Practical training is a pant of MBA. So I have to pass through training in any company. Regarding that I got chance to work with the NIRMA ltd. For a 4 weeks Organization study training. The basic aim behind this project was to experience the environment of work performed by the managerial perspective. I have mentioned all the necessary information, which I have collected and observed during my visit. I was providing with all the necessary information and knowledge in production department, marketing department, Human resource department, finance department, purchase and distribution department etc. of the unit by the concerned authorities. It was really a nice and immortal experience for me to get training in such a company. It is a great pleasure to present this report work, training in this unit helped me to gain lots of practical knowledge which I am sure would benefit me in the future.


The main objective of this internship training is to gain a better

knowledge about the company, its policies, strategies and operations. The training is not just theoretical, rather practical on the job training.

An attempt is made to understand the working practices of the company. An attempt is made to know how an actual functioning of a company differs from the academic programmers henceforth gaining a better practical experience. To provide knowledge about the organization, that how it is working

and how it is managing, & controlling it. Internship training is better for the management student because it

provide deep knowledge of each department, like, production department, marketing department, Human resource department, finance department, purchase and distribution department etc. If students have knowledge about the company or industry, it may help

them in a future when they joint in any organization. Thus, above all are the objectives of organizational study. With help of this study student can know about the management of any company or industry.


This study is attempted to study the organization as a whole and also to

study the different departments in detail, so that the student get the detail knowledge about the company or industry. And also the functions of the various departments. This study focuses on functions of the various departments and

organization as a whole. This provides a wide scope for the student to gain an insight into the practical aspects of the working of an organization and thus increase managerial skills. In a organization, there are so many departments like, production

department, marketing department, Human resource department, finance department, purchase and distribution department etc. so detail study about the each of them. The scope of the organizational study is so wide. Because here we

have to study above all the department very deeply and carefully.


The main objective of this internship training is to gain a better knowledge about the company, its policies, strategies, operations. and Its management. Therefore, here, we have to apply some methods which are useful for the study of organization. And these methods are used in a organizational study. OBJERVATION:Direct observations are a best method for the organizational study. And conduct the data, if required. COLLECTION:After observation data collection is necessary. Because without collection of data you cant get information, when you want. DATA STORING:The data which are in processed and stored and keep ready to analyses. Stored data is very useful for getting information. DATA INTERPRETATION:After collecting data, here interpretation is very necessary. Because, if you interprets you can understand easily. SUGGESTION:After above all the steps my suggestion is that for getting real and useful information above all the steps are necessary for the researcher. Therefore researcher should apply above all the steps.

There are many limitations or constraints involved in doing the study. Some of them are as follows.


The major constraint was the timidity of the study.

The time period prescribed by Bangalore University is about 4 weeks.

Which is not enough for the study an organization? Some information which company keeps confidential. Which are related to the project. The data used in study is limited and is based on information provided

by NIRMA Ltd. Annual report 2007 and NIRMA Ltd. Booklets.


HISTORY OF THE COMPANY:The well known company NIRMA ltd. was started by Dr.K.K.Patel on 1969 with the name of the Nirma pvt. Ltd. But since November 1993 it becomes NIRMA public ltd.


The word NIRMAcomes from the word NIRUPAMA. A daughter of Dr.K.K.Patel, today NIRMA ltd. Having two brands NIRMA and NIMA. NIRMA ltd. (NIRMA chemical complex) is situated in remote location North-West of village Kalatalav in Banger district. At 45 kms. Away from Bhavnagar. The area of the plant is 23,987 acres. The total investment of the company is Rs. 25,000 crores, while in Kalatalav; the total investment is Rs. 2,700 crores. The total manpower of the NIRMA ltd. Is 14,000 while in Kalatalav, 850 employees and 1,200 workers are there. NIRMA ltd. The manufacturing soda ash, toilet soaps, detergent powder, detergent cake, glycerin, fatty acid and salt shampoo all. But salt shampoo is not manufacturing in Nirma chemical complex in Kalatalav. All plants of Nirma ltd. Are from Italy, Germany, and U.S.A. Cost effectiveness, quality, consciousness, integration of latest technology, unique marketing strategies and better team work made Nirma is a modern company. WORK IS WORSHIP Is the motto of shri Karashanbhai Patel. The chairman and the managing director of the Nirma. As it founder started in early ago. 35 years old Nirma is now over 1,500 crores group. In 60s and 70s were the domestic marketed had only premium segment with very few competitors and competitions. In 1969, Dr. Karashanbhai.K. Patel, a son of the farmer, was trying to mix soda ash and other intermediates to make a detergent product. He was a qualified science graduate is 100 sq. ft. back yard of his home. Using bare hand and bucket. Once the mixture is ready, he used to pack them in polythene Bag and was selling door-to-door. At Rs. 3 of per Bag. After some times, the product become well accepted in consumers community and changed the cloth washing habit of Indian Housewives. This is a success saga of Dr. Karashanbhai Patel, A first generation entrepreneurs. In short plan, He captured the domestic market with a quality product in true sense; He spearheaded the market revolution by offering innovative value for money products. NIRMA ltd. Had made a remarkable progress in 1980s period. And it has achieved superior market then its rival surf which was a well establishes detergent products of Hindustan Uni Lever Ltd. At that time.-9EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

In 2004, Nirma has achieved 8,00,000 tones annual sells making it one of the largest volume sales with a single brand name in the world batter in 1990. Nirma ltd. Stopped in to toilet soaps and it has achieved volume of the 10,000 per annum with this Nirma ltd. Become the largest detergent production and second largest in the soap brand production company in India with the market share of 38% and 20% respectively. And then after it was continued its efforts with strong determination and achieved many progression and today Nirma ltd. Having still many development projects with the help of which it can achieve the entire market.

ACHIEVEMENT OF NIRMA LTD. AT KALATALAV COMPLEX: Although plant site is located at a region of acute water storage and marshy impervious soil, has consistently built production level. Awarded by ICMA for Excellence in water resource management in chemical industry for the year 2002-2003. Awarded by Gujarat Safety council for Gujarat Safety award for the

year 2002-2003.- 10 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

Development of the green belt with more then 18,000 trees in salty land. Development of the rain water harvesting facilities for collecting precious water running to sea. Awarded by Saurashtra Chamber of commerce and industry Bhavnagar. For Chamber excel excellence in organization management for the year 2003-2004. Certified an ISO 9001-2000 company in March 2005 by TUV-

Rhineland. Nirma ltd. Is a big organization and current position is also very good. They need more expansion. Nirma future plants are ; Power plant Coke plant Pure water plan Cement plant

CONTRIBUTION OF UNIT TO THE INDUSTRY:Nirma industry started with small unit and today it is a giant unit. Which corers maximum market shares in chemical industry? In the every field Nirma gives its contribution such as; To maintain moderate dividend rate for their share-holders.

Follow all the rules and regulations of the governments.

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Maintained quality and because of their product in the market available

at cheaper rate. Contribution to social activities. Contribution in education activities and welfare activities.

CONTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRY IS AS FOLLOW: Nirma has developed its owned R & D Department, where research

and development be made and new products is prepared for selling into the market. The safety system of Nirma is out standing. Nirma has its own power generating station, therefore the process is

never stopped even though their shortage of electric power in Gujarat. Nirma has excellent HRM department an employer and employee

relations are very good.

INDUSTRY HIGHLIGHTS:Nirma is a named in every trusted in every household across India with decades of experience. Dudh si safedi Nirma se aye, Rangin kapade bhi khil khil jaye this

jingle is used since last 38 years at same radio spot has been used consistently since last 25 years. Nirma was founded on February 25, 1980 by Dr.K.K.Patel, who is

chairman and managing Director of this company.- 12 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

Nirma ltd. got registered as public ltd. Company on March 28, 1993.

The Company employees over 12,000 people directly or indirectly in the seven units. Nirma enjoys leadership presence in business of detergent and soaps. Nirma is leading FMCG Company instantly as Indian Brand for detergent and soaps operated with a mission to provide ; Better product. Better value. Better living. Nirma is the Indias largest detergent manufacturer and marketer. Nirma also introduced toilet soaps in the year of 1990 and today

Nirma is second largest manufacturer in the country. Largest player of Indian detergent market share of 38% Every machine capable of producing 500 soaps per minute. In 1980 Nirma was only Indian Brand to give advertising at Moscow

Olympic Game. Manufacturing fertilizers like; single super phosphate. Nirma recently has taken over the Saurashtra Chemical Ltd.

(Porbandar). And become highest Manufacturing of soda ash in the country. 3 million toilet soaps and 5 million detergent cakes per day are sold

into brand name of the NIRMA and NIMA. More then 3 lakh of packets of 1 kg.Nirma shudh salt is sold per

day. Nirma has largest salt work in Asia with the area of 22,000 Acers.

Nirma was the corporate company to sponsor the Films of Indian T.V.- 13 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

Nirma is the single brand name which has 400 millions of satisfied consumers. Nirma with its 32 branded products hold the market share of about

Rs.2,600 crores. Gross sales of Rs. 2,600 crores.

2,500 distributors and 20,00,000 retailers. 12,000 employees and 600 professionals.

DEPARTMENTS OF NIRMA INDUSTRY:Production Mechanical Instrument Raw material handling. (Lignite, coal, cock and Limestone) Packing handling.(soda) Laboratory Safety, Health and Environment Salt works Toilet soap and Fatty Acid Finance Account - 14 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

Administration Security Civil Raw material handling (Salt handling) Packing handling Technical Services Store Power Commercial Human Resource Department Audit Information Technology

These are the main departments. Wherever needed, the department is further divided in to sub- departments, like the sections we saw earlier. And now in quality policy of the Nirma Ltd., we can see the importance given to the quality as well as innovation and the cost effectiveness. Above all the departments are including in the NIRMA Ltd. In Kalatalav plant, Bhavnagar.


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1996:- Land acquisition 6555 acres for construction. 1998:- construction of soda ASH plant with capital out lay of estimated investment of 1050 Cr. 2000:- soda ASH plant commissioned of 1200 TPD capacity In March 2000. 2001:- Toilet soaps plant commissioned and detergent manufacturing started. 2003:- soda ASH plant capacity enhanced from 1200 TPD to 1800 TPD in February 2003 with an additional investment of 300 Cr.

NEW PROJECTS:o 240 tone per day caustic soda. o 800 tone per day stream Expansion.. o 20 MW turbines.


Private Ltd. Company In 1969 But since November 1993 it becomes NIRMA public ltd. CHAIRMAN :-

Dr. Karshanbhai.K.Patel. MANAGING DIRECTOR :-

Mr.Hirenbhai.K.Patel. WEB SITE :- AUDITOR :-

Himanshu Shah & Co. Charted accountant Ahmedabad. REGISTERED OFFICE :-

Nirma House, Ashram Road, Ahmedabad. 380 009 CITY OFFICE :-

2147, Modern Banglow, Near NCC office, Krishnagar, Bhavnagar 364 002 MACHINARY:Total machinery import from Italy, Germany and U.S.A.

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Better product, Better value, better living.

NAME OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Dr.Karshnbhai.K.Patel (Chairman). Mr.Rakeshbhai.K.Patel (Vice-Chairman). Mr.Hirenbhai.K.Patel (Managing Director). Mr.Kalpeshbhai.A.Patel (Executive Director). Mr.Shrenikbhai.K.Laibhai. (Director) Mr.M.R.Shroff. (Director) Mr.Rajendrabhai.D.Shah. (Director) Mr.Chinubhai.R.Shah. (Director) Mr.Kaushikbhai.N.Patel. (Director) Mr.A.P.Sarwan. (Director)


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KEY PERSONS Mr.D.G.Jakhade Mr.K.R.Adhia Mr.K.S.Vataliya Mr.Ashvinbhai.Patel Mr.K.C.Pathak Mr.R.N.Dave Mr.R.J.Joshi Mr.U.K.Rana Mr.K.G.Goswami Dr.S.L.Jain Mr.N.I.Wadia Mr.P.S.Parekh Mr.P.T.Chandasania Mr.D.D.Jadeja Mr.L.M.Mavani Mr.Rajesh.P.Patel Mr.Mehul.J.Desai Mr.Bhavin.Acharya Mr.Vimal.P.Badheka Mr.H.J.Jani

DESIGNATION Factory Manager. General Manager AGM Manager Sr. Manager Sr. Manager Manager Officer Manager Consultant DGM AGM Sr.Manager Dy. Manager Manager Manager Manager Assistent Assistant In charge

DEPARTMENT ----Technical service. Mechanical P&A Q.A. Commercial Salt Hand Store Instrumental Q.A. Utility Electrical Sr. Manager Salt work RHM- LLCC PWP & PH (Salt) Process HRD Security Heath


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Bhavnagar chemical complex, P.O.:- Kalatalav, Dis.:- Bhavnagar, Pin. : - 364 313.

Block No. :- 16 / B, Ahmedabad Mahesana Highway, P.O.:- Mandaly, Dis.:- Mahesana, Pin. : - 382 732. Post chacharwadi vasna, Near morden denim bavala road, Village :- Moraiya, T: - Sanand, Dis.:- Ahmedabad, Pin. : - 382 213. Alindra detergent complex, P.O.:- Alindra, T: - Savli, Dis.:- Baroda, Pin. : - 391 775. Wind farm project at survey No.691, Village: - Dhank, T: - Upleta, Dis.:- Rajkot, Pin. : - 372 396. Survey No., 358 369, Village: - Sachna, T: - Viramgam, Dis.:- Ahmedabad, Pin. : - 382 150.

VISION& MISSIONS OF THE COMPANY:Nirma is a customer- focused company committed to consistently offer better quality products and services that maximize value to the customer.- 20 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

This customer- centric philosophy has been well emphasized at Nirma through; Continuously exploring and development new products and process.

Laying emphasis on cost effectiveness. Maintaining effectiveness quality management system. Complying with safety, environment and social obligations. Imparting training to all involved on a continuous basis. Teamwork and active participation all around. Demonstrating

belongingness and exemplary behavior towards organization, its goals and objectives.

Nirma is a phenomenon and synonymous with value for money. The brand transcends the specific dynamic of any particular product category, which is The best captured in its above mission statement. A statement of sustained innovation, an unceasing effort to deliver better value to consumers, through better product quality.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

TATA Chemicals Ltd. NIRMA Ltd. Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Ltd. Saurashtra Chemicals Ltd. Dhangadhra Chemical work. Tuticoring Alkali Chemicals Ltd.

2,400 TPD 1,800 TPD 1,800 TPD 1,000 TPD 800 TPD 600 TPD

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NIRMA produces following products in Kalatalav chemical complex; DETERGENT POWDER: Super Nirma detergent powder.

Nirma detergent powder. detergent powder. Nirma washing powder. Nirma popular detergent powder.

DETERGENT CAKE: Super Nirma detergent cake. Nirma detergent cake. Nirma popular detergent cake.

Nirma olean. Blue Nirma detergent cake. Green Nirma detergent cake. Nirma barten bar. BATHING SOAPS:

Nirma beauty soap. Nirma bath soap. Nirma premium soap. Nirma lime fresh soap. Nirma herbal soap. Nirma harbalina. Nima rose. Nima sandal. Nima vinner.

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS: Linear alkyl benzene. Sulphuric Acid.- 23 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

Glycerin. Fatty Acid. Soda Ash. OTHER PRODUCTS: Shudh iodized free flow salt. Power. Pure water. Thus, above all the products are produces in the NIRMA company. In Kalatalav branch.

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Kalatalav site board of Director Executive Director










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MANUFACTURING MANAGEMENT What is the production management? Effective production management involves understanding of the characteristics of various types of production systems, identification of the dynamics of the different phases of the management process, realizing the potential of different analytical tools, learning the nuances of the implementation of these tools, visualizing the impact of various uncertain situations and developing the ability to react under various scenarios to achieve consistently excellent business results. There are evidences to show how a number of organizations achieved world class status by effective management of their production systems. These organizations achieved superior quality, higher productivity, perfect delivery performance, overall customer satisfaction and enterprise excellence all with lower cost. Objectives of Production Management:(A) Manufacturing costs (B) Product quality (C) Manufacturing schedule (D) Machinery and Equipment (E) Materials (F) Manpower (G) Manufacturing services Scope of production and operation management:(A) Product selection and design (B) Process selection and planning (C) Facilities Location (D) Facilities Layout and Materials handling (E) Capacity Planning Types of production system:(A) Mass Production (B) Batch Production (C) Job Shop (D) Projects

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In Production Management, there are various techniques are used. They are as under explained. (1) Materials Handling:Materials handling refers to moving the materials form the storeroom to the machine and form one machine to the next machine during the process of manufacturing. (2) Method Study:Method study is the technique which analyses each operation of given piece of work very closely in order to eliminate unnecessary operations and to approach the quickest and easiest method of performing each necessary operation. It is called method study. Process of the method study:Select Record Examine (3) Work Study:Work study defined as that body of knowledge concerned with the analysis of the work methods and the equipments used in performing a job, the design of an optimum work method and the standardization of proposed work method. (4) Work Measurement:Work measurement is defined as the application of techniques designed to establish the work content of a specified task by determined the time required for carrying out the task at a defined standard of performance by a qualified worker. (5) Plant Layout:A good layout is one which allows materials rapidly and directly for processing. This reduces material handling, clerical and other costs down pre unit, space requirements are minimized and it reduces idle machine and idle man time. Develop Install

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(6) Plant Location:Plant location may be defined as the function of determining where the plant should be located for maximum operating economy and effectiveness. Plant location is the most important decision for every manufacturing unit. (7) Inventory Management:Inventory management is a function which aims for integrated approach towards the management of materials in an industrial undertaking. Its main object is cost reduction and efficient handling of inventories at all stages and all sections of undertaking. (8) Production Planning and Control:Production planning and control functions look after the manufacturing activities. Production planning and control comprise the planning, routing, dispatching, in the manufacturing process so that the movements of materials, performance of machine are directed and coordinated as to quantity, quality, time and places. The main objective of production control is to produce the product of right quality in right quantity at the right time by using the best and least expensive method.

MARKETING MANAGEMENT Marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what through creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with others. Core concepts of marketing Target markets and segmentation: Marketplace, Marketspace, and Metamarket Marketers and Prospects- 31 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

Needs,Wants,and Demands Product, Offering, and Brand Value and Satisfaction Exchange and Transactions In marketing management, there are various concepts available. They are as follows. The production concept:The production concept holds that consumers will prefer products that are widely available and inexpensive. Managers of production-oriented business concentrate on achieving high production efficiency, low costs, and mass-distribution. The product concept:The product concept, which holds that consumers will favor those products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features. Managers in these organizations focus on making superior products and improving them over time. The selling concept:The selling concept holds that consumers and businesses, if left alone, will ordinarily not buy enough of the organizations products. The organization must, therefore, undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort. This concept assumes that consumers typically show buying inertia or resistance and must be coaxed into buying. The marketing concept:The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving its organization goals consists of company being more effective than competitors in creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value to its chosen target markets.

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Financial Management Financial management is the process of allocating funds as a short term and long term to the deficit. It should be an optimally allocation of funds. It is known as financial management. There are main two objectives of the financial management. 1. Profit Maximization 2. Wealth Maximization Lets we explain in details of these two main and primary objectives. 1. Profit Maximization:Profit Maximization is the main and primary objectives of every organization. Therefore It would be said as increasing earnings capacity at the each of the year. 2. Wealth Maximization:Wealth Maximization is the second primary objectives for every organization. It means increasing market value of the shares. Therefore, ultimately every stake holders will get benefits form that. There are various techniques which used in financial management by every manager. These are as follows. Cost of Capital The cost of capital is an important input in the capital budgeting decision. Conceptually, it refers to the discount rate that would be used in determining the present value of estimated future benefits associated with capital project. In operational terms, it is defined as the weighted average of the cost of each type of capital. The elements being the cost of each components of the capital. The major long term sources of the funds are as follows. (A) Debts (B) Preference share (C) Equity Capital, and (D) Retained earnings. And in the calculation of the weighted average cost of- 33 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

capital, there may be two costs are involved like Historical and Marginal cost. Capital Budgeting:Capital budgeting is the paramount importance as the framework future development, and the major determinant of efficiency and comparative power of a firm. It relates to fixed or long term assets, which are defined as assets that are in operation and yield return over period of time. It, therefore involves a current outlay in return for a series of anticipated future benefits. Thus, the system of capital budgeting is employed to evaluate decision s that current outlay, but are likely to produce benefits over period of time. Such decisions may be classified into (a) income expansionary, (b) cost reduction (c) time value of money, (d) capital rationing. And at the last, the data requirement for capital budgeting is incremental after tax cash flows. Leverages:Leverages provide the framework for financing decisions of the firm. It may be defined as the employment of an assets or source of funds for which the firm has to pay a fixed cost, or fixed return. There are various types of leverage. They are as follows, Operating leverage Financial leverage Combined leverage

Operating leverage:Operating leverage means, it the ratio between contribution and EBIT (Earnings before interest and taxes) Financial leverage:Financial leverage means, it is the ratio between EBIT and EBT.- 34 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

Combined leverage:Combined leverage means, it is the multiplication of operating and financial leverages. And it is the ratio between Contribution and EBT. Capital Structure Capital structure refers to the mix or different sources of financing to the total capitalization. A capital structure theory explains the theoretical relationship between cost of capital and the value of the firm. The important approaches are: Net income approach Net operating income approach Net income approach:According to NI approach, capital structure is relevant, as a change in it will lead to a corresponding change in the cost of capital and the total value of the firm. Net operating income approach:Net operating income approach has totally irrelevant capital structure. A change in leverage will not cause any change in the cost of capital and value of the firm. Apart form these are the techniques, there are other techniques being used in the financial management. They are as follows. Working capital Inventory management Cash management Leasing

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Receivables management Ratio analysis Human resources Management:-

Human Resources management is concerned with the people dimension in management. Since organization is made up of people acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to high levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieving organizational objectives. This is true regardless of the type of organization government, business, education, health, recreation also social action. Getting and keeping good people is critical to the successes of every organization, whether profit or non profit public or private. Human resource planning:HRP is the process by which an organization can ensure that it has the right number and right types of people at the right places, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently finishing the tasks which can assist organization to attain its overall objectives. HRP then converts the objectives and plans of the organization into the number of workers needed achieve such objectives. Recruitment:Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. This definition can be analyses by discussing the process of recruitment through system approach. Training:Training is defined as the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. Training consists of planned program designed to improve performance at the individual groups, and there have been measurable changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes and social behavior. Remuneration of executives The executive compensation has become an integral part of management they are salary long-term incentives bonus perquisites (perks)

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DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF PRODUCTION:The production of soda Ash involves a number of operations which have been into process, utilities (water, power Air etc.). Section: - 100 Section: - 200 Section: - 300 Section: - 400 Section: - 500 Section: - 600 Section: - 700 Section: - 1000 Section: - 1100 Section: - 1200 Section: - 1300 Section: - 1400 Section: - 1500 Section: - 2000 Section: - 3000 Section: - 3100 Section: - 3200 Section: - 3300 Section: - 3400 :- Brine preparation and purification. :- Lime kilns and Gas cleaning. :- Adsorption and Distillation. :- Compression and carbonation. :- Filtration and calcinations. :- Densification. :- Soda Ash storage and bagging. :- Waste Treatment. :- Steam Distribution and power Generation. :- Steam Generation. :- Water Treatment. :- Cabling and chilled water. :- Pressurized Air. :- Salt washing. :- Pure water plant. :- Evaporation plant. :- Salt Drying. :- Salt storage and Handling. :- Salt Packing.

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PRODUCTION SUMMARY:For a right understanding of the process, a short summary is necessary. Soda Ash is produced from the raw- materials salt and limestone. Salt is dissolved in water (or purified seawater, section 100) and limestone is converted into lime and carbon dioxide with the aid of cokes (section 200). Using the solvay process the NaCl solution is ammoniated first to facilitate CO2 absorption (section 300). (Ammonia is not consumed by the process but recovered after use and recycled). Absorption of CO2 in the ammoniated brine results in precipitation of bicarbonates (section 400). The precipitated bicarbonates are separated from the mother liquor and transformed into light soda Ash by calcinations (section 500). The CO2 formed by calcinations is recover and used for carbonation (section 600). Necessary steam and power is generated in a cogenerations plant consisting of lignite boiler and turbines.

PRODUCTION CAPACITY (per Annuam):The production of soda Ash during the year 2006-2007 in India was of the order of 27.30 lakh metric tones as against the 24.20 lakh metric tones of previous year. In increase 4.10 lakh metric tones.

PRODUCTIONLight soda Ash Dense soda Ash Vacuum salt Toilet soap Detergent powder Pure water plant

CAPACITY (Tonnes per Annuam)4,38,000 TPA 2,19,000 TPA 2,92,000 TPA 73,000 TPA 73,000 TPA 8,17,600 TPA

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PRODUCTION CAPACITY (per Day):PRODUCTIONLight soda Ash Dense soda Ash Vacuum salt Toilet soap Detergent powder Detergent cake Solar salt Fatty Acid Pure water Generation

CAPACITY (Tonnes per Day)1,800 TPD 600 TPD 800 TPD 200 TPD 200 TPD 300 TPD 1,20,000 TPD 225 TPD 2240 TPD


The production of soda Ash involves a number of operations, which have been grouped in to six- process sections. And seven- service selection. For the right understanding of the process a short summery is necessary. Soda Ash is produced from the row material salt and limestone, salt is dissolved in water or purified sea water (sec.-100) and limestone is converted into lime and carbon dioxide with the aid of cokes (sec.-200). Using the solvay process the NaCl salutation is ammoniated first to facilitate CO2 in the ammoniated brine result in preparation of bicarbonate (sec.-400). The precipitated bicarbonates are separated from the mother liquor and transform into light soda Ash by calcinations (sec.-500) the CO2 formed by calcinations is recover into dense soda Ash densification (sec.- 600),- 40 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

necessary steam and power is generated into cogeneration plant consisting of lignite fired boiler and turbines, (sec.-3000-3400) comes in pure water plant operation. The capacity is 1,800 TPD.


Soda Ash plant need pure water, that water is given by this plant, which is basically, supported plant. Pure water plant can be feed by; Sea water. Raw brine. Purified brine. Starting feed stock, low pressure stream is used for evaporation to only one effect, pure water is produced by use of triple effect, vapor used as heating medium of evaporation under vacuum conduction, salt anhydrite crystal is back washed with brine after every effect for quality, up gradation salt is washed and dried through Fluidized bad dryer, vacuum salt is stored in silos, vacuum salt is dried through fluidized bed dryer after extraction from silo, salt is iodized for edible purpose with activities has no human interface, salt is transported to packing section, where edible purpose iodized salt is packed in 1 kg / 500 gm. Purchase vacuum salt for industrial usages is pocked in 50kg. Bags.


First of raw oil / fat is passed through high pressure, autoclave for splitting with high pressure steam, when oil fat is split into crude fatty Acid and sweet water, which are collected their respective settings tanks. Crude fatty Acid is than heated desecrated and fed into distillation still where it is distilled under vacuum the vapors of the distilled fatty Acid are conversed in the condenser and distilled fatty Acid at collected in the storage tank, the recycle from the distillation still is collected separately which is recycled for the further recovery of fatty Acid. Fatty Acid are specified with caustic solution in crutches to produced sodium salt of fatty Acid which is called soap obtained in liquid from the liquid soap is then vacuum dried and obtained bar. From the soap is then perfumed and color. The finished bar is- 41 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

cut into require size and stamped. The cake are then wrapped and packed for sale. The sweet water after giving necessity treatment is evaporated and distilled to glycerin.


The separated and slurry is now neutralized with soda Ash and sodium salt of linear alkyl benzene so obtain standardize by addition of extender and fillers. The yellow color is dissolved in water and is added in water and is added in mass to obtain the standard synthetic detergent powder.


Pure water plant support concert sea water into pure water with modern technology and successful operation capacity to produce 81,76,000 TPA. Triple effect facility, and firm evaporation flexibility to only one effect. This plant gives pure drinking water used in utility.

TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT: Soda Ash, vacuum salt and solar salt works Design ; Technical know how: - M/S. Akazo Nobel, the Netherlands. Detailed Engineering: - M/S. Jacobs H & G, Bombay. Fatty Acid plant: - C.M.B. Italy. Toilet soap plant: - Binacchi & co. Italy.

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY:Soda Ash plant process is based on Akazos dry limited technology having salient feature as; Conservation of energy by 15%.

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Reduction in liquid effluent by 2.5M3/MT of soda Ash. Improved materials of construction.

Improved in engineering design.

UTILITIES: Steam and power: - captive power plant. Sea water: - Gondola intake station. Sweet +water: - pure water plant / R.O. plant.

MAJOR EQUIPMENTS:Boilers Steam Turbines CO2 Compressors Lime kilns Cabonation Towers Calciners R.O. plant Pure water plant Lurgi lentjes energietechnik, IJT Toyo Benki, Bhel Man Ghh FFE Minerals, IPZ CAS, ISGEC CAS, Kilburn Thermax, Hydraunautics AKZO Noble

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NIRMA purchase only soda Ash light and soda Ash dense from out side of the India. Means, company import the soda Ash light and soda Ash dense from other country. And other raw- materials are produced in a company. Company imports soda Ash light and soda Ash dense from following countries: The following information is from last three Years;

YEAR :- 2004 2005 :-

Soda Ash Dense (Na2co3) :COUNTRIESBulgaria China Kenya Korea Romania Russia Unspecified TOTAL :-

QUANTITY(IN METRIC TONNES) 7,648.00 5.00 34,332.17 324.00 480.00 12.10 495.00 43,296.26

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Bulgaria China Switzerland TOTAL :-

1,952.00 100.00 42.00 2,094.00

YEAR :- 2005 2006 :-


Brunei Bulgaria Germany Kenya Korea Malaysia

6.00 25,078.00 2.50 85,026.42 620.00 21.00- 45 -


Myanmar Romania Turkey U.K. Ukraine TOTAL: -

3.00 580.00 1,048.00 10.00 300.00 1, 12,695.57


Bulgaria Germany Kenya Turkey United Arab Emirates Ukraine U.S.A. TOTAL: -

10,416.88 0.10 1,582.00 550.00 79.00 440.00 40.00 13,107.98

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YEAR :- 2006 2007 :-


Bulgaria Canada China Hong Kong Iran Kenya Romania Ukraine TOTAL: -

25,092.00 494.00 2,010.00 300.00 247.00 1,336.00 10,008.00 570.00 40,057.00

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Soda Ash Light ((Na2co3) :COUNTRIES QUANTITY (IN METRIC TONNES) 0.12 96.60 94.00 0.83 646.00 0.21 TOTAL: 837.76

Belgium Chile China Germany Kenya U.S.A.

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Marketing is typically seen as the task of creation, promoting and delivering Gouda amid service to the consumer and business.


Marketing management is the art and science of choosing target market andgetting, keeping and growing customers through creating, delivering and communication superior customer value. Marketing people are involved in 10 types of entities goods services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organization, information and ideas. The success of every business depends upon its a choice of various marketing tools. In the cutthroat competition to sales the product is very difficult job. So the position of the marketing includes predict positioning and target marketing consist all those effort, which effect transfer of goods and case for their physical distribution. If the unit only focus on the production and dont market the sales level will be negligible. So marketing is important for any unit for its survival marketing is also process involves analysis, planning implementation and control. It is essentially bridge between production and consumption.


Product planning may be defined as Evaluation of the range, mix specification and pricing of existing and new products in relation to present and future market requirements and competition. Planning and product range, mix specification and pricing to satisfy company objective and specifying the research, design and development support required.

WHY NIRMA DO IT? :- 50 -


If the company fined any problem in the present product by passing resolution a company changes its product and its process. A Nirma has make advance market analysis of the different technology, size of the soaps and detergent, so that it can put in a market its new product, than its competitor. Product planning is the necessary for the growth and development of the company. In the Nirma, this is not to say that product planning is the prerogative of top management, indeed it is a function, which is most usually discharged by line management.

MARKET SEGMENTATION:Market segmentation is the process of dividing the total market for goods or service to several smaller groups. There are four Market segmentations. Geographic. Demographic. Psychographic. Behavioral based. At Nirma market segmentation had done on the basis of Demographic segmentation factors such as states regions, cities or neighborhoods. The company is selling its product in all over the India.

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Advertising is any paid from of non- personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services. By an identified sponsor. Advertising include not only business firms, but also museums charitable organizations and government agencies that direct messages to target publics. Organizations handle Advertising in different ways. In small companies some one in the sales or marketing department, who works with an Advertising agency, handles Advertising. In the Nirma, marketing department handle Advertising. The company uses the following media for the Advertising. Newspaper. Magazine. Road poster. Well painting.

4 Ps OF NIRMAIn marketing mix 4 Ps of the Nirma; product, price. Place and promotion.

PRODUCT : Nirma produced two types of products ; NIRMA and

NIMA Detergent and toilet soaps. Premium and standard quality. Blue detergent cake and yellow detergent powder. Super Nirma soap, Super Nirma Detergent, Popular Nirma Detergent, Popular Nirma soap, Nirma clean dish wash bar,- 52 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

Nirma shudh salt, Nima bartan bar, nima rose, nima sandal, nima lime fresh, etc. 30 products it produced. Good valuable products.

PRICE : Company offered different price level for the different products.

Like; the price of Nirma Detergent and Popular Nirma Detergent is different from each other. Same as Nirma soap and Nima soap price is also different from

each other.

PLACE : Nirma sell its soaps and detergent in all over the India. Its depot branche offices available at Kalatalav, Mandaly, Moraiya, dhank, Savli, Upleta, Viramgam etc.

PROMOTION : Nirma has spent lots of money in outdoor publicity, especially in

wall paintings and T.V. Advertising. One can easily found Nirma wall painting in any wall of the house located in the city and also across the national highways. In addition, so many hoardings have been placed in metro cities. Nirma was the first advertising company which give their

advertise on T.V. screen. Dudh si safedi Nirma se aye, Rangin kapade bhi khil khil jaye

this jingle is used since last 38 years at same radio spot has been used consistently since last 25 years. Thus, above 4 Ps of the Nirma Ltd. Which show the Nirmas product, price. Place and promotion. Today Nirma practices with these 4Ps.

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For every company growth and development distribution channel played a very significance role for them. While selecting appropriate channel of distribution analyzing and understanding the target market is the first step in selecting distribution channel.

What are the distribution objectives?Distribution objective are defined for a product market in terms of availability of the product. Most companies dont monitor the ability of the distribution network to achieve distribution objective or the cost of the distribution.

Distribution network design:Manufacturing plants warehouses material handling, distribution and after sales services are typical logistics facilities. Distribution network design is one of the prime responsibilities of the management. It is requiring determine the number and location of all types of facilities required to perform logistics task.

Distribution cost:Distribution costs are those cost incurred in finished products from factory to customers. It covers transportation, insurance, operating, expenses, warehousing storage rent and administrative expenses of channel of distribution.

Channel of distribution:Channel of distribution are mainly concerned with the physical distribution of goods and services. They also help enhance promotion and selling and import marketing controls. It is a distribution network through producers puts his product, in the hand of actual users.

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Objective of the distribution channel: To ensure availability of product at point of sale at right time. To build channel members loyalty. To stimulate channel member to put greater selling efforts. Develop managerial efficiency in channel of the organization. A distribution system is a key external resource. It ranks in importance with key internal resources such as manufacturing, research, engineering and field sales personnel and facilities. Nirma has a marketing network all over the India in the states of the Gujarat, Maharashtra, Utter Pradesh, etc. states.

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Finance is the blood of any organization.Financial is the most important thinking, which is concerned with the planning and controlling of the firms financial sources. Finance management is the administrative area or set of the administrative function, which relate to the arrangement of each area in such a way that the organization may have means to carry out its objectives as satisfactory as possible. It can also be said that Finance is the blood of organization. Without enough finance the organization cant exist for along time finance is key position for smooth functioning of business activities. Finance is the basis and which the whole structure of an organization based management of finance is one of the vital and critical areas of the management in all type of organizations. The main objective of the unit is to maximize the profit and management of the finance.


EVENT First Quarter Results Annual Results of 2006-2007 Mailing of Annual Reports Annual General Meeting Payment of Dividend Second Quarter Results Third Quarter Results

PERIOD End of July 2007 30th August 2007 1st week of September 2007 29th September 2007 3rd October 2007 onwards End of October 2007 End of January 2008

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INTRODUCTION :We recruit and retain the best talent Human resources management is an inevitable part of the organization Employees hold a key position in the business for the fulfillment of organization objectives. The personal manager has to do several function like ; Recruitment, selection, interview, promotion, transfer etc. the personal management is also know about labor management, industrial relation, man power, management.

PERSONAL MANAGEMENT :It is that phase of the management which deals with the effective control and use of manpower as distinguished from other sources of power. The business plan must also logically sound and the structure of the organization must be perfect otherwise the recruitment and training of personnel results into a haste and unscientific manner, which will prove as hindrance the path of growth of companys business.


Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating than organization. Normally, organizational can fill up its vacancies through two phases, either through the promotion of people available in the organization and through the selection of people from out side. Thus, these are two sources for the recruitment of the personal vacancies external and internal.

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INTERNAL RECRUITMENT :Internal recruitment means when any organization fills its vacancies through the promotions of its existence employee, its known as internal recruitment. Promotion Demotion Layoff Transfer


In external recruitment, the companies recruit the manpower from the outside sources, there are many sources through which organization fill up its vacancies such as advertisement, employment agency, company recruitment, duplication employee recommendation, labor union etc. According to the chart they take interview and select the persons.

THIRD PARTY METHOD :The company cant use the third party method in recruitment process. In the NIRMA, there are also many method uses in recruitment. Some time they give an advertise in newspaper, internet. Then all the applications are handle by five to six persons in which one is the managing Director and one is the personal manager and one or two directors etc., than according to vacancy they recruit the person.

SELECTION :The selection procedure is concerned with securing relevant information about an application. This information is secured in a number of steps or stages. The objective of selection process is to determine whether an application meets the qualification for a specific job and to choose the- 60 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

applicant who is most likely to perform well in that job. The following is the selection process by which NIRMA select best candidate from the given;

Reception Application Preliminary Interview Application Blank Psychological Test Interview Reference Check Physical Examination Final Interview PlacementFollowing are the basis criteria upon which the selection is done. Working experience

Age Ability to work Skilled unskilled Knowledge about work- 61 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG


PERSONAL RECORDS :Generally all the companies keep record of the performance of their employees. But NIRMA Ltd. Only records of the general information about the employees and not all the information as well as other companies. NIRMA Ltd. Keep the following records in personal records. Records of the activity works performance and all information about

the employee, like; Name, Age, Designation etc. Records of the wage, salary and commission. Records of the performance and evaluation training. Records of level, transfer and promotion. Records of health and safety etc.


The training is the process by which aptitude, skills and abilities of the employee to perform special job are increased. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behavior. It attempts to improve their performance on the current or prepare them for an intended job. There are two types of training methods; On the job training. Off the job training. On the job training means, training is given to employees at that time when they perform the work. Training is most important and commonly done on the job, it requires no special school. There is no specific department of training in the organization. Because the organization is not required high skill employees. NIRMA ltd. Use on the job training method for the new employees. They give training to their employees by their supervisor.- 62 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

NIRMA Ltd. Not use the off the job training method to trained their employees.

DEVELOPMENT :It covers not only those activities, which improve job performance but also those, which bring about growth of the personality, help the individuals in the progress towards maturity and actualization of their potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but also better men and women in the organization terms, it is intended to equip persons to earn promotion and hold greater responsibility. NIRMA holds a seminar for the managerial level and employee in every year for the development. In the necessary things is through to the employees for their development.

WAGE AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION :Wage and salary administration refers to the establishment and implementation of the sound policies and practical of employees compensation. It included such area as job evaluation, wage and salary or relevant organization problem. Development and maintenance of wage payment in centimes, profit sharing wage charges and adjustment supply manner and other related items All the employees, workers and managers are provided regular wage and salary. Rs. 4000 to 6000 is given to skilled workers per month. The assistant general managers are paid in scale of Rs. 6000 to 15000.

PAYMENT SYSTEM :The wage and salary paid on 6th or 7th of the month. NIRMA ltd., the entire staff members are provided salary by cheque.

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For the salary the management department of personal has denied us open their salary policy. If any employee come to his work on public holiday, or he do overtime, for that the company pay them more according to their work. The company pays wage and salary for overtime according to their policy.

ENVIRONMENT :Being a responsible corporate citizen Nirma is fully committed to making a world safer place to live and enhance environment awareness among community members. Every employee of the Nirma ltd. Is encouraged and educated about the environment protection and conservation of natural resources. All the manufacturing processes and equipments designed either reduce or completely eliminate pollution. Nirma fully complies with laws pertaining to environment Protection and conservation. We aim to implement globally recognized environment management systems in tandem with our business goals

HEALTH AND SAFETY :Safety of our employees is of paramount importance. In order to attain the goal of complete safety at work. We at Nirma have charted out a comprehensive health and safety programmed for our employees. We have incorporated latest safety methods and maintain excellent standards of safety in the industry. All manufacturing processes and equipments are check periodically to meet our stringent safety requirements and norms. In order to avert any unforeseen hazard we educate our employees about vital first-aid procedures along with mandatory training in fire safety drills. We increase awareness among employees through adequate health education and counseling sessions. At Nirma an atmosphere conductive to express concerns over safety methods or suggestions to improve safety methods has been created.

GRIEVANCE HANDLING :A grievance may be define as any feeling of discount or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or not and whether expressed or not and out of anything- 64 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

connected with the company than an employee thinks, believes or even feels is unfair, unjust or inequitable. A grievance may be; Unvoiced or stated by the workers. Written or unwritten. Valid or ridiculous and may arise out of something connected with the company policy or actions. In the following way the grievance handling in the Nirma Ltd. STEP: - 1 The aggrieved employees present his grievances in writing to his foreman or supervisor. If the foreman aggrieved employee and union representative fail to work out a settlement or grievance, the dispute in the written form is sent to a higher step in a procedure. STEP: - 2 The middle management and the union committee look into the grievance. Man if the situation remains unsettled as the third step, the case is forward to top management and top union officials. STEP: - 3 Top management representatives and top- union official discuss the grievance, which by this time has become issued that has political implications. STEP: - 4 If the Top management and union leaders fail to settle the issue, the forth step, than is to submit the same to an impartial arbitrator for a final decision as to the action required. It is the best, if the grievance gets settled at the level of supervisor and union representative.

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-: TIME KEEPING SYSTEM:This is a just a schedule, which is compulsory obeyed by their employees. in simple worlds time keeping system in just to recovered their employees entry and exit records. Nirma is very punctual and strict about time. It wants all its employees to reach at Nirma in time or before the time but not a late.

Working Hours:Shift A: Shift B: Shift C: Shift G: 7:00 a.m. To 3:00 p.m. To 11:00 p.m. To 8:30 a.m. To 3:00 p.m. 11:00 p.m. 7:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.

In these shifts A, B & C are workers and employees, while G shift is for managers. Nirma has some strict rules fir employees to make them regular. If a worker who is for A, B & C Shifts, comes 10 minutes late, their half an hour will be cut off from his salary. And if they come 15 minutes late, they will be sending back to their house.

Canteen Timing:Shift A: - 12:00 Noon To 12:30 p.m. Shift G: - 12:30 p.m. To 1:00 p.m.

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-: PRODUCTION SYSTEM:Purchase raw-materials Process Packing Products Advertising Cleaning Laboratory Selling. Grinding Filtration

Shape the products

-: SELECTION PROCESS OF EMPLOYEESReception Application Blank Psychological Test Physical Report Preliminary interview Reference check Final interview Application

Physical examination Placement.

-: PAYMENT SYSTEM:Check attendance Work Check work time Check the over-time

Take signature

Give cheque or directly credit in Bank.

The wage and salary paid on every 6th or 7th of the month. Here, any employee comes on the day of public holy day, or He/She doing over-time work, the company gives them more salary for the over-timing.

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-: ATTENDANCE SYSTEM:In the company, the attendance system is so good and totally modern. Here, every employee has punching card for the attendance. And there is punching machine on time-office. Every employee has to pass from them, and put the card in a punching machine. Automatically their attendance at time is taken the computer. When, after shift hour, when employees return from their job, this process again is done. Because of this process, taking attendance became so easy. And for that company can save the time and man hour for the taking attendance. And perfect attendance is taken here. Thus, the system of attendance is so good here.

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Law cost of production. Law labor cost. Large pool of skilled workers. Huge domestic market. Developed its own R & D department.

Poor safety measures. Poor relations of employees. Salary discrimination among competitors. Law margin due to price regulation.

Indian company can emerge bulk soda Ash to the world.

MNCs keen to enter India through joint ventures of subsidiary route. Massive domestic market to be tapped.

Competition from Indian and other soap and detergent produced

companies. Inadequate expenditure on the R&D. Nirma Ltd. Is not yet geared to tackle the increase its export share.

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The networks of the NIRMA are also good. In terms of timely delivery NIRMA prefer most of the dealers because

it has own company depot. As a result timely delivery is possible. In spontaneously all the consumer knows about the NIRMA. With it

there other companies like; wheel, Ghadi, Arial, etc. It was great to see the plant and machinery operating automatically.

The management and working environment of this unit is favorable. In the category of top of mind NIRMA got the rank in top five in detergent production companies. Company should increase its production strength because there is more

demand in the market for NIRMAs soap and detergent. Company should give different offer to the consumer to attract them. Company should launch more attractive shaped soaps and different

colored detergent. So consumer can not switch to other company.

This year I have visited the NIRMA Ltd., my visit has been very pleasure and having lots of learning for me.

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They have efficient management with the back up of middle

management and the personnel of the company. They are really dominating keen competition with qualitative production and advanced technology. It was great to see the plant and machinery operating automatically.

The management and working environment of this unit is favorable. Shape and color is most important feature which consumer looks,

when they buy the products. The feature of the company is very bright and they will be able to

compete international market. If company improves their management structure more than todays

management, so company can increase its productivity more than other. Company should increase the advertising expenditure for selling more

products. If the company increases the advertising expenditure, it can earn profit more than today. At last, I conclude that the feature of the company is so good. Because the companys turnover increase more and more in every years.

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The experience of the company is very good. Because here H.R.

department, production department, marketing department, distribution department provide all the information, which are related with the project. Behavior of the employees with the trainer is very good. Finance department not provide current data but gives all the

information which are related with the project. Company provide bus facility, therefore employees have to not face any problem to reach to the company. If I faced any problem in my project work, company solved it immediately. Thus, my learning experience is very good in the NIRMA Ltd. Beca1 Use here, I can prepare my project very easily and without faced any problem.

Reference Books : C.B.Gupta (1st Edition), Human resource management, sultan

chand & sons, Education and publisher, New Delhi.- 73 EWCM / N.RAO / SVG

K.Aswathappa (New Edition), Human resource management, Tata McGraw Hill publishing company Ltd. Marketing management.

BY, Philip Kotler.

Magazines : Annual Report of NIRMA Ltd. (2004 05). Annual Report of NIRMA Ltd. (2005 06). Annual Report of NIRMA Ltd. (2006 07).

Web sites :

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