nationalism and its opponents

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Nationalism and its Opponents. Kidner Ch 22, pp. 644-651. Changing definition of nationalism – late 1800s More exclusionary & more aggressive Perceived struggle between nations Feared domination of one nation-state over another Focus on who didn’t belong in the nation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Nationalism and its Opponents

Nationalism and its OpponentsKidner Ch 22, pp. 644-651Integral NationalismChanging definition of nationalism late 1800sMore exclusionary & more aggressivePerceived struggle between nationsFeared domination of one nation-state over anotherFocus on who didnt belong in the nationNational / racial birth right

RacismScientific RacismRace believed to be a biological reality, an object of studySocial Darwinism survival of the fittestThree Races of 19th century: European, Negroid, AsianDiscuss Chamberlain doc

Nott and Gliddon's Indigenous races of the earth (1857) used misleading imagery to suggest that "Negroes" ranked between "whites" and chimpanzees. Note the different angles at which the "white" and "Negro" skulls are positioned. Nott and Gliddon's work is considered one of the classics of scientific racism.

AntisemitismJudaism is a RACE one is Jewish by birth not by practicing the Jewish religionJewish StereotypesDomineering in banking & commerceDishonestCorrupting influence on journalism, lawyers, doctorsDiscuss causes of growing Anti-Semitism with your partner

Wilhelm Marr

Anti-Semitic portrayal of a Jewish man Alfred Dreyfus, Jewish capt. in army - accused of spying for Germany From Alsace family left when Prussia took the territoryConvicted of treason and sent to Devils Island PrisonThe French public questioned his convictionWhy? Evidence gathered shows innocent - points to Major Esterhazy --- but army wont reopen the caseFamily asks help of Emile Zolas - open letter - JaccuseDreyfus in prison until 1898Country split!!! Church / Army vs. Jews / Radicalscalled back to France for retrial 1899 pardoned1906 exoneratedResultsRepublicans / Socialists block anti-republicans Promote Anti-clericalism (because were vs. Dreyfus)Republic survives --- up to 19145Dreyfus Affair

5ZionismTheodor HerzlReaction to mounting anti-Semitism as made clear in the Dreyfus affairCreation of a Jewish Nation State in Palestine (today Israel)Discuss Herzl docs

Universalism in the Roman Catholic ChurchPope Pius IXPope Leo XIIISyllabus of Errors, 1864De Rerum Novarum, 1891

Internationalism in Politics First and Second Socialist Internationals (1864, 1889)Marxist socialists (for the most part)International solidarity; NO WAR; BUT each country would have to create its own socialist organizations (i.e. Russian Socialist Revolutionaries or Social Democratic Party of Germany)Discuss docs

Internationalism in Politics AnarchismDestruction of existing social, political and economic institutions in order to pave the way for a society built around voluntary participation Mihkail Bakunin advocated the use of terrorism and assassination to achieve goals (see list of world political figures killed during this time pg. 651)

Internationalism in Politics PacifismMounting fear of technology and weaponsRedirect the enormous military budgets toward public works, housing and educationBaroness Bertha von SuttnerAlfred NobelNobel Peace PrizeGeneva Conventions, 1899rules of warHague conferences & tribunals, 1899-1907international diplomatic arbitrationDiscuss doc

Strains in Multinational EmpiresOttoman Empire Points of TensionGovernment Response-Ottoman Empire weak-breaking downNot a nation-state-Wide range of ethnicities (from Slavic to Arabic) Armenians often targeted-Greeks, Bulgarians, Serbs, Romanians gained autonomy-OE goes bankrupt-Tried to remain authoritarian BUT local leaders begin breaking away

-violent attacks vs. them

-must get credit banking from European states

Strains in Multinational EmpiresRussian Empire Points of TensionGovernment ResponseNot a nation-state-160 different ethnic groups

-Crimean War, 1854-1865

-Catholicism and Judaism under suspicion

-various nationalities, traditions, languages unified Russia-growing Polish nationalism-non-Russians do not have the same legal status as Russians-great loss, lead to Great Reforms under Tsar Alexander II (emancipation of serfs; universal military service)-Pale of Settlement (southern-western Russian Jewish settlement)-russification

-countered with growing Russian nationalism

Strains in Multinational EmpiresAustro-Hungarian Empire Points of TensionGovernment ResponseNot a nation-state-Austrians vs Magyars-Hungarians try to magyarify the Slovaks and Romanians-Czechs, Poles and Ukrainians want autonomy

-Nationalist Sentiment Grows- Compromise of 1867 - Rise of Slovakian and Romanian nationalism-Poles = autonomy in East Galicia; Ukrainians = language rights; Czechs = use of lang. in schools and state govt.

-Habsburg (Austrian) govt. loosing influence over territory will Habsburg dominance survive past Francis Joseph??


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