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The Music Industry- HistoryBy Fiona SirowyThe Music Industry- What is it?Essentially, the music industry is an industry that sells recordings, compositions and performances of music such as music videos. The institutions and individuals that engage within the industry are:Musicians/ Singer-Songwriters e.g. Beyonce, RihannaDistributors such as Warner Music or Def Jam RecordingsPresenters/hosts that present live performancesManagers and professionals that help musicians with their careersPeople who broadcast the music such as radio presenters Manufacturers of musical instruments Beginnings - 18th Century The music industry started in the 18th century thanks to Thomas Edison developing the phonograph. It was the first machine that could record sound.How did it work?The machine used vibrations to make small notches in rotating cylinders that passed a needle. Later on it was amplified and people were allowed to listen to it. Phonographs were quite big and they were expensive however, they became very popular in the late 1800s. In 1878 the first ever music was put on record.

Beginnings - Continued It can be said that the 1940s marked the beginning of the music industry because music could be made to sell rather than just be played. Vinyls were created as this made it easier to transport the music, which was used to entertain troops during World War II.

Music during the war (1939- 1945)During World War II, there was a great increase in the popularity of Jazz music as people listened to it as a way of keeping their spirits up during the war. This started in America and spread quickly to the UK. Jazz allowed people to forget about their worries for a little while as they danced to it. This is because the upbeat tunes encouraged people to move their feet.

1950sDuring the aftermath of World War II the world felt like a completely different place. People had a different outlook on life and they became more optimistic and longed to feel release and pleasure. Traditional values such as womens roles in society and ethnic minorities had been broken and communities bonded through music.

1956 - Elvis Presley He was born in 1935To name a few of his hits: Suspicious minds, Always on my mind1956 - His first single Heartbreak Hotel hit the top of the chartsHe was called The King and became the leading figure of rock and roll after his many chart-topping records and TV appearancesmost successful in 50-70s, which was the era of his musicHis songs such as In the ghetto changed peoples attitudes towards individuals who were victims of circumstance as they shined a light on issues in society which were overlooked such as poverty In 1956 Elvis exploded onto the music scene and arguably changed the whole industry. Presleys music was sexual, defiant and rebellious. Older generations felt his music posed a threat to the morality of children.The portable radio was created in 1957 and it became an extremely popular way of listening to music due to the fact that it could easily be used anywhere in the house.

The 1960s Rock and Roll thrived in 1962 and became increasingly popular.The Beatles signed with EMI Records and released Love Me Do, which became an instant hit. Paul McCartney quit the band in 1970 yet, the boys went on to make their own solo albums, which were also a success.In 1963 audio cassettes emerged, which were initially intended to be used in cars in America. Then, cassettes rapidly became the most popular format to listen to music on.

The 1970sThe 1970s was the decade of upbeat, happy disco music. There was also progressive rock and punk. The angry punk movement took place from bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Ramones and Blondie. The feeling of disconnect from society went from the 1960s to 70s and bands recklessly sang about girls, crime and drug use. The punk genre also highly influenced fashion leading the youth of the 1970s to wear torn shirts, leather jackets (often customised), metal studs/chains and tight jeans. Young people listened to this type of music as an act of rebellion and in order to change old-fashioned views of the youth.

The 1980sThis was the decade where a lot had changed within the music industry due to events such as the launch of MTV in 1981, the first ever non-stop music video channel, marking a new era in promotion and consumption of music. Inevitably, music videos became very popular, meaning record companies had to start investing a lot more money into their artists. This lead to an increase in sales records and a great expansion in the music industry.

The 1990sAt the start of this decade hip hop and techno were very popular however, the music of the 90s was very diverse. In the UK people listened to a range of dance, house, garage and drum and bass.

The 2000sIn 2001, Apple introduced iTunes and the iPod, which changed the music industry forever. In 2003, Apple introduced the iTunes store initially only for Mac computers. People who owned PCs were able to download music posing a threat to the industry as CD sales dropped, leaving less money for the artists.

PresentNow, audiences use a range of platforms to access music. Websites such as Youtube and Vevo are used to view videos and social media has significantly helped musicians become promote themselves as artists.

Thank you for reading!