Muscles, Joints and Movement

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Post on 22-Jan-2018

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  1. 1. Raymond G Buick FRCS 9 mins
  2. 2. A muscle is a tissue that has the ability to contract Types of Muscle tissue: Skeletal Cardiac Smooth muscle
  3. 3. Skeletal and cardiac muscle are striated However, the term striated, usually refers to skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle
  4. 4. Skeletal Muscle striated muscle Consists of parallel bundles of long multinucleate fibres Produces the movements of the skeleton
  5. 5. Parts of the skeletal muscle Fleshy Part: belly, contractile Fibrous Part: Tendon or Aponerosis Less elastic Less vascular Resistant to friction Fleshy Belly Tendon
  6. 6. Each muscle fibre is an individual muscle cell It has an outer cell membrane called sarcolemma The cell cytoplasm is called sarcoplasm Nuclei are multiple, oval in shape and peripherally placed
  7. 7. Epimysium covers the entire muscle Perimysium surrounds fascicles Endomysium surrounds individual fibres
  8. 8. Epimysium covers the entire muscle Perimysium surrounds fascicles Endomysium surrounds individual fibres
  9. 9. Epimysium covers the entire muscle Perimysium surrounds fascicles Endomysium surrounds individual fibres Fascicle
  10. 10. Epimysium covers the entire muscle Perimysium surrounds fascicles Endomysium surrounds individual fibres Endomysium
  11. 11. Epimysium covers the entire muscle Perimysium surrounds fascicles Endomysium surrounds individual fibres Sarcolemma is the outer cell membrane sarcolemma Individual muscle cell
  12. 12. A tendon (sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue. Usually connects muscle to bone Consolodation of collagen fibres in the perimysium and epimysium. Maximises efficiency of the muscle in moving a bone Strong Collagen
  13. 13. Aponeurosis Some muscles (especially flattened muscles) are attached to each other. aponeurosis (pleural: aponeuroses) anterolateral abdominal wall a layer of a flat broad tendon shiny, whitish-silvery colour, histologically similar to tendons few blood vessels and nerves
  14. 14. Aponeurosis anterolateral abdominal wall Lumbar Palmer and planter scalp
  15. 15. like tendons tightly packed collagen bundles arranged in parallel respond to stress from a single direction attach bones to each other stabalise joints
  16. 16. KNEE JOINT
  17. 17. foetal remnant peritoneal fold
  18. 18. foetal remnant ligamentum arteriosum remnant of ductus arteriosus peritoneal fold ligamentum teres
  19. 19. layer of connective tissue superficial deep
  20. 20. layer of connective tissue superficial fascia - subcutaneous connective tissue - lies beneath / merges with dermis - fibro fatty layer -fibroblasts - aqueous matrix - elastin - collagen - fat - lymphatic tissue
  21. 21. deep fascia beneath the superficial fascia ensheaths muscles helps attach them to bones provides attachment for intermuscular septa which partitian muscle groups muscle compartments fibrous sparce fat and fluid thin and expansile substantial layers, very tough - esp. in neck & limbs non-expansile sleeves investing groups of muscles very thick bands retinacula
  22. 22. deep fascia The UP side of fascia movement minimal friction venous return in legs pus retained within a compartment The DOWN side of fascia important in disease potential spaces between fascia - track through between facial layers Compartment syndrome
  23. 23. A lubrication device - flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing a film of synovial fluid. Reduces friction between: - tendons and surrounding structures, or - bone and skin (e.g. prepatellar bursa) Occasionally bursae may communicate with the cavity of a synovial joint, e.g. the suprapatellar bursae of the knee joint, and the subscapularis bursae of the shoulder joint
  24. 24. Raymond G Buick FRCS

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