chapter 07 muscles and joints

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  • Muscles and Joints

    CHAPTER 7

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    Muscles Overview

    Muscles support and maintain body posture through a low level of contractionSkeletal muscles produce a substantial amount of heat when they contract

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    Types of Muscles

    Skeletal Attaches to the bones of the skeletonVoluntary/striated Operates under conscious controlSmooth Called visceral muscleInvoluntary/not striatedNot under conscious control

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    Types of Muscles

    Cardiac Forms the wall of the heartInvoluntary

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    Attachment of Muscles

    TendonAttaches muscles to bonesPoint of originPoint of attachment of the muscle to the bone that is less movablePoint of insertionPoint of attachment to the bone that it moves

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    Muscles of the Head and Neck

    BuccinatorLocated in fleshy part of cheekTemporalLocated above and near the earMasseterLocated at the angle of the jawRaises the mandible and closes the jaw

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    Muscles of the Head and Neck

    SternomastoidAlso called the sternocleidomastoidExtends from the sternum upward along the side of the neck to the mastoid process

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    Muscles of the Upper Extremities

    TrapeziusTriangular-shaped muscle Extends across the back of the shoulderCovers back of neckInserts on clavicle and scapula

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    Muscles of the Upper Extremities

    Latissimus DorsiOriginates from vertebrae of lower backCrosses lower half of thoracic regionPasses between humerus and scapula Inserts on anterior surface of humerusForms the posterior border of the armpit

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    Muscles of the Upper Extremities

    Pectoralis MajorLarge, fan-shaped muscleCrosses the upper part of the front chestOriginates from sternum

    Crosses over to humerus

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    Muscles of the Upper Extremities

    Deltoid Covers the shoulder jointOriginates from clavicle and scapula

    Inserts on lateral side of the humerus

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    Muscles of the Upper Extremities

    Biceps BrachiiMuscle has two headsOriginates from scapula

    Inserts on the radius

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    Muscles of the Upper Extremities

    Triceps BrachiiMuscle has three heads Originates from scapula and humerusInserts onto olecranon process of the ulna

    At the elbow

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    Muscles of the Lower Extremities

    Gluteus MaximusForms most of the fleshy part of the buttockOriginates from ilium and inserts in the femurGluteus MediusLocated above the upper outer quadrant of the gluteus maximus muscleOriginates from posterior part of ilium Inserts in greater trochanter of the femur

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    Quadriceps FemorisForms anterior part of the thighHelp extend the thighHamstring MusclesLocated in posterior part of the thighHelp flex leg on the thigh Help extend the thigh

    Muscles of the Lower Extremities

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    GastrocnemiusMain muscle of the calfAttaches to heel bone by way of Achilles tendonUsed to plantar flex foot and flex toesTibialis AnteriorPositioned on the front of the legUsed to dorsiflex foot and turn foot inward

    Muscles of the Lower Extremities

  • PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Muscles

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    Muscular Dystrophy

    Pronounced(MUSS-kew-lar DIS-troh-fee)DefinedGroup of genetically transmitted disordersCharacterized by progressive weakness and muscle fiber degenerationNo evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue

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    Polymyositis

    Pronounced(pol-ee-my-oh-SIGH-tis)DefinedChronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal musclesCharacterized by muscle weakness and degeneration Atrophy

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    Rotator Cuff Tear

    Pronounced(ROH-tay-tor kuff TAIR)DefinedTear in muscles that form a cuff over upper end of arm

    Rotator cuff helps to lift and rotate the arm

    Also helps to hold head of humerus in place during abduction of arm

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    Rotator Cuff Tear

  • DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS, AND PROCEDURES

    Muscles

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    Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

    ElectromyographyProcess of recording strength of contraction of a muscle when stimulated by electric currentMuscle biopsyExtraction of a specimen of muscle tissue, through biopsy needle or incisional biopsy, for purpose of examining it under a microscope

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    Joints Overview

    Joint = articulationPoint at which two individual bones connectJoints determine degree of movement Movement ranges from free to limited Suture = immovable jointPurpose is to bind bones together

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    Classification of Joints(Structural)

    Fibrous Surfaces of bone fit closely togetherHeld together by fibrous connective tissueImmovable joint

    Example: Suture between the skull bones

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    Classification of Joints(Structural)

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    Classification of Joints(Structural)

    Cartilaginous Bones are connected by cartilageLimited movement joint

    Example: Symphysis

    Joint between the pubic bones of the pelvis

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    Classification of Joints(Structural)

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    Classification of Joints(Structural)

    Synovial Space between the bones = joint cavityJoint cavity lined with synovial membraneSynovial membrane secretes synovial fluidBones are held together by ligamentsFree movement joint

    Example = shoulder

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    Classification of Joints(Functional)

    Hinge Allows a back and forth type motionExample = elbowBall-and-Socket Allows movement in many directions around a central pointExample = shoulder joint and hip joint

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    Classification of Joints(Functional)

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    Movements of Joints

    FlexionBending motionDecreases angle between two bonesExtensionStraightening motionIncreases angle between two bones

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    Movements of Joints

    AbductionMovement of a bone away from midline of the bodyAdductionMovement of a bone toward midline of the body

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    Movements of Joints

    SupinationAct of turning the palm up or forwardPronationAct of turning the palm down or backward

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    Movements of Joints

    DorsiflexionNarrows the angle between the leg and the top of the footFoot is bent backward, or upward, at the ankle

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    Movements of Joints

    Plantar FlexionIncreases angle between the leg and the top of the footFoot is bent downward at the ankleToes pointing downward, as in ballet dancing

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    Movements of Joints

    RotationTurning of a bone on its own axisCircumductionMovement of an extremity around in a circular motionCan be performed with ball-and-socket joints

  • PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Joints

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    Adhesive Capsulitis

    Pronounced(add-HE-sive cap-sool-EYE-tis)DefinedShoulder condition characterized by a stiffness of the shoulder, limited shoulder movement, and painAlso known as frozen shoulder

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    Arthritis

    Pronounced(ar-THRY- tis)DefinedInflammation of joints

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    Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Pronounced(ang-kih-LOH-sing spon-dil-EYE-tis)DefinedType of arthritis that affects the vertebral columnCauses deformities of the spine

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    Bunion (Hallux Valgus)

    Pronounced(BUN-yun) (HAL-uks VAL-gus)DefinedAbnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

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    Dislocation

    Pronounced(diss-loh-KAY-shun)DefinedDisplacement of a bone from its normal location within a jointCauses loss of function of the joint

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    Ganglion

    Pronounced(GANG-lee-on)DefinedCystic tumor developing on a tendonSometimes occurs on back of wrist

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    Gout

    Pronounced(GOWT)DefinedAcute arthritis that is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe

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    Herniated Disk

    Pronounced(HER-nee-ay-ted disk)DefinedRupture of the central portion of the vertebral disk through the disk wall and into the spinal canalAlso called a ruptured disk or a slipped disk

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    Herniated Disk

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    Lyme Disease

    Pronounced(LYME dih-ZEEZ)DefinedAcute, recurrent inflammatory infection, transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick

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    Osteoarthritis

    Pronounced(oss-tee-oh-ar-THRY-tis)DefinedMost common form of arthritis

    Results from wear and tear on the joints, especially weight-bearing joints such as hips and knees

    Also known as degenerative joint disease

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    Osteoarthritis

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    Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Pronounced(ROO-mah-toyd ar-THRY-tis)DefinedChronic, systemic, inflammatory disease that affects multiple joints of the bodyMainly the small peripheral joints

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    Sprains

    Pronounced(SPRAYN)DefinedInjury involving ligaments that surround and support a joint

    Caused by a wrenching or twisting motion

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    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Pronounced(sis-TEM-ic LOO-pus er-ih-them-ah-TOH-sis)DefinedChronic, inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organsCharacteristic butterfly rash appears on the face

  • DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES

    Joints

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    Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

    ArthrocentesisSurgical puncture of a joint with a needle for the purpose of withdrawing fluid for analysisArthrographyProcess of X-raying the inside of a joint, after injecting the joint with a contrast medium

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    Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

    ArthroplastySurgical repair of a jointArthroscopyVisualization of the interior of a joint using an endoscope

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    Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

    Erythrocyte Sedimentation (sed) RateBlood test that measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube filled with unclotted blood

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    Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

    Rheumatoid factorBlood test that measures the presence of unusual antibodies that develop in a number of connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis