Moisture-dependent physical properties of jatropha seed (Jatropha curcas L.)

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  • industr ial crops and products 2 7 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 123129

    avai lab le at www.sc iencedi rec t .com

    journa l homepage: www.e lsev ier .com/ locate / indcrop

    Moist rtijatrop

    D.K. Ga atna Centre for elhi,b Mechanica z Kh

    a r t i c

    Article histor

    Received 21 June 2007

    Received in revised form

    31 August 2007

    Accepted 1 September 2007

    Keywords:

    Jatropha see

    Physical pro

    Moisture co

    estig

    jatropha seednamely, seeddimension, 1000 seedmass, surface area, sphericity, bulkdensity,

    true density, angle of repose and static coefcient of friction against different materials. The

    physical properties of jatropha seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content in the

    range of 4.7519.57% d.w. The average length, width, thickness and 1000 seed mass were

    1. Int

    India is thenergy demdemand anannum of igrowth intinue unabliving andestimated iper annuming the imp2003).

    CorresponE-mail a

    0926-6690/$doi:10.1016/d

    perties

    ntent

    18.65mm, 11.34mm, 8.91mmand 741.1 g, respectively atmoisture content of 4.75% d.w. The

    geometric mean diameter and sphericity increased from 12.32 to 12.89mm and 0.66 to 0.67

    as moisture content increased from 4.75 to 19.57% d.w., respectively. In the same moisture

    range, densities of the rewetted jatropha seed decreased from 492 to 419kgm3, true density

    increased from 679 to 767kgm3, and the corresponding porosity increased from 27.54 to

    45.37%. As the moisture content increased from 4.75 to 19.57% d.w., the angle of repose

    and surface area were found to increase from 28.15 to 39.95 and 476.78 to 521.99mm2,

    respectively. The static coefcient of friction of jatropha seed increased linearly against the

    surfaces of three structural materials, namely plywood (44.12%), mild steel sheet (64.15%)

    and aluminum (68.63%) as the moisture content increased from 4.75 to 19.57% d.w.

    2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    roduction

    e sixth largest country in the world in terms ofand, which is 3.5% of theworld commercial energyd is expected to grow at the rate of 4.8% perts present demand (M.S. Kumar et al., 2003). Theenergy demand in all forms is expected to con-ated owing to increasing urbanization, standard ofexpanding population. In the Indian context, themport of crude oil may go up from 85 to 147MMTby the end of 20062007, correspondingly increas-ort bill from $13.3 to $15.7 billion (Biofuel Report,

    ding author. Tel.: +91 11 26591162; fax: +91 11 26591121.ddress: snn@rdat.iitd.ac.in (S.N. Naik).

    Jatropha curcas L. (physic nut or purging nut) is a droughtresistant shrub or tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae,which is cultivated in Central and South America, South-EastAsia, India and Africa (Martnez-Herrera et al., 2006). Jatrophahitherto considered as a wild oilseed plant of the tropics isnow being credited as a most promising biofuel crop, ideallysuited for growing in the wastelands of the country. Jatrophaplants grow on poor degraded soils and are able to ensure areasonable productionof seedswith very little inputs. Jatrophaplants start yielding from the second year of planting, but inlimited quantity. If managed properly, it starts giving 45kgof seed per tree production from the fth year onwards andseed yield can be obtained up to 4050 years from the day of

    see front matter 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.j.indcrop.2007.09.001ure-dependent physical propeha seed (Jatropha curcas L.)

    rnayaka, R.C. Pradhana, S.N. Naika,, N. BhRural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Dl Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hau

    l e i n f o

    y:

    a b s t r a c t

    The study was conducted to inves of

    agarb

    Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, Indiaas, New Delhi 110016, India

    ate some moisture-dependent physical properties of

  • 124 industr ial crops and products 2 7 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 123129

    planting. On an average 5mt seed can be harvested from 1haof area (S. Kumar et al., 2003).

    The proether extrafree extracAmbuboderanges fromfrom45 to 5position ofwhich are udue to thethe propertsuitable as

    In the ptives, the seof the physture conteimprove thcessing angrading, sethe basis oliterature hducted onand Singh (physical anular moistthe principerties of jahave not bedeterminejatropha seface area, 1porosity, anmoisture ra

    2. Ma

    Jatropha sHaryana) omanually tsmall brancseeds werewas determat 1051 Ozarslan, 2The initial

    Sampleswater by usand conditseven diffe

    Q = Wi(Mf100

    where Q isthe sample(% d.w.), and.w.).

    A pre-dthe seed su

    rewetted samples were then poured in high molecular high-density polyethylene bags of 100m thickness and the bags

    tigha wehouttiesloweysicaof 4.wettseedpadhh malswn accave

    ithmsionan diing r

    + W3

    WT)

    heriing r

    T)1

    L

    L is.100nic bacculy ssur

    spheing rintu

    2g

    S isbul

    ner onsta97).lk de voio bef thecemee itf toluty ofximate composition such as crude protein 23.6%,ct 29.8%, ash 3.2%, crude bre 1.8% and nitrogent 21.6%, for jatropha seed has been evaluated byand Fetuga (1983). The oil content of jatropha seed30 to 40% by weight and the kernel itself ranges

    5% (Lahane andRelwani, 1986). The fatty acid com-jatropha classies it as a linoleic or oleic acid type,nsaturated fatty acids. The seeds and oil are toxicpresence of cursive and curcasive. However, fromies of this oil it is envisaged that the oil would befuel oil.rocess of extracting the jatropha oil and its deriva-eds undergo a series of unit operations. Knowledgeical properties and their dependence on the mois-nt of jatropha seed is essential to facilitate ande design of the equipment for harvesting, pro-d storage of the seeds. Various types of cleaning,paration, oil extraction equipment are designed onf the physical properties of seeds. Review of theas revealed that limited research has been con-

    the physical properties of jatropha seed. Mangaraj2006) and Sirisomboon et al. (2007) found out somed mechanical properties of jatropha at a partic-

    ure content. However, detailed measurements ofal dimensions and the variation of physical prop-tropha seed at various levels of moisture contenten investigated. The purpose of this study was tosome moisture-dependent, physical properties ofed, namely, linear dimensions, size, sphericity, sur-000 seed mass weight, bulk density, true density,gle of repose and static coefcient of friction in thenge of 4.7519.57% d.w.

    terials and methods

    eed was procured from northern parts (Delhi,f India for the study. The sample was cleanedo remove all foreign materials such as dust, dirt,hes and immature seeds. The cleaned and gradedsun dried and the initial moisture content of seedined by using the standard hot air oven method

    C for 24h (Brusewitz, 1975; Gupta and Das, 1997;002; Altuntases et al., 2005; Coskun et al., 2005).moisture content of the seed was 4.75% d.w.

    were moistened with a calculated quantity ofing the following equation (1) (Coskun et al., 2005)ioned to raise their moisture content to the desiredrent levels:

    Mi)Mf

    (1)

    the mass of water added (kg), Wi the initial mass of(kg), Mi the initial moisture content of the sampled Mf is the nal moisture content of the sample (%

    etermined quantity of tap water was added tob-lot of 2.5 kg and was thoroughly mixed. These

    sealedtor forthrougquantiand althe phlevelsThe retent inChattoFor eacmateriwith a

    Thethe ardimenric mefollow

    Da = L

    Dg = (L

    The spfollow

    = (LW

    wherein mm

    Theelectroing anrandom

    Thewith afollowand Ak

    S = D

    whereThe

    contaiat a coDas, 19The buand ththe ratume odisplabecausume oquantitly. The samples were kept at 5 C in a refrigera-ek to enable the moisture to distribute uniformlythe sample. Before starting the tests, the required

    of the samples were taken out of the refrigeratord to warm to room temperature for about 2h. Alll properties of the seed were assessed at moisture75, 7.22, 9.69, 12.16, 14.63, 17.10 and 19.57% d.w.ing technique to attain the desired moisture con-and grain has frequently been used (Nimkar andyay, 2001; Sacilik et al., 2003; Coskun et al., 2005).oisture content, the length, width and thickness oferemeasured by a vernier caliper (Mitutoyo, Japan)uracy of 0.02mm.rage diameter of seed was calculated by usingetic mean and geometric mean of the three axials. The arithmetic mean diameter, Da and geomet-ameter, Dg of the seed were calculated by using theelationships (Mohsenin, 1970):

    + T(2)

    1/3 (3)

    city of jatropha seed was calculated by using theelationship (Mohsenin, 1970):

    /3

    (4)

    the length, W the width and T is the thickness, all

    0 seed mass was determined by means of a digitalalance (Shimadzu Corporation, Japan, AY120) hav-racy of 0.001 g. To evaluate the 1000 seed mass, 30elected seeds from the bulk sample were averaged.face area of jatropha seed was found by analogyre of the same geometricmean diameter, using theelationship (Sacilik et al., 2003; Tunde-Akintundende, 2004; Altuntases et al., 2005):

    (5)

    the surface area (mm2).k density was determined by lling a cylindricalf 500ml volume with the seed a height of 150mmnt rate and then weighing the contents (Gupta andNo separatemanual compaction of seedswasdone.ensity was calculated from the mass of the seedslume of the container. The true density dened astween the mass of jatropha seed and the true vol-seed, was determined using the toluene (C7H8)

    nt method. Toluene was used in place of wateris absorbed by seeds to a lesser extent. The vol-ene displaced was found by immersing a weightedjatropha seed in the toluene (Sacilik et al., 2003).

  • industr ial crops and products 2 7 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 123129 125

    Theporosity of bulk seedwas calculated frombulk and truedensities using the relationship (Mohsenin, 1970), as follows:

    =(1 b

    t

    where ist is the tru

    The angended cylicylinder wadiameter ofder was raplate. The hable pointeThe angle o

    = tan1(

    where H iscone (cm). Oal., 1978; JoSacilik et a

    The statdeterminedaluminium350mm1tion. An opand 40mmadjustablenot to toucresting on ipitch 1.4mthe angle o1978; Shephet al., 2005)following re

    = tan

    where is().

    The avechosen anddeterminedtent with 1the results(ANOVA) anysis of regr

    3. Re

    3.1. See

    Average vaseed, viz.,study at difEach princion the moi

    Tabl

    e1

    Ph

    ysical

    pro

    per

    ties

    ofja

    trop

    ha

    seed

    atdiffe

    rentm

    oist

    ure

    conte

    nt

    Moi

    sture

    conte

    nt

    (%d.w

    .)

    Axi

    aldim

    ension

    s(m

    m)

    Ave

    rage

    dia

    met

    ers(m

    m)

    Spher

    icity

    (dec

    imal

    )Su

    rfac

    ear

    ea(m

    m2)

    Bulk

    den

    sity

    (kgm

    3)

    Trueden

    sity

    (kgm

    3)

    Poro

    sity

    (%)

    Angl

    eof

    repos

    e()

    Test

    wei

    ght(g

    )

    Lengt

    h,L

    Wid

    th,W

    Thickn

    ess,

    TArith

    met

    icm

    ean,D

    a

    Geo

    met

    ric

    mea

    n,D

    g

    4.75

    18.65a

    11.34a

    8.91

    a12

    .97a

    12.32a

    0.66

    a47

    6.78

    a49

    2a

    679a

    27.54a

    28.15a

    741.10

    a7.22

    18.83b

    11.47a

    9.01

    b13

    .10b

    12.45a

    0.66

    a48

    6.94

    b47

    6a

    711a

    33.05b

    29.35b

    761.50

    b9.69

    18.98b

    11.59bc

    9.16

    cd13

    .24bc

    12.60ab

    0.66

    a49

    8.65

    c46

    1b

    730ab

    36.85bc

    31.49b

    777.90

    c12

    .16

    19.01b

    11.61bc

    9.21

    de

    13.28cd

    12.64bc

    0.66

    a50

    1.70

    d44

    9bc

    737b

    39.08c

    33.52b

    803.25

    d14

    .63

    19.08c

    11.69d

    9.26

    e13

    .34cd

    12.70cd

    0.67

    b50

    7.01

    de

    435c

    744c

    41.53d

    35.43c

    844.21

    de

    17.10

    19.10cd

    11.79de

    9.28

    f13

    .39e

    12.75e

    0.67

    bc51

    1.01

    e42

    5d

    750c

    43.33e

    38.66cd

    887.35

    e19

    .57

    19.21e

    11.85de

    9.48

    f13

    .51f

    12.89f

    0.67

    c52

    1.99

    e41

    9f

    767d

    45.37f

    39.95d

    903.15

    f

    Val

    ues

    inth

    esa

    meco

    lum

    nsfo

    llow

    edby

    diffe

    rentle

    tter

    s(a

    f)a

    resign

    ica

    nt(P

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