moisture-dependent physical properties of jatropha seed (jatropha curcas l.)

Download Moisture-dependent physical properties of jatropha seed (Jatropha curcas L.)

Post on 05-Sep-2016




1 download

Embed Size (px)


  • industr ial crops and products 2 7 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 123129

    avai lab le at iencedi rec t .com

    journa l homepage: www.e lsev ier .com/ locate / indcrop

    Moist rtijatrop

    D.K. Ga atna Centre for elhi,b Mechanica z Kh

    a r t i c

    Article histor

    Received 21 June 2007

    Received in revised form

    31 August 2007

    Accepted 1 September 2007


    Jatropha see

    Physical pro

    Moisture co


    jatropha seednamely, seeddimension, 1000 seedmass, surface area, sphericity, bulkdensity,

    true density, angle of repose and static coefcient of friction against different materials. The

    physical properties of jatropha seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content in the

    range of 4.7519.57% d.w. The average length, width, thickness and 1000 seed mass were

    1. Int

    India is thenergy demdemand anannum of igrowth intinue unabliving andestimated iper annuming the imp2003).

    CorresponE-mail a




    18.65mm, 11.34mm, 8.91mmand 741.1 g, respectively atmoisture content of 4.75% d.w. The

    geometric mean diameter and sphericity increased from 12.32 to 12.89mm and 0.66 to 0.67

    as moisture content increased from 4.75 to 19.57% d.w., respectively. In the same moisture

    range, densities of the rewetted jatropha seed decreased from 492 to 419kgm3, true density

    increased from 679 to 767kgm3, and the corresponding porosity increased from 27.54 to

    45.37%. As the moisture content increased from 4.75 to 19.57% d.w., the angle of repose

    and surface area were found to increase from 28.15 to 39.95 and 476.78 to 521.99mm2,

    respectively. The static coefcient of friction of jatropha seed increased linearly against the

    surfaces of three structural materials, namely plywood (44.12%), mild steel sheet (64.15%)

    and aluminum (68.63%) as the moisture content increased from 4.75 to 19.57% d.w.

    2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    e sixth largest country in the world in terms ofand, which is 3.5% of theworld commercial energyd is expected to grow at the rate of 4.8% perts present demand (M.S. Kumar et al., 2003). Theenergy demand in all forms is expected to con-ated owing to increasing urbanization, standard ofexpanding population. In the Indian context, themport of crude oil may go up from 85 to 147MMTby the end of 20062007, correspondingly increas-ort bill from $13.3 to $15.7 billion (Biofuel Report,

    ding author. Tel.: +91 11 26591162; fax: +91 11 26591121.ddress: (S.N. Naik).

    Jatropha curcas L. (physic nut or purging nut) is a droughtresistant shrub or tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae,which is cultivated in Central and South America, South-EastAsia, India and Africa (Martnez-Herrera et al., 2006). Jatrophahitherto considered as a wild oilseed plant of the tropics isnow being credited as a most promising biofuel crop, ideallysuited for growing in the wastelands of the country. Jatrophaplants grow on poor degraded soils and are able to ensure areasonable productionof seedswith very little inputs. Jatrophaplants start yielding from the second year of planting, but inlimited quantity. If managed properly, it starts giving 45kgof seed per tree production from the fth year onwards andseed yield can be obtained up to 4050 years from the day of

    see front matter 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.j.indcrop.2007.09.001ure-dependent physical propeha seed (Jatropha curcas L.)

    rnayaka, R.C. Pradhana, S.N. Naika,, N. BhRural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Dl Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hau

    l e i n f o


    a b s t r a c t

    The study was conducted to inves of


    Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, Indiaas, New Delhi 110016, India

    ate some moisture-dependent physical properties of

  • 124 industr ial crops and products 2 7 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 123129

    planting. On an average 5mt seed can be harvested from 1haof area (S. Kumar et al., 2003).

    The proether extrafree extracAmbuboderanges fromfrom45 to 5position ofwhich are udue to thethe propertsuitable as

    In the ptives, the seof the physture conteimprove thcessing angrading, sethe basis oliterature hducted onand Singh (physical anular moistthe principerties of jahave not bedeterminejatropha seface area, 1porosity, anmoisture ra

    2. Ma

    Jatropha sHaryana) omanually tsmall brancseeds werewas determat 1051 Ozarslan, 2The initial

    Sampleswater by usand conditseven diffe

    Q = Wi(Mf100

    where Q isthe sample(% d.w.), and.w.).

    A pre-dthe seed su

    rewetted samples were then poured in high molecular high-density polyethylene bags of 100m thickness and the bags

    tigha wehouttiesloweysicaof 4.wettseedpadhh malswn accave

    ithmsionan diing r

    + W3


    heriing r



    L is.100nic bacculy ssur

    spheing rintu


    S isbul

    ner onsta97).lk de voio bef thecemee itf toluty ofximate composition such as crude protein 23.6%,ct 29.8%, ash 3.2%, crude bre 1.8% and nitrogent 21.6%, for jatropha seed has been evaluated byand Fetuga (1983). The oil content of jatropha seed30 to 40% by weight and the kernel itself ranges

    5% (Lahane andRelwani, 1986). The fatty acid com-jatropha classies it as a linoleic or oleic acid type,nsaturated fatty acids. The seeds and oil are toxicpresence of cursive and curcasive. However, fromies of this oil it is envisaged that the oil would befuel oil.rocess of extracting the jatropha oil and its deriva-eds undergo a series of unit operations. Knowledgeical properties and their dependence on the mois-nt of jatropha seed is essential to facilitate ande design of the equipment for harvesting, pro-d storage of the seeds. Various types of cleaning,paration, oil extraction equipment are designed onf the physical properties of seeds. Review of theas revealed that limited research has been con-

    the physical properties of jatropha seed. Mangaraj2006) and Sirisomboon et al. (2007) found out somed mechanical properties of jatropha at a partic-

    ure content. However, detailed measurements ofal dimensions and the variation of physical prop-tropha seed at various levels of moisture contenten investigated. The purpose of this study was tosome moisture-dependent, physical properties ofed, namely, linear dimensions, size, sphericity, sur-000 seed mass weight, bulk density, true density,gle of repose and static coefcient of friction in thenge of 4.7519.57% d.w.

    terials and methods

    eed was procured from northern parts (Delhi,f India for the study. The sample was cleanedo remove all foreign materials such as dust, dirt,hes and immature seeds. The cleaned and gradedsun dried and the initial moisture content of seedined by using the standard hot air oven method

    C for 24h (Brusewitz, 1975; Gupta and Das, 1997;002; Altuntases et al., 2005; Coskun et al., 2005).moisture content of the seed was 4.75% d.w.

    were moistened with a calculated quantity ofing the following equation (1) (Coskun et al., 2005)ioned to raise their moisture content to the desiredrent levels:



    the mass of water added (kg), Wi the initial mass of(kg), Mi the initial moisture content of the sampled Mf is the nal moisture content of the sample (%

    etermined quantity of tap water was added tob-lot of 2.5 kg and was thoroughly mixed. These

    sealedtor forthrougquantiand althe phlevelsThe retent inChattoFor eacmateriwith a

    Thethe ardimenric mefollow

    Da = L

    Dg = (L

    The spfollow

    = (LW

    wherein mm

    Theelectroing anrandom

    Thewith afollowand Ak

    S = D


    contaiat a coDas, 19The buand ththe ratume odisplabecausume oquantitly. The samples were kept at 5 C in a refrigera-ek to enable the moisture to distribute uniformlythe sample. Before starting the tests, the required

    of the samples were taken out of the refrigeratord to warm to room temperature for about 2h. Alll properties of the seed were assessed at moisture75, 7.22, 9.69, 12.16, 14.63, 17.10 and 19.57% technique to attain the desired moisture con-and grain has frequently been used (Nimkar andyay, 2001; Sacilik et al., 2003; Coskun et al., 2005).oisture content, the length, width and thickness oferemeasured by a vernier caliper (Mitutoyo, Japan)uracy of 0.02mm.rage diameter of seed was calculated by usingetic mean and geometric mean of the three axials. The arithmetic mean diameter, Da and geomet-ameter, Dg of the seed were calculated by using theelationships (Mohsenin, 1970):

    + T(2)

    1/3 (3)

    city of jatropha seed was calculated by using theelationship (Mohsenin, 1970):



    the length, W the width and T is the thickness, all

    0 seed mass was determined by means of a digitalalance (Shimadzu Corporation, Japan, AY120) hav-racy of 0.001 g. To evaluate the 1000 seed mass, 30elected seeds from the bulk sample were averaged.face area of jatropha seed was found by analogyre of the same geometricmean diameter, using theelationship (Sacilik et al., 2003; Tunde-Akintundende, 2004; Altuntases et al., 2005):


    the surface area (mm2).k density was determined by lling a cylindricalf 500ml volume with the seed a height of 150mmnt rate and then weighing the contents (Gupta andNo separatemanual compaction of seedswasdone.ensity was calculated from the mass of the seedslume of the container. The true density dened astween the mass of jatropha seed and the true vol-seed, was determined using the toluene (C7H8)

    nt method. Toluene was used in place of wateris absorbed by seeds to a lesser extent. The vol-ene displaced was found by immersing a weightedjatropha seed in the toluene (Sacilik


View more >