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MAGNETIC LEVITATION TYPE COMPRESSORS FEASILSILITY ANALYSIS FOR HVAC APPLICATIONS

December 2010

A PRELIMINARY PROJECT REPORT ONMAGNETIC LEVITATION TYPE COMPRESSORS FEASILSILITY ANALYSIS FOR HVAC APPLICATIONS

Prepared by:

NAME

ROLL NO.1. PATEL DHARMESHD. 74362. PATEL NIMESH U.

74493. PATEL NIRAV B.

74514. PATEL TARANG P.

7462Guided by:

Dr. SONAL DESAI

CKPCET.

C.K.PITHAWALA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, SURAT.

YEAR: 2010-11CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Preliminary Project Report entitled MAGNETIC LEVITATION TYPE COMPRESSORS FEASILSILITY ANALYSIS FOR HVAC APPLICATIONS

Submitted by:

NAME

ROLL NO. 1. PATEL DHARMESHD.

7436

2. PATEL NIMESH U.

74493. PATEL NIRAV B.

74514. PATEL TARANG P.

7462For the partial fulfillment for the award of degree in Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering of C. K. PITHAWALLA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, SURAT (GUJARAT) is the report of their work carried out under my supervision and guidance. Guided By:Dr. SONAL DESAIMech. Engineering Department,

C. K. Pithawalla College of Engineering

And Technology, Surat.

Head of Department, Mechanical Engineering Department,

C.K.Pithawalla College of Engineering And Technology, Surat.

CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCEThis is to certify that Preliminary Project Report entitled MAGNETIC LEVITATION TYPE COMPRESSORS FEASILSILITY ANALYSIS FOR HVAC APPLICATIONS

Submitted by

NAME

ROLL NO.

1. PATEL DHARMESH D.

74362. PATEL NIMESH U.

74493. PATEL NIRAV B.

74514. PATEL TARANG P.

7462For the Partial fulfillment for the award of degree in Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering of C. K. PITHAWALLA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, SURAT (GUJARAT) is hereby approved.

Juries:1. ___________________2. ___________________3. ____________________ABSTRACTIn present work we are going to study magnetic levitation compressor as a possible replacement of screw or centrifugal compressor in the field of refrigeration and air conditioning. As a start of it we have tried to understand different types of compressor with the help of purvi engineering which include study of different types of compressor installed at various HVAC plants.Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs) have industrial interest in high-speed machinery

due to their advantages of no mechanical contact, no need for lubrication, high precision operation, and ability to operate at high rotational speeds. An AMB levitates a rotor by means of electro-magnetic forces at an equilibrium position at which all forces acting on the rotor are balanced. The principle of active control is to measure the rotor position; any deviation will influence the magnetic flux, which is then altered to control the rotor position. Despite many inherent advantages, active magnetic bearings suffer from limited force capacity.. This thesis details research undertaken to investigate the behavior of a rotor in an AMB system when contact occurs with auxiliary bearings.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe are highly grateful to people who helped us out with our project title study of MAGNETIC LEVITATION TYPE COMPRESSORS FEASILSILITY ANALYSIS FOR HVAC APPLICATIONS with due respect to our project guide Dr. SONAL DESAI without whose help this work would not have been possible.We also take this opportunity to thanks Mr. Nimish Shah, Managing Director & Mr. Ankit Mody, Marketing Manager, Purvi Engineeriners Pvt. Ltd. Who supported us and provided us the platform for working with their officials at the project site and all the employees of purvi engineers who directly or indirectly helped us in completion of this Preliminary report.

.INDEX1. INTRODUCTION1 1.1 CENTRIEUGAL COMPRESSOR 11.2 SCREW TYPE COMPRESSOR..31.3 MAGLEV COMPRESSOR..42. MAGLEV COMPRESSOR.52.1 WORKING OF MAGLEV COMPRESSOR...53. LITERATURE REVIEW83.1 DEFINATION OF COMPRESSOR............................................83.2 ROLE OF COMPRESSOR IN HVAC PLANT...8

3.2.1 HISTORY OF REFRIGERENT..83.3COMPARISION OF CENTRIFUGAL TYPE COMPRESSOR

AND MAGLEV COMPRESSOR ....94. FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK115. REFERENCES12LIST OF FIGURES1.1 SECTIONAL VIEW OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR21.2 SECTIONAL VIEW OF SCREW TYPE COMPRESSOR...32.1 MAGNETIC BEARINGS.62.2 WORKING OF MAGLEV COMPRESSOR......7LIST OF TABLES3.1 COMPERATION OF SCREW, CENTRIFUGAL AND MAGLEV COMPRESSOR10NOMENCLATURE

COP = CO-EFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE.

EER = ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO.

HVAC = HEATING VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.CHAPTER: 1

INTRODUCTIONCompressors are a device that compresses or increases the pressure on gas or air. As air is compressible, the applied pressure helps to reduce the volume of existing air. Liquids are comparatively incompressible, so the main act of a pump is to pressurize and transfer the fluidthroughachannel.

Temperature always tends to rise if compression ratio is increased. Considering this fact, compressions are designed to perform on per stage basis and concurrently cooling the gas.There are different types of Compressor ranging from the simple hand pump and the piston-equipped compressor. Each compressor achieve different compression ratio & varies in horsepower. Some compressors require oil to operate and some do not. Different types of compressors are Centrifugal compressors, mixed-flow compressors, Axial-flow compressors, Reciprocating compressors, Rotary screw compressors, Rotary vane compressors, Scroll compressors, Diaphragm compressors, etc.1.1 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR.

Centrifugal Compressors are used for continuous & stationary services in industries such as oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants and natural gas processing plants. Their application can be from 100 horsepower to thousands of horsepower. Centrifugal compressors are used in small gas turbine engines or as the final compression stage of medium sized gas turbines.Centrifugal compressors are suitable for low specific speed, high pressure ratio and low mass flow application.

The flow field of in an impeller passage of a centrifugal compressor is highly complex, three dimensional an unsteady.(1)

The centrifugal force utilized by the centrifugal compressor is the same force utilized by the centrifugal pump.

In this type of compressor the impeller rotates against the casing of the compressorThe air become Compressed more And more is thrown out to casing by impeller blades.

The pressure of air is increased as it pushed along the path A,B,C, which is shown in fig.

Fig. 1.1 Sectional view of Centrifugal compressor(2)1.2 SCREW TYPE COMPRESSOR.Rotary Screw Compressor is a type of gas compressor that uses two meshed rotating positive-displacement helical screws to force the gas into a smaller space. These are usually used for continuous operation in commercial and industrial applications and may be either stationary or portable. Their application can be from 3 horsepower (2.2 kW) to over 1,200 horsepower (890 kW).Screw compressors are rotating machines that transform the mechanical work performed by electric motors, turbines or IC engines into potential energy of gas, vapor or multi-phase mixture by reducing its volume and thereby raising its pressure.

The screw type of air compressor is an oil-injected, helical screw, direct drive, positive displacement air compressor. It may be single or dual stage.

Fig.1.2 Sectional view of Screw type compressor.(3)

Figure 1.2 shows the basic geometry of the rotary screw compressor. It is a simple representation of the actual rotors. We have labeled the male rotor lobe and the female rotor flute. As the rotors turn in an outward direction, the male flute will unmesh from the female flute forming an area for the gas to enter.

The gas becomes trapped in the machine and compression occurs when the lobes of the rotors begin to mesh together again. The shaded area represents the pocket of gas that occurs within a specific flute. Another fig. is a representation of the side view of the machine. The same flute is shaded for comparison. Here we see the suction port in the upper left corner and the discharge port in the lower right corner. The rotors will turn in an outward direction forcing the male and female flutes to unmesh, allowing process gas to enter the top of the machine.1.3 MAGLEV COMPRESSOR.A magnetic bearing is a bearing which supports a load using magnetic levitation. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact, for example, they can levitate a rotating shaft and permit relative motion with very low friction and no mechanical wear. They are in service in such industrial applications as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation a