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Use of Magnetic Levitation for Wind Turbines: A Presentation By: Debajyoti Bose Better Efficiency & Power Generation

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Page 1: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Use of Magnetic Levitationfor Wind Turbines:

A Presentation By:Debajyoti Bose

Better Efficiency &

Power Generation

Page 2: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Wind Energy Basics

• Wind is a form of solar energy• It is a natural power source that can be economically used to generate

electricity• The way in which wind is created is from the atmosphere of the sun

causing areas of uneven heating. In conjunction with the uneven heating of the sun, rotation of the earth and the rockiness of the earth’s surface winds are formed

• The terms wind energy or wind power describes the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity

• Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power

Page 3: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Energy Reality

• Since a decade the demand for electricity is increasing at alarming rate and the demand for power is running ahead of supply

• The present day methods are not sufficient to keep pace with ever increasing demand

• Energy crisis has forced to think & develop the power generation by renewable sources (mainly wind power)

• It is estimated that renewable sources might contribute about 20%-50% to energy consumption in the later part of the 21st century

• World Wind Energy Association estimates wind power capacity is expected to have an anticipated net growth rate of more than 21% per year

Page 4: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Types of Wind Turbines

Mostly two categories:Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs)Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs)

The major difference is the orientation of the rotors and generator, which are all vertically arranged, and usually on a shaft for support and stability

Page 5: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

The Maglev Wind Turbine

• The Maglev wind turbine was first unveiled at the Wind Power Asia exhibition in Beijing 2007

• The unique operating principle behind this design is through magnetic levitation

• Extremely efficient system for wind energy• A single large Maglev turbine can output

more than conventional horizontal wind turbines

Page 6: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Recent Developments

• World's largest production site for maglev wind turbines, China. • Zhongke Hengyuan Energy Technology has invested 400 million yuan in

building this facility, which will produce maglev wind turbines with capacities ranging from 400 to 5,000 Watts

• In the US, Arizona-based MagLev Wind Turbine Technologies will be manufacturing these turbines

• Equatorial region countries – less wind speed (Malaysia ,Singapore) Small Maglev Wind Turbine generation of power

• Prerana Energy Corporation Private Limited in India is exploring opportunities to set up "MAGLEV - The Super-Powered Magnetic Wind turbine"

Page 7: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Magnetic Levitation

• Method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic fields

• Magnetic pressure is used to counteract the effects of the gravitational and any other accelerations

Successful Areas:1. Particle Accelerators2. Trains3. Petaflop Computers4. Bio-magnetism in MRI

Page 8: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Superconductivity & Meissner Effect

• Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature

• A quantum mechanical phenomenon. It is characterized by the Meissner effect

The Meissner effect is the expulsion of a magnetic field from a superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state

Page 9: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Potential Material for Maglev Wind Turbines

Part Material

Shaft Stainless Steel

Wind Turbine Cardboard

Permanent Magnet Ceramics Magnet

Fixed Base Wood

Selection of the Magnet:

The four different classes are Alnico, Ceramic, Samarium Cobalt and Neodymium Iron Boron also known Nd- Fe-B. Nd-Fe-B

Page 10: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Operating Principle: Traditional

• When air moves quickly, in the form of wind, the kinetic energy is captured by the turbine blades.

• The blades start to rotate and spin a shaft that leads from the hub of the rotor to a generator and produce electricity

• The energy that can be extracted from the wind is directly proportional to the cube of the wind speed

Page 11: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Operating Principle: MVAWT

• Operates on the repulsion characteristics of permanent magnets

• By placing these two magnets on top of each other with like polarities facing each other, the magnetic repulsion will be strong enough to keep both magnets at a distance away from each other

• The force created as a result of this repulsion can be used for suspension purposes and is strong enough to balance the weight of an object depending on the threshold of the magnets

Page 12: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Operating Principle: MVAWT

• Power will then be generated with an axial flux generator, which incorporates the use of permanent magnets and a set of coils. The generated power is in form of DC, stored in battery

• This can be used to directly supply the DC loads and can also be converted to AC using inverter to supply AC loads

• Maglev technology is the most efficient means of transferring kinetic energy to generate electricity

Page 13: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Operating Principle: MVAWT

• The vertical axis wind turbine platform floats on a magnetic cushion with the aid of permanent magnet suspension and a companion linear synchronous motor

• This technology eliminates nearly all friction and delivers maximum wind energy to the downstream linear generator

Page 14: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Aspects: Maglev Wind Turbine

• The rotor that is designed harness enough air to rotate the stator at low and high wind speeds while keeping the center of mass closer to the base yielding stability due to the effect of magnetic levitation

• The efficiency of turbine is increased by replacing the bearings by magnets, the magnetic levitation helps the turbine to spin at much faster rate as it will eliminate the stress on the shaft of the turbine

Page 15: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Aspects (Continued)

• The major components are placed at ground level

• The system will provide electricity at a rate lower than coal and nuclear

• This technology has the capacity to completely displace current technology in use for wind farm

Page 16: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

A Brief Comparison

Maglev vertical Axis Wind Turbine (MVAWT)

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT)

Can spin in light breezes (1 m/s) High wind speed (>3 m/s)

No or less maintenance Need of replacement of bearings, lubrications etc.

Configured to capture winds from any direction without any external control

Requires yaw mechanism turn turbine blades in direction of wind

Major components at ground level At a height on tall towers

No massive tall tower construction Requires tall tower

Cost/Kwh is less Cost/KWh is more

Long life span Less life span

Page 17: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Advantages of Maglev Wind Turbines

• A massive tower structure is not required, as VAWTs’ are mounted closer to the ground

• These are located closer to the ground and hence easier to maintain• They don’t require yaw mechanisms

• Requires no lubrication• Capable of generating power from wind speeds as low as 1.5 m/s and

reported to operate in winds reaching 40 m/s• Producing 20% more energy than a conventional turbine, at the same

time decreasing operational costs by 50% over the traditional wind turbine

Page 18: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Limitations of Maglev Wind Turbines

• The capital cost of wind power is third higher than conventional thermal power

• Further electrical problems like voltage flicker and variable frequency affect the implementation of wind farm.

• Because of their low height they cannot capture the wind energy stored in higher altitudes.

Page 19: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines

Application Area for Maglev Wind Turbines

• Suitable for the application in urban areas to provide green energy, effective utilization in street/domestic lighting and domestic appliances

• With the inclusion of inverter the power generated can be used for both AC as well as DC loads

• Can be used in remote places where conventional power supply is uneconomic

• Hybrid power generation• Generated power by this method can be used ON

and OFF grid

Page 20: Magnetic Levitation in Wind Turbines


A Presentation By:Debajyoti Bose (R120214007)

Department of Electrical, Power & Energy Engineering