Embed Size (px)
DESCRIPTIONit is all about the working and little bit of history of the magnetic trains, its a collection of knowledge, find the references at end for more information
A SEMINAR ON
ELECTRO MAGNETIC LOCOMOTIVES
Indian Institute Of Information Technology Design & Manufacturing, Kancheepuram.
BySikharam Uday Kiran
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 2
Introduction Line Diagram Of Power Flow Conventional Rail Engine
How Maglev Works Power Supply Superconductors Halbach Array’s Application Information Maglev Vs. Conventional Train Pros & Cons Summery Reference
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 3
Line diagram of power flow
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 4
Conventional Rail Engine
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 5
How MagLev Works
The electromagnets on the underside of the train pull it up to the ferromagnetic stators on the track and levitate the train.
The magnets on the side keep the train from moving from side to side.
A computer changes the amount of current to keep the train 1 cm from the track.
This means there is no friction between
the train and the track!
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 6
Levitation System’s Power Supply
Batteries on the train power the system, and therefore it still functions without propulsion.
The batteries can levitate the train for 30 minutes without any additional energy.
Linear generators in the magnets on board the train use the motion of the train to recharge the batteries.
Levitation system uses less power than the trains air conditioning.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 7
The system consists of aluminum three-phase cable windings in the stator packs that are on the guide way.
When a current is supplied to the windings, it creates a traveling alternating current that propels the train forward by pushing and pulling.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 8
When the alternating current is reversed, the train brakes.
Different speeds are achieved by varying the intensity of the current.
Only the section of track where the train is traveling is electrified.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 9
Propulsion: An alternating current through coils on the guide walls of
the guide way. This creates a magnetic field that attracts and repels the superconducting magnets on the train and propels the train forward.
Braking is done by sending current in the reverse direction
The passing of the superconducting magnets by levitation coils on the side of the tract induces a current in the coils and creates a magnetic field.
This pushes the train upward
It can levitate 10 cm above the track.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 10
This keeps the train in the center.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 11
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 12
It conduct’s electricity without resistance below a certain temperature i.e., 150K.
In a closed loop, an electrical current will flow continuously.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 13
Made out of aluminum to minimize weight.
4 rows of 8 magnets arranged in a Halbach Array.
2 rows for levitation.
2 rows for lateral guidance and propulsion.
These are a special arrangement that cancels the magnetic field above the magnets, but still allows a field below the magnets.
The permanent magnets that will be using are made out of Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB)
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 14
Source :http://www.gaussboys.com/Halbach Array
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 15
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 16
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 17
Sample Output PWM Switching Graphs
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 18
A SampleHysteresis Switching Techniques
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 19
The trains are virtually impossible to derail because the train is wrapped around the track.
Collisions between trains are unlikely because computers are controlling the trains movements.
There is very little maintenance because there is no contact between the parts.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 20
The ride is smooth while not accelerating..
The initial investment is similar to other high speed rail roads. (Maglift is $20-$40 million per mile and I-279 in Pittsburg cost $37 million per mile).
Operating expenses are half of that of other railroads.
A train is composed of sections that each contain 100 seats, and a train can have between 2 and 10 sections.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 21
The linear generators produce electricity for the cabin of the train.
Speed The train can travel at about 300 mph. (Acela can only
go 150 mph)
For trips of distances up to 500 miles its total travel time is equal to a planes (including check in time and travel to airport.)
It can accelerate to 200 mph in 3 miles, so it is ideal for short jumps. (ICE needs 20 miles to reach 200 mph.)
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 22
MagLev vs. Conventional Trains
MagLev Trains Conventional Trains
No Friction = Less Maintenance
Routine Maintenance Needed
No Engine = No fuel required
Engine requires fossil fuels
Speeds in excess of300 mph
Speeds up to 110 mph
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 23
It is 250 times safer than conventional railroads.
700 times safer than automobile travel.
Speeds up to 500 km/h.
A accident between two maglev trains is nearly impossible because the linear induction motors prevent trains running in opposite directions.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 24
The big problem about this is that the pieces for the maglev are really expensive
The procedure to build it up is very expensive as well.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 25
Other MagLev Applications:
Military is looking into using MagLev. Possible uses could include:
Aircraft carrier launching pad Rocket launching Space craft launching
Future scope: Under water rails (continental).
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 26
Maglev trains use magnets to levitate and propel the trains forward.
Since there is no friction these trains can reach high speeds.
It is a safe and efficient way to travel.
Governments have mixed feelings about the technology. Some countries, like China, have embraced it and others like Germany have balked at the expense.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 27
http://www.gaussboys.com/Halbach Array http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_levitation http://science.howstuffworks.com/magnet3.htm http://www.howstuffworks.com/electromagnet.htm
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 28
BySikharam Uday Kiran
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 29
OPTIMUM MAGNET THICKNESS =.2*wavelength (lambda)
Optimum wavelength = 4*pi*y1 (m)
y1 = levitation height (lambda)
Br = (Tesla) remanent field of the permanent magnet
77.Mag of Wt.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 30
Peak Strength of Magnetic Field M
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 31
2max Co ykB
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 32
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 33
Levitation Height = .75 cm
Transition Velocity = 3.9 m/s
Approximately 14,200 m of wire will be needed for 24 ft of track.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 34
Thickness of Wire # of Turns Approx Amps
.0315 in 1 492 mA
.10189 in10 awg
1 3.8 A
.10189 in10 awg
5 9.9 A