Latin American Revolutions for Independence

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Chapter 8.3

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<ul><li> 1. LATIN AMERICANINDEPENDENCE</li></ul><p> 2. BolvarfightsSpanishtroopsin hisendeavorsto free SouthAmerica.Simn Bolvar 3. 1750-1914:AN AGE OFREVOLUTIONS Latin American Independence Movements 4. IMPERIALISM IN THE CARIBBEAN AND SOUTH AMERICA, 189841917 Referred to as Banana Republics 5. LATIN AMERICAN WARS OF 3INDEPENDENCE What caused discontent in Latin America? How did Haitians, Mexicans, and people in CentralAmerica win independence? How did nations of South Americawin independence? 6. 3WHAT CAUSED DISCONTENT IN LATIN AMERICA? By the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped Western Europe had spread to Latin America. There, discontent was rooted in the social, racial, and political system that had emerged during 300 years of Spanish rule. Peninsulares were those born of Spanish parents in Spain; therefore, they had the most wealth, education, &amp; status. Creoles resented their second-class status. Mestizos and mulattoes were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power available to whites. Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish. Enslaved Africans who worked on plantations longed for freedom. 7. 3 CENTRALHAITI MEXIC AMERICAOIn 1791, Toussaint Father Miguel HidalgoSpanish-ruled landsLOuverture led slaves and Jos Morelas led declared theirin revolt. popular revolts. independence in theBy 1798, enslavedRebels led by Agustnearly 1820s.Haitians had beende Iturbide overthrewLocal leaders set upfreed. the Spanishthe United ProvincesIn 1802, Napoleonviceroy, creating an of Central America.sent an army toindependent Mexico.recapture Haiti.The union soonNapoleons forcesIturbide took the title of fragmented intoagreed to a truce, oremperor, but was separate republics oftemporary peace. quickly overthrown.Guatemala, Nicaragu Liberal Mexicans set upa, Honduras, ElIn 1804, HaitianSalvador, and Costa the Republic of Mexico.leaders declaredRica.independence. STRUGGLES FOR INDEPENDENCE 8. INDEPENDENCE IN SOUTH AMERICA3 In South America, Native Americans had rebelled against Spanish rule as early as the 1700s, with limited results. It was not until the 1800s that discontent sparked a widespread drive for independence.Simon Bolvar, called The Liberator,:the George Washington of SouthAmerica, led an uprising thatestablished a republic in Venezuela.He then captured Bogot, Ecuador,Peru, and Bolivia.In 1816, Jos de San Martnhelped Argentina win freedom fromSpain. He then joined forces withBolvar.Bolvar tried to unite the liberatedlands into a single nation called GranColombia. However, bitter rivalriesmade thatdream impossible.Before long, Gran Columbia split into 9. INDEPENDENT NATIONS OF LATIN AMERICA ABOUT 18443 10. 3INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN LATIN AMERICA Long-Term CausesImmediate CausesEuropean domination of Latin America People of Latin America resent colonial rule and social injusticesSpread of Enlightenment ideasAmerican and French revolutionsRevolutionary leaders emergeGrowth of nationalism in Latin America Napoleon invades Spain and ousts Spanish kingImmediate Effects Long-Term EffectsToussaint LOuverture leadsAttempts made to rebuildslave revolt in HaitieconomiesBolvar, San Martn, and others18 separate republics set uplead successful revolts in Latin Continuing efforts to achieve stableAmericademocratic governments and toColonial rule ends in much ofgain economic independenceLatin America 11. Franois Toussaint- Simn Louverture-Miguel BolvarHidalgoKeyPeoplePedro IJos deSan Martn 12. LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS, 18TH &amp; 19TH C. Wars of IndependenceIn Latin America Many Latin American nations tried a break for freedom while Napoleon was in power 13. RESULTS Caudillos Strong military leaders emerge Dictatorship and totalitarian systems emerge Dependency theory challenges Modernitytheory Western European markets determine the product South America dependent upon others buying their onecrop Banana Republics United Fruit Company controlled Central America in late19th and early 20th century Phrase coined to designate politically unstable, dependenton limited agriculture, and ruled by a small, wealthy andcorrupt clique put in power by the United Statesgovernment in conjunction with the CIA and the USbusiness lobby 14. LATIN AMERICAN SOCIAL CLASSES Peninsulares were men born in Spain or Portugal who held highest offices and important military and political positions Creoles were Spaniards born in the LatinAmerican colonies who were officers inarmy, but not in government and controlledmuch of the land and business in thecolonies. But they deeply resented powerof the peninsulares. Mestizos made up the majority of the society because it was mixed European and Indian. They worked as servant to the peninsulares and Creoles and as plantation overseers and farmhands. Mulatto-European and African mixed ancestry. The Native Americans/Africans were the lowest society group but also the largest. They were not known as citizens but did much labor. 15. FRENCH COLONIES: REVOLUTION IN HAITI Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti Western third of island of Hispanola inCaribbean Sea. 16. The first Latin American uprising was in the Frenchcolony of Haiti, which was where huge plantations ofsugar, cotton and coffee spread across the mountainsand valleys of the lush tropical land. The Plantationswere owed by French planters and worked by thecolonys enslaved African population There was a high demand of sugar and coffee from thesmall colony of Haiti 500,000 to 560,000 people living in Haiti in the late1700s were enslaved or had been Unrest erupted in the early 1790s when enslavedAfricans led by Franois Toussaint-Louverture revoltedby setting fires to plantation homes and fields ofsugarcane. Napoleon sent forces in 1802 in order to take control ofthe colony and successfully captured Toussaint-Louverture and imprisoned him in France until his deathin 1803. Yellow fever was the death of thousands of Frenchsoldiers which is what the Haiti people needed to defeat 17. TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE Former slave, self-educated. Untrained in military and political matters, butbecame a skilled general and diplomat. Allegedly got name (opening in French)from being able to find openings in enemylines. Took leadership of a slave revolt that brokeout in 1791. 100,000 slaves in revolt. By 1801, LOuverture moved into SpanishSanto Domingo (the eastern two-thirds of theisland of Hispanola), took control of territoryand freed slaves. In January 1802, French troops landed. Toussaint agreed to an end of fighting if theFrench would end slavery French accused him of planning anotheruprising. Sent him to a prison in the French Alps. 18. Father Miguel Hidalgo was aMexican priest who was theleader of the Mexican war forIndependence. He started themovement of independencein 1810. With his help, thefight for independence lastedfor 11 years but Miguel didnot see it to the end. He wasexecuted in 1811 because oftraitors who sold him out tothe Spaniards. Miguel Hidalgo was known asa risk taker with the motto:We want a free Mexico; withthis motto, his fight forindependence never ended.May 8, 1753 July30, 1811 19. Miguel Hidalgo led the fight against theSpanish government in Mexico because ofthe deep care he had for the poverty-stricken Native Americans and mestizos. Hidalgos goals were political freedom, anend to slavery, and improvements to livingconditions for Mexicos poor and revolt wasthe only way to bring change On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo gave astirring address that became known as elGrito de Dolores that called for Mexicans tofight for Independence and Liberty. In 1811 the well-trained Spanish army finallyoverwhelmed the rebels and Hidalgo wascaptured and executed 20. Agustn de Iturbide Jos Francisco de SanSimn Bolvar July September 27, 1783 Martn24, 1783 July 19, 1824February 25, 1778 December 17, 1830 August 17, 1850 21. Chilean liberator Bernardo OHiggins by the famous Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siquieros at Chillns Escuela Mxico.The son of the Irish-born governor ofChile, he was a leading figure in themovement to overthrow the rulingSpanish administration and was thefirst head of state of the independentChile. OHiggins Rides Again, Arica, Chile - Every South American city displays its heroes in bronze. In Arica, its Bernardo OHiggins who does the honors. OHiggins fought alongside of Argentinas Jose San Martin, defeating Spain at Chacabuco, bringing independence to Chile in 22. Agustn de Iturbide decisively ended the Mexican War ofIndependence. After the liberation of Mexico was secured, hewas proclaimed President of Regency in 1821 andConstitutional Emperor of the new nation, reigning as Emperorbriefly from May 19, 1822 to March 19, 1823. Agustn deIturbide is also credited as the original designer of the Mexicanflag. Simn Bolvar led many colonies to independence because hebelieved in equality and saw liberty as the only object worth amans life. Bolvars nickname was The Liberator because hedevoted his life to the freedom for Latin Americans. In 1810,Simn Bolvar started a revolt against the Spaniards inCaracas which lasted 9 years until he crushed Spains power innorthern South America. Also called George Washington ofSouth America Jos de San Martn led Latin American armies over the AndesMountains and into Chile where he joined Bernardo OHiggins.The two men successfully achieved independence for Chile in1818. In 1820, they also captured Lima and declared Peruindependent. In 1826, Bolvar and his armies had liberated allof South America. 23. BolivarSanMartn O Higgins 24. GRAN COLOMBIA, 1820-1830 Bolivars vision of a united South America. Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela andPanama. Short-lived due to dissension amongst variousfactions. Bolivar resigned in 1828. In 1830, Bolivars Gran Colombia divided intoColombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Panama later split from Colombia with US assistance,1903. 25. BRAZIL GAINS INDEPENDENCE Brazil gains independence without thebloodshed because when NapoleonsFrench army had invaded Portugal,causing the Portuguese royal family to fleeto Brazil. King Joo transferred his monarchy toBrazil and immediately introducedgovernmental reforms in Brazil. With thedifferent reforms made by King Joo,Brazil was a self-governing kingdomwithout the Portuguese in 1815. In September 1822 Brazil won fullindependence from Portugal and crownedDom Pedro as Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. 26. CHALLENGES THAT COME WITH GROWTH Because of the high mountains and thick jungles made transportation andcommunication difficult, hindering trade and economic growth, which letmany fertile lands remaining undeveloped. Stable food source is important to growth; building infrastructure is equallyimportantschools, roads, hospitals In the Colonies the executive branch of the government had the politicalpower. The judicial branch was weak and limited, and the legislative branch was practically nonexistent. The leaders were well educated but had no experience in the legislativeprocess, and with low literacy rates, the people were slow to get a grip ondemocratic process. But there were still the separation between the upper and lower classes,but now the creoles owned the best land and controlled business andgovernment, not the peninsulares. 27. Although Catholicism remained the official religion andChurch and government continued to be closely tied. With the gain of independence came the increase ofpolitical conflicts. Liberals called for separation ofChurch and state, the breakup of large estates, highertaxes on land, public social services, and civilian controlof the government. There were liberals than there werethe creoles, most of whom were rich landowners, churchleaders, and military officers. The decades that followedthe wars for independence saw an ongoing struggle foreconomic strength and social justice. 28. 4POLITICAL PROBLEMSDuring the 1800s, most Latin American nations wereplagued by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships. Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, asindependence barely changed the existing social andpolitical hierarchy. With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nationswere weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area.What they really needed: Land Reform a break with traditional customs experience with government infrastructure separation of Church and State 29. Revolutions in Europe 30. Events inFrance 31. 1OPPOSINGIDEOLOGIESAt the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried toturn the clock back to the way things had been before 1789.Other voices, however, kept challenging the order imposedby the Congress of Vienna.The clash of people with opposing ideologies, orsystems of thought and belief, plunged Europeinto more than 30 years of turmoil. 32. 1WHAT WERE THE GOALS OF CONSERVATIVES?Conservatives pursued the following goals: Restore royal families to the thrones they had lost whenNapoleon swept across Europe. Maintain a social hierarchy in which lower classesrespected and obeyed their social superiors. Maintain an established church. Suppress revolutionary ideas. 33. 1THE LIBERAL AND NATIONALIST CHALLENGEChallenging the conservatives at every turn were liberals andnationalists who were inspired by the Enlightenment and theFrench Revolution. LIBERALISMNATIONALISMLiberals wanted: National groups who Governments based on shared a common heritage written constitutions and set out to win their own separation of powers. states. Natural rights of liberty, equality, and Nationalism gave people prosperity. with a common heritage a Rulers elected by thesense of identity. people and responsible to them. Nationalism often bred A republican form of intolerance and led to government. persecution of other ethnic 34. Revolutions in Europe 35. REVOLTS AGAINST THE OLD ORDER 1Spurred by the ideas of liberalism and nationalism,revolutionaries fought against the old order. In the Balkans, first Serbia, and later Greece fought for and won independence from their Ottoman rulers and becomes The Powder Keg of Europe. In Spain, Portugal, and various states in the Italian peninsula, rebels struggled to gain constitutional governments. In response, a French army marched over the Pyrenees to suppress the revolts in Spain. Austrian forces crossed the Alps to smash rebellious outbreaks in Italy. 36. THE BALKANS, 18784 37. 2HOW DID REVOLUTIONSPREAD IN 1830?The revolts in Paris inspired uprisingselsewhere in Europe. Most weresuppressed by military force. Buthere and there, rebels did winchanges from conservativegovernments. Even when they failed,revolutionaries frightened rulers badlyenough to encourage reform later in Polandthe century.Nationalists inPoland staged anBelgium The one notable success uprising in 1830.for Europes revolutionaries in 1830took place in Belgium. The Congress However, theof Vienna had united Belgium andrebels failed toHolland under the Dutch king. gain widespreadThe Belgians resented thisarrangement and pushed forsupport, and wereindep...</p>