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DESCRIPTIONLATIN AMERICA. REVOLUTION & REACTION INTO THE 21 ST CENTURY. INTRODUCTION. The arrest in 1998 in London of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet raised questions about whether Latin America needed to seek justice of the abuses of the 20th century or move ahead. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
LATIN AMERICAREVOLUTION & REACTION INTO THE 21ST CENTURY
INTRODUCTIONThe arrest in 1998 in London of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet raised questions about whether Latin America needed to seek justice of the abuses of the 20th century or move ahead. Latin American countries in the 20th century have been part of the developing world, though their Western political and social structures as well as recent achievements set them apart from Asia and Africa. Since 1945, Latin America has dealt with struggles over economic development, social justice, and the rise of new social groups. Despite broad shifts in politics and the economy, the region remained remarkably unchanged.
LATIN AMERICA: 1914 1940s Latin America ChangesWorld War I: Led to upsurge in exports, development of industries1920s 1940s: Depression and war hurt local economiesUS initiates Good Neighbor Policy to try to improve US-Latin relationsOrganization of American States formed to support regions neutrality in early warSome sympathy for fascists in Argentina, Brazil; some states entered World War IIMexico After the RevolutionLiberal constitution of 1917 guaranteed land and liberty to Mexico Land redistributed to peasants, nationalization of oil Conservative governments dominated by Institutional Revolutionary PartyABC PowersThree nations emerged as major players: Brazil, Chile, ArgentinaTheir economies were very solidly export orientedEconomic Development fueled social progress within these statesBrazil joined the Allies in World War I but other two stayed neutralPatterns of economic dependence in Latin America Need to reorient economies from export to internal developmentMuch of Latin America exported raw minerals, food stuffs, oil to Western WorldNeed to develop domestic industry, consumer industries rather than import Raul Prebisch, Argentine economist, crafted theory of "economic dependency" Developed nations controlled world economy at expense of undeveloped ones Developing nations needed to protect domestic industries
ARGENTINA & CHILEArgentina1916 - 1930In 1916 Radicals won presidency but Conservatives controlled ParliamentRadicals sought to expand electorate, democracy, benefit middle classReforms favored labor, industry, commerce, studentsStayed neutral in World War IProblem was the rise of anarchist, communist and fascist organizationsThe Infamous 1930sHad 4th highest per capita GDP in 1928 but Depression crippled Argentinan foreign tradeMilitary staged a coup in 1930 bringing with it electoral fraud, corruption, persecutionsClashes between fascists, socialists/communists, unions and management became commonMilitary Coup of 1943 by junior officers to avoid joining Allies in warChileParliamentary republic dominated until 1925: Congress overshadowed PresidentQuarrel-prone system that merely distributed spoilsClung to its laissez-faire policy while national problems mountedA reform movement began to clamor for social reform, democratizationMilitary staged coup to avoid more radical reformsBegan to appoint presidents but many massacres and clashes with leftists, unions occuredGradually enacted reforms and returned power to the elected representatives in 19321932 1973 Presidential System of Civil Governments returned
LATIN AMERICA: FROM THE 1940sThe 1940sSubstantial political demand for reform in much of Latin AmericaDemocratic governments carried out reforms in Venezuela, Costa RicaOthers turned to models of Marxist revolutionPolitical democratization, economic development, social reforms failedMore radical solutions to ongoing problems were soughtGovernments that moved too swiftly met by resistance from the militaryFascism seemed a blend of social reform, industry, army, nationalismBrazil and Argentina were the best examplesArgentina 1943 1953Military coup by colonels produced a ruling junta in 1943Junior Officers not enthusiastic about elite support of Allies in World War IIJunior Officers were more pro-German, proto-fascistsJunta came to be dominated by Juan Peron, who became president in 1946Censored press but expanded participation in unions, spending on social problemsFollowed isolationist foreign policy and attempted limit others economic influenceInfluential wife Evita helped him become the darling of the shirtless workersBrazil 1930 1954Old Republic dominated by wealthy landed elite, export industries lasted until 1930Military Coup in 1930 installed Vargas as presidentVargas ruled as dictator, elected president, dictator again and then senatorContinued industrial and agricultural growth with development of AmazonTried to blend concern for workers with owners into a populism, corporatismPresidentVargasIndustrialGrowthOrder and Progress
MEXICOS POLITICAL PATHS IN THE 20TH CENTURYMexico After the RevolutionRevolutionary fervor absorbed by the ruling elite but reforms selectivePresident was limited to a six year term: constant tension between factions of the elitePrevious president Calles monopolized power even after presidency Created National Revolutionary Party so he could control nation, electionsThis was the predecessor to the Institutionalized Revolutionary Party (PRI)Calles flirted with fascism and became increasingly anti-reform, anti-leftistRise of Cardenas Originally selected to be president but Cardenas became more popular, powerfulRemoved Calles people from influence, powerEnacted sweeping reformsNationalized the oil industry largely owned by the USAGave land to the Indians, poor farmersThe Institutionalized Revolutionary Party (PRI)Pattern for Politics until 1995Allied the Mexican state to moneyed interests: exceedingly corruptAllied wealthy industrialists with rising urban middle class interestsMoved the PRI to the right stole much of PANs political ideologyWooed foreign capital negotiated a massive loan from the United StatesAccelerated industrialization at expense of poor, rural interests, Indians, workersUnprecedented patronage for governmental jobs including bribes, favoritismManipulated vying political interestsFree-trade agreement with the United States brought mixed results.
THE MEXICAN MIRACLEFirst 4 decades of PRIDubbed the "Mexican MiraclePeriod of economic growth Substitution of imports and low inflationGrowth spurred by national development plans Followed the 5 Year Plans of the Soviet UnionProvided for major investment on infrastructure. From 1940 to 1970 GDP increased six-fold Population only doubled The peso-dollar parity was maintained.Mexico went from a largely rural economy to an industrial societyOil production surgedPEMEX: Mexico nationalized oil industry in 1938World War II and 1970s Oil Crisis benefited MexicoProduction and export fueled growthAllowed government to support social programs, infrastructure
THE END OF HEGEMONYThe PRI Loses Its Monopoly On PowerAccused many times of blatant fraudIn 1980s the PRI lost the first state governorshipThe event that marked the beginning of the party's loss of hegemonyTroubles BeginMexico faced an economic crisis due to oil glut, debtsPublic demonstrations in Mexico City Constant military presence after Zapatista rebellion in ChiapasPolitical and electoral reforms that reduced the PRI's hold on power. 1988 electionStrongly disputed and arguably lost by the government partyIFE (Instituto Federal Electoral Federal Electoral Institute) created in the early 1990sRun by ordinary citizens, overseeing that elections are conducted legally and fairlyPresident Vicente Fox QuesadaPopular discontent allowed the National Action Party (PAN) Vicente Fox Quesada to win in 2000Did not win a majority in the Chambers of CongressThis election ended 71 years of PRI hegemony of the presidencyPresident Felipe Caldern HinojosaFelipe Caldern Hinojosa also a member of the conservative National Action Party (PAN)Many people in Mexico claim that he actually did not win the electionObrador, candidate of Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) claimed he wonHe appointed himself as legitimate president" Currently traveling all over the country along with his own cabinetUses resources from the taxes from all Mexicans to supervise actions of Caldern
THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICAThe American EmpireUntil the 1890s, the Monroe Doctrine was maintained more by British interest than US powerUS threatened to intervene in Mexico against the French in 1867The United States remained the greatest external force in Latin AmericaAfter 1898, US annexed Puerto Rico, turned Cuba into a protectorateIn 1904, staged Panamanian revolution in order to build canal across the IsthmusAmerican Interventions: More than 30 before 1933The US invested heavily, loaned billions in Central America, Mexico and the CaribbeanThe USA intervened whenever it believed its interests to be threatened often called Dollar DiplomacyIn Central America, investment by U.S. corporations was so high that intervention was commonAnyone attempt to nationalize resources, opposed intervention branded Communists or banditsIn Nicaragua Augusto Sandino led resistance to U.S. influence until his assassination in 1934Intervention often followed by establishment of puppet governments referred to as Banana RepublicsAmerican intervention helped to spread nationalist movements in Central America1930s ChangesUnited States introduced the Good Neighbor Policy, worked with Latin America on common interestsFormed Organization of American States as an alliance to resist Nazi aggression in World War II1960s ChangesIntervention was renewed after World War II on the pretext of containing communism. U.S. programs provided economic aid as means of raising standards of living, combating radicalsIn the 1970s and 1980sU.S. intervention was somewhat less flagrantPresident Carter signed a treaty returning the Panama Canal zone to PanamaPresidents Reagan, Bush pursued more aggressive policies in Latin America to contain communism
THE US IMAGE IN LATIN AMERICA
GUATEMALA: REFORMAND U.S. INTERVENTIONThe first nation to attempt more radical reforms was GuatemalaIn 1944, President Juan Jos Arevalo instituted a new constitutionInitiated land reformInstituted civil rights for laborersTo fund reforms, education system, Arevalo imposed an income taxAttempted to nationalize economic resources Brought Arevalo's government into conflict with the United Fruit Co. This American corporation owned most bananas, fruit areas of regionProgram of nationalization continued under Arbenz, elected in 1951American InterventionArbenzs program becomes more radicalThe United States imposed economic and diplomatic sanctionsIn 1954, a CIA-assisted military coup unseated ArbenzPro-American military revoked many of reformsA guerrilla movement emerged in Guatemala.
Diego Rivera Paints the Overthrow of Arbenz
THE CUBAN REVOLUTIONThe 1940s and 1950s Since 1906 Platt Amendment, Cuba was largely a US protectorateCuba was economically more advanced than Guatemala Dependent on an export economy closely tied to the markets of the United StatesDifferences between wealthy urban, impoverished rural economy provoked political dissentFulgencio Batista Had ruled Cuba between 1934 and 1944He had proposed reforms, including a democratic constitutionWhen he returned to power in 1952, he was less interested in reform than in maintaining powerFidel CastroYoung idealistic leader of opposition to BatistaIn 1953, a rebellion under Fidel Castro failedWhen released from prison, Castro fled to Mexico, where he reorganized resistance to BatistaIn 1956, Castro and his supporters invaded CubaAfter two years of guerrilla resistance, they successfully ousted the Batista governmentSocialist CubaCastro proclaimed a Marxist state complete with centralized economic planningAll economic resources were nationalizedWhen the US severed ties in 1961, Cuba became increasingly dependent on the USSRUS financed invasion failed at Bay of Pigs causing Cuba to turn to USSR for military aidUS blockaded island to get Soviet missiles removedSocial reforms under Castro were extensive but often at the expense of individual libertiesAttempts to move beyond an export economy dependent on sugar have failedSome other Latin American nations chose to model revolutions on the Cuban example
THE SEARCH FOR REFORM AND THE MILITARY OPTIONRevolutions often left underlying social, economic problems unchangedIn the decades of the 1950s and 1960sMilitary governments became prevalent in Latin AmericaSearch for political stability led to single-party rule (Mexico)Rise of Christian Democratic parties (Chile and Venezuela)Increasing roles for the Roman Catholic ChurchActive intervention of the Church in the search for social justiceSome priests blended theology, Marxism to create liberation theologyArmy officers believed they could best resolve problems of political instabilityConcerned about the Cuban revolution, the military seized control of governmentsMilitary coups, often with compliance of the United States, overthrew governments Brazil (1964), Argentina (1966), Chile (1973), Uruguay (1973), and Peru (1968)Military GovernmentsSupposed to be above political partisanship, produce economic stabilityOften consisted of presidencies assisted by organized bureaucraciesWere often brutally repressive: people disappeared, were tortured and murderedSought to crush labor movements, develop new industry, promote building of infrastructureSocial problems were scarcely addressedAll military regimes were nationalisticArgentina: The Falkland War in 1982To distract population from internal problems, repression, Argentina seized Falkland IslandsUK responded, defeating the Argentinian invasion which led to the fall of the dictatorship
THE NEW DEMOCRATIC TRENDIn the 1980sMilitary began to restore civilian governments in the 1980sIn Peru Corruption led to the removal of President Fujimoro and rise of leftist oppositionMaoist Inca guerrillas called the Shining Path continued to oppose democratizationIn Nicaragua1990 elections produced a democratic government under Violeta ChamorroBut the revolutionary Sandinista party continued to existIn PanamaPresident Carter had returned the Canal to Panama but US would protect itGeneral Noriega cooperated with the Colombian Drug Cartels as its banker The US intervened to end the military rule of Manuel Noriega in PanamaIn ChileThe military intended to return democracy after a period of transitionA plebiscite did not go the way Pinochet had wanted the populace refused him a second termChile eased its way back to democracy over a ten year period as all parties cooperatedTransition may have been helped by Pope John Paul IIs criticism of Chile as a dictatorshipEconomic stability in Latin America continued to be a major problemForeign debt: countries borrowed heavily to finance reformsHigh (hyper) inflationLow standards of livingIncreasing levels of criminal activity often associated with the Drug TradeDespite problems, democratization of political systems continued in the 1990s
SOCIETIES IN SEARCH OF CHANGE: WOMENSocial conditions and problems Changed only slowly, but reforms did occur Population distribution, growing urbanizationProblems relating to ethnicity, gender continue to existSlow Change in Women's Roles Gender equality was a goal more than a reality in Latin AmericaIn most nations, women did not receive the right to vote until the 1940s and 1950sMales excluded women from political lifeFeared their associations with organized religion would make them conservativeIn responseWomen formed organizations and suffrage associations that slowly resulted in enfranchisementOnce admitted to political parties, women found that they were excluded from real influenceOnly in Argentina, Chile, and Nicaragua did women play critical rolesJust before World War I women began to enter the industrial labor forceThey worked for lower wages than their male counterpartsWomen tended to join anarchist, socialist, other labor groups as part of the unskilled labor forceIn service sectors, some market economies, women have risen to positions of prominenceMore significant economic roles did not imply greater social statusBy 1990sPosition of women in Latin America was closer to the West than other areas of worldWomen especially mothers and wives were prominent in anti-military demonstrationsMore women in elected offices including presidencies than any region except ScandinaviaChile and Nicaragua have had women presidents
SOCIETIES IN SEARCH OF CHANGE: MIGRATIONAfter 1950Population of Latin America rapidly outstripped that of North AmericaInternal migration from countryside to cities Countryside offered little or no work, little hope for advancementOnly available jobs in citiesPrimate CitiesOne city dominates nation, has an enormous portion of national populationBuenos Aires, Bogota, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Montevideo, Caracas, LimaBy the 1980s, about one half of the population was urbanizedUrban economies have been unable to absorb the influx from countrysideMassive slumsCompetition between urban workers, rural migrants created tensionsImmigration Lack of job opportunities in countries, political repression led to immigrationMigration from Mexico, Central America to the United States is often illegalSimilar to movement of workers from Mediterranean, Africa to W. EuropeHas led to strained relations between US and region
IMMIGRATION MEANS MONEYJobs for illegal immigrants from Latin America working in the US are a source of money for local economiesAny curtailment of cash from the USA would hurt local economies.
MAPPING LATIN AMERICAN DEMOGRAPHY
CULTURAL REFLECTIONS OF DISPAIR AND HOPELatin Americas Changing Religious SceneRegion remains predominantly CatholicLargest Catholic region in the worldAbout 1/3 of all Catholics in the world are in Latin AmericaRise of Pentecostal ChristianityCatholic clergy often associated with ruling hierarchyCatholicism often very traditional, favored traditional approachesMany urban professionals educated in US attracted to PentecostalismGuatemala and Brazil have seen a massive switch to Protestantism The Disparities between rich and poorThe elite in Latin America own an enormous portion of most nations wealthElite interests, culture dominates countries out of all proportion to numbers, electionsRegional Cultures with admixtures of African and Indian culturesAvoid the term Hispanic it is an American politically correct term onlyDominate elite culture is urban, educated, largely Caucasian or MestizoAfrican, Indian cultures marginalized except perhaps for BrazilLatin America has produced many world-famous authors, poets, and artistsIndigenous cultures, plight of poor are common themes in art and literatureRepelled by failure of reform, continuation of social and economic problemsAuthors of the 1960s turned away from reality to the fantastic and the absurdContemporary authors are quite realistic, modern in their portrayalsGabriel Garcia Marguez: Colombian Nobel Laureate, used style we call Magical RealismIsabel Allende: Chilean writer discusses womens issues also using Magical Realism
LORENZ CURVEA Graphic Representation of Wealth Distribution: The closer the number to one means a small percentage of the populace owns a great deal of the wealth
THE DRUG TRADEDrug ProductionMajor Fields: Colombia, BoliviaRefined: Colombia, Bolivia, PeruThe IssueA cash crop for poor IndiansVery little else as income availableThe Cartels and PoliticsColombia has fought trade bitterlyBolivia often cooperates with dealersPeruvian, Colombian guerillas benefitMexico wracked by civil violenceVenezuela, Cuba involved with trafficRealityProduction in South AmericaNow controlled by Mexican cartelsMany states launder money, helpUS Intervention in RegionOften tied to fighting drug tradeOne reason US tolerates generals