L07 quality management

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<ul><li><p>IS5540 Project Management &amp; Quality Assurance</p><p>Week 7 - Project Quality ManagementSchwalbe: Managing Information Technology Projects, Chapter 8</p><p>Adapted by Janet Yu, Frank Lo</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>PMI Framework: 9 Knowledge Areas*People</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Learning ObjectivesDefine project quality management and understand how quality relates to various aspects of information technology projectsUnderstand quality planning and the components of a Quality Assurance / Management PlanDescribe what quality assurance isDescribe what quality control isUnderstand the tools and techniques for quality control, such as Pareto analysis, statistical sampling, Six Sigma, quality control charts, and testing*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>What Is Project Quality?The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines quality as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements (ISO9000:2000)Other experts define quality based on:Conformance to requirements: the projects processes and products meet written specificationsFitness for use: a product can be used as it was intended*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>What Is Project Quality Management?Project quality management ensures that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertakenProcesses include:Plan quality: identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy themPerform quality assurance: periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standardsPerform quality control: monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Quality PlanningQuality is planned, designed, and built-in. Quality is not inspected in.*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>The Cost of QualityTotal cost to produce the product or service of the project according to the quality standardsThe cost of quality is the cost of conformance plus the cost of nonconformanceConformance means delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for useCost of nonconformance means taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectationsThere is no free lunch!</p><p>*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Cost of QualityPrevention costsKeeping defects out of the hands of customersIncludes things like quality planning, training, design reviews</p><p>Appraisal costsExpended to examine the product or process and make certain the requirements are being metLike inspection and testing, buying test equipment*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Cost of QualityFailure costsWhat it costs when things dont go according to plan2 typesInternal failure costproduct is still in the control of the organizationInclude corrective action, rework, scrapping and downtimeExternal failure costProduct has reached the customerInclude inspections at the customer site, returns, and customer service costs*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Plan Quality*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Plan QualityWhat quality standard?How to achieve that?TrainingWalkthroughsReviewsQuality auditsHow to make things better process improvement?Who is responsible for what?Project managers are ultimately responsible for quality management on their projects</p><p>*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>How Do you Measure Quality of IT Systems?No. of bugsPerformance Response timeVolume of data and transactions system should be capable of handlingUsabilityReliabilityThe ability of a product or service to perform as expected under normal conditionsAvailabilityMean time between failure (MTBF), mean time to recover (MTTR)*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Quality Assurance/Management Plan-Sample*1.0 Draft Quality Assurance Plan1.1 Introduction1.2 Purpose1.3 Policy Statement1.4 Scope2.0 Management2.1 Organizational Structure2.2 Roles and Responsibilities2.2.1 Technical Monitor/Senior Management2.2.2 Task Leader2.2.3 Quality Assurance Team2.2.3 Technical Staff3.0 Required Documentation4.0 Quality Assurance Procedures4.1 Walkthrough Procedure4.2 Review Process4.2.1 Review Procedures4.3 Audit Process4.3.1 Audit Procedures4.4 Evaluation Process4.5 Process Improvement5.0 Problem Reporting Procedures5.1 Noncompliance Reporting Procedures6.0 Quality Assurance Metrics Focus on these things in your report</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Perform Quality Assurance*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Perform Quality AssuranceDetermining whether standards are being metIdentifying improvementsE.g. recommend certain practices or equipmentFocus on the process</p><p>*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Tools Used in Quality AssuranceBenchmarkingcomparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products within or outside the performing organization Quality auditSee if you are complying with the standards and proceduresCan be done by internal staff (e.g. from QA department) or outsiderCan be scheduled or ad-hoc</p><p>*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Perform Quality Control*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Perform Quality ControlLooks at specific measurements to see if project and its processes are in controlStudy the product/result*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Basic Tools of QualityCause &amp; Effect DiagramControl ChartRun ChartScatter DiagramHistogramPareto DiagramFlowchart*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Cause-and-Effect DiagramsCause-and-effect diagrams trace complaints about quality problems back to the responsible production operationsThey help you find the root cause of a problemAlso known as fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Figure 8-2: Sample Cause-and-Effect Diagram*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Quality Control ChartsA control chart is a graphic display of data that illustrates the results of a process over timeThe main use of control charts is to prevent defects, rather than to detect or reject themQuality control charts allow you to determine whether a process is in control or out of control*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>The Seven Run RuleYou can use quality control charts and the seven run rule to look for patterns in dataThe seven run rule states that ifseven data points in a row are all below the mean, above the mean, or are all increasing or decreasingthen the process needs to be examined for nonrandom problems*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Figure 8-3: Sample Quality Control Chart*</p></li><li><p>Run ChartA run chart displays the history and pattern of variation of a process over timeIt is a line chart that shows data points plotted in the order in which they occurCan be used to perform trend analysis to forecast future outcomes based on historical patterns*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Figure 8-4: Sample Run Chart*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Scatter DiagramA scatter diagram helps to show if there is a relationship between two variablesThe closer data points are to a diagonal line, the more closely the two variables are related*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Figure 8-5: Sample Scatter Diagram*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>HistogramsA histogram is a bar graph of a distribution of variablesEach bar represents an attribute or characteristic of a problem or situation, and the height of the bar represents its frequency*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Figure 8-6: Sample Histogram*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Pareto ChartsA Pareto chart is a histogram that can help you identify and prioritize problem areasPareto analysis is also called the 80-20 rule, meaning that 80 percent of problems are often due to 20 percent of the causes</p><p>*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Figure 8-7: Sample Pareto Chart*</p></li><li><p>FlowchartsFlowcharts are graphic displays of the logic and flow of processes that help you analyze how problems occur and how processes can be improvedThey show activities, decision points, and the order of how information is processed*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Figure 8-8: Sample Flowchart*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Quick Quiz Which Tool?I want to know whether younger users take less time to learn the system.I want to know the day of the week where the workers productivity is the highest.The system is getting slower and slower. I want to know the possible causes.The error rate of the order fulfillment process is increasing. I want to know which step(s) may have problem.I want to prioritize the problems so that I can tackle the most severe problems first.I have just adopted a new process. I want to know if the new process produces desirable results.*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Other Quality Management Concepts &amp; Approaches*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Statistical SamplingStatistical sampling involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspectionThe size of a sample depends on how representative you want the sample to be*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Standard Deviation= sigma ()If I just tell you the average mark is 70, do you know anything about the mark distribution?Standard deviation measures how much variation exists in a distribution of dataSmall data clusters closely around the middlelittle variability among the dataLargeData is spread out around the middle Greater variability*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Six Sigma &amp; Standard DeviationIn a normal distribution1 sigma = 68.27% of the population2 sigma = 95.45%3 sigma = 99.73% (2.7m defects out of 1b)6 sigma = 99.9999998% (2 defects out of 1b)Six SigmaImprove quality by reducing variationAims to eliminate defects*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>Figure 8-9: Normal Distribution and Standard Deviation*</p></li><li><p>Motorola Adoption of Six SigmaMotorola, Inc. pioneered the adoption of Six Sigma in the 1980sWhy? To stay in business among Japanese competitorsChairman set a goal of 10 times improvement in defect reduction every two years (i.e. 100 times in 4 years)Result: excellent growth and profitability in 1980s and 1990sEstimated to have saved about $14 billion*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>ISO StandardsISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems that include:procedures keeping records checking output monitoring and reviewing processesfacilitating continual improvement See www.iso.org for more information*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>CMMICapability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI)From Software Engineering Institute (SEI, Carnegie-Mellon University)www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmiDefines levels of different competencies in project deliveryAs of 2003, the distribution is (1343 organizations)*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>CMMILevel 1PerformedNo prescribed processLevel 2ManagedProject Management establishedLevel 3DefinedSystem Development process integratedLevel 4Quantitatively ManagedMeasurable goalsestablishedLevel 5OptimizingContinuous monitoring &amp; Improving*</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p></li><li><p>RevisionCost of qualityPrevention costsAppraisal costsFailure costsInternal Vs externalQuality Management PlanWalkthroughsReviewsQuality metricsQuality AssuranceBenchmarkingQuality audit*Quality ControlCause &amp; Effect DiagramControl ChartRun ChartScatter DiagramHistogramPareto DiagramFlowchartStandard deviation / SigmaSix SigmaISO 9000CMMI</p><p>Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 2007</p><p>*1-Scatter diagram2-Run chart3-Cause &amp; effect diagram4-Flowchart5-Pareto chart6-Control chart</p></li></ul>