integumentary system integumentary system consists of the skin and its accessory organs

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Integumentary System Integumentary System consists of the Skin and its accessory organs

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  • Slide 1
  • Integumentary System Integumentary System consists of the Skin and its accessory organs
  • Slide 2
  • The skin may not typically be thought of as an organ, but it is made of tissues that work together as a single structure to perform unique and critical functions
  • Slide 3
  • Functions of the Integumentary System Protection Temperature regulation Sensations Storage of chemical compounds Excretion of wastes Synthesis of compounds (Vitamin D3)
  • Slide 4
  • Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis The skin is made of multiple layers of cells and tissues, which are held to underlying structures by connective tissue
  • Slide 5
  • Epidermis Composed of: Stratified squamous epithelium Contains: the skin pigment Melanin Lacks blood vessels (avascular)- gets all nutrients from blood supply in dermis
  • Slide 6
  • Dermis Thicker than the epidermis Composed of: Nervous Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue Epithelial Tissue Contains: Blood Vessels Touch receptors Accessory Organs
  • Slide 7
  • Dermis Contains Vasculature Provides blood supply/nutrients to all skin cells Plays role in thermo-regulation (vaso dialation/constriction)
  • Slide 8
  • The dermis contains many different touch receptors. Different types of touch have different receptors.
  • Slide 9
  • Basement Membrane Separates the epidermis and dermis
  • Slide 10
  • Significance in health: The basement membrane must be broken down in order for cancer cells to invade surrounding tissue. Image shows cancer cell (green) crossing the basement membrane (red)
  • Slide 11
  • Hypodermis
  • Slide 12
  • Composed of: loose connective tissue adipose tissues Contains: Major blood vessels Binds the skin to the underlying organs
  • Slide 13
  • Burn classification based upon what layer(s) of tissue have been damaged
  • Slide 14
  • Epidermis Contains 5 layers! We are only concerned with 2 in this class ALIVE! Stratum Basale Inner most layer Location of actively dividing epithelial cells and melanocytes DEAD! Stratum Corneum Outer most layer Dead cells serve as protective barrier
  • Slide 15
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  • Keratinization Cells divide in Stratum Basale and push older cells up to surface. Cells starve and die as pushed away from dermis. Keratinization is the hardening process these cells undergo as they die. Keratin is a type of fibrous structural proteins.
  • Slide 17
  • The surface of your skin!
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Keratinization Keratinization- the cementing of keratin fibers(cytoskeleton protein) in the dead cells. Constant shedding and replacement grows new EPIdermis every 25-45 days Calluses- Thickening of the Stratum Corneum due to rubbing and pressure
  • Slide 20
  • Calluses
  • Slide 21
  • Accessory Structures of the Skin
  • Slide 22
  • A dark pigment produced by melanocytes. Melanin
  • Slide 23
  • Vitiligo
  • Slide 24
  • Melanocytes are located in the bottom layer of the epidermis
  • Slide 25
  • Why do you think a tan fades?
  • Slide 26
  • Absorbs UV radiation which protects the deeper tissues Tanning and dark skin color comes from melanocytes producing more melanin NOT due to more melanocytes Melanin
  • Slide 27
  • Hair Found on most skin surfaces Exceptions: Palms Soles of feet, Lips Nipples Parts of the genitalia Functions: Prevent heat loss Decrease sun exposure Touch receptors
  • Slide 28
  • Hair is a keratinous filament growing out of the epidermis. It is primarily made of dead, keratinized cells.
  • Slide 29
  • Hair follicles Follicles are the hair producing structures. Extend from the surface into the dermis Each hair develops from STRATUM BASALE cells in the base of the hair follicle Cells undergo keratinization and form into hair rather than a layer like skin
  • Slide 30
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  • Arrector pili muscle- bundle of smooth muscle attached to each hair follicle -When the muscle contracts, hair within the follicle tends to stand on end -Emotional upset and cold can stimulate the arrector pili muscles to contract causing goose bumps
  • Slide 32
  • Slide 33
  • Just showing that hair is actually pretty complicated DONT WORRY ABOUT ALL THIS!
  • Slide 34
  • Nails Protective coverings Composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelial cells. Arise from the epidermis. Look familiar?
  • Slide 35
  • Nails The nail forms at the nail root, which has a matrix of proliferating cells from the stratum basale that enables the nail to grow continuously
  • Slide 36
  • As the nail develops, it slides forward over a layer of epithelium called the nail bed to which the nail remains attached Nails
  • Slide 37
  • The nail bed is rich in blood vessels, making it appear pink, except at the base, where a thick layer of epithelium over the nail matrix forms a crescent-shaped region called the lunula (the little moon).
  • Slide 38
  • Sebum: A mixture of fatty material and cellular debris, secreted into the hair follicles Function: Helps keep the hair and skin soft, pliable and relatively waterproof. Sebacous Glands- produce an oil secretion called sebum
  • Slide 39
  • Sudoriferous glands (sweat glands) Sweat is mostly water with small amounts of salt, urea and uric acid Location: Nearly all regions of the skin, most numerous in the palms and soles Located in deeper dermis or superficial subcutaneous layer. Structure: Gland consists of tiny tube (duct) that originates as a ball-shaped coil closed at its deepest end Coiled duct lined with sweat secreting epithelial cells Duct opens at the surface as a pore
  • Slide 40
  • Two Types of Sudoriferous Glands: Apocrine Eccrine Sudoriferous glands
  • Slide 41
  • Apocrine Respond to: Emotional stress (emotionally upset, frightened or experiencing pain) Location: Numerous in the armpits and groin Development: Glands development stimulated by sex hormones Begin to function as an individual becomes sexually mature (puberty) Eccrine Respond to: Elevated body temperatures Location: Entire body Development: Functional from birth
  • Slide 42
  • Eccrine- More numerous, Ubiquitious, Used to regulate body temperature. Empty onto skin. Apocrine- Axillary, and pubic areas only. Develop during puberty Do not regulate body temp. Activated by stress and arousal. Empty onto hair follicle. Sweat Glands- Eccrine and Apocrine
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
  • Slide 45
  • Acne What causes acne?
  • Slide 46
  • Acne Body can produce an excess amount of sebum and dead skin cells These build up in the hair follicles and form a plug This creates an environment where bacteria (that we all have on our face) can thrive. The openings of the sweat glands aren't normally involved in acne Acne
  • Slide 47
  • Acne is a skin disturbance that typically occurs on areas of the skin that are rich in sebaceous glands (face and back). Hormones, stimulate the release of sebum from sebaceous glands.
  • Slide 48
  • How is this child's skin different from yours?
  • Slide 49
  • Albinism Albinism is a complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes Albinism results from inheriting a defective gene involved in the production of melanin.
  • Slide 50
  • How is this child's skin different from yours?
  • Slide 51
  • Netherton Syndrome Defect in keritinization causes over shedding of cells
  • Slide 52
  • Skin Cancer Caused by UV radiation causing direct or indirect damage to DNA of the cells.
  • Slide 53
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum Inherited genetic disorder in which the mechanisms which repair DNA after UV damage are deficient or absent. Leads to EXTREAME susceptibility to skin cancer.
  • Slide 54
  • WARNING! GRAPHIC CONTENT!
  • Slide 55