lab #7 integumentary system. overview of the integumentary system

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Lab #7 Integumentary System

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Page 1: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Lab #7

Integumentary System

Page 2: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Overview of the Integumentary System

Page 3: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Organization of the Epidermis:

Figure 5–2

Page 4: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Layers of the epidermis are known as “strata”

Page 5: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Layers of the Epidermis

Top: Free surface of skin- stratum corneum

- stratum lucidum

- stratum granulosum

- stratum spinosum- stratum germinativum

Bottom: Basal lamina

Page 6: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

A note on thick vs. thin skin

• Thick skin has an extra layer (lucidum) but that is NOT the reason that it is thicker than thin skin.

• Real reason is the other layers are thicker in thick skin than in thin skin.

Page 7: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

The Dermis

• Deeper part of cutaneous layer

• Located between epidermis and subcutaneous layer

• Anchors epidermal accessory structures (hair follicles, sweat glands)

• Has 2 components:– outer papillary layer – deep reticular layer

Page 8: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

The Papillary Layer

• Consists of areolar tissue

• Contains smaller capillaries, lymphatic vessels, and sensory neurons

• Has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridges

Page 9: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

The Reticular Layer

• Consists of dense irregular connective tissue

• Contains larger blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerve fibers

• Contains collagen and elastic fibers

Page 10: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Integumentary Accessory Structures

• Hair, hair follicles, sebaceous (oil) glands, sweat glands, and nails:– are derived from embryonic epidermis – are located in dermis– project through the skin surface

Page 11: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

The Hair Follicle

• Is located deep in dermis

• Is made of epidermal tissue (with connective tissue around the outside)

• Produces nonliving hairs

• Is wrapped in a dense connective-tissue sheath

• Base is surrounded by sensory nerves

Page 12: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Hair

Page 13: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Structures of Hair and Follicles

Figure 5–9a

Page 14: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Accessory Structures of Hair

• Arrector pili: – involuntary smooth muscle – causes hairs to stand up– produces “goose bumps”

• Sebaceous glands: – lubricate the hair– control bacteria

Page 15: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Inside the Follicle

Figure 5–9b

Page 16: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Exocrine Glands in the skin

• Sebaceous glands and follicles (oil glands):– holocrine glands– secrete sebum

• Sweat glands:– merocrine glands– watery secretions

Page 17: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Types of Sebaceous Glands

• Sebaceous glands:– associated with most hair follicles (on head

and body)

• Sebaceous follicles:– discharge directly onto skin surface– found on face and trunk– when clogged acne

Page 18: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Sebaceous glands

Page 19: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Types of Sweat Glands

• Apocrine:– found in armpits, around nipples, and groin

• Merocrine:– more numerous, widely distributed on body

surface– especially on palms and soles (thick skin)

Both are actually merocrine

Page 20: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

“Apocrine” Sweat Glands

• Merocrine secretions, not apocrine

• Associated with hair follicles in groin, nipples, and axillae (armpits)

• Become active at puberty

• Produce sticky, cloudy secretions (thick sweat) that breaks down and causes odor

Page 21: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Merocrine Sweat Glands

• Also called eccrine glands:– coiled, tubular glands– discharge directly onto skin surface– sensible perspiration for cooling (thin sweat)– water, salts, and organic compounds

Page 22: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Sweat Glands of the Skin

Apocrine Merocrine

Page 23: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Epidermis

What to look for:

• Usually darkest between stratum germinativum and stratum granulosm (granulosm often a dark meandering line)

• Keratinized cells (s. corneum) often lift off the underlying layers

• S. germinativum along basal lamina, along with melanocytes

Page 24: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Dermis: Papillary vs. Reticular layer

Page 25: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

What to look for

• Papillary layer– has ridges– is areolar– Just under basal lamina

• Reticular layer– much thicker– Dense irregular CT

• Hypodermis– Loose CTP

Page 26: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

More skin

Page 27: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Merocrine sweat gland

• What to look for– Found in most skin– Coiled, tubular– Small lumens in cross

section– Have duct that goes all

the way to the epidermal surface and ends in sweat pore

– Smaller than apocrine, don’t extend as deep into dermis

Page 28: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Apocrine sweat gland

What to look for:

• Associated with hair follicle

• Only in nipples, groin, armpit

• Large lumens

• Deeper in dermis than merocrine

Page 29: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Apocrine sweat gland

Page 30: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Hair with sebaceous glands and arrector pilli

Page 31: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Hair

What to look for:

• Follicles are rarely complete

• Can often see root, papilla at base of hair

• Arrector pilli muscle at an angle

• Associated glands (which are?)

Page 32: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Sebaceous glands

Page 33: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Sebaceous glands

What to look for:

• Associated with hair follicle

• Found most everywhere hair follicles are found in skin

• Look like cauliflower (maybe?)

Page 34: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Sebaceous follicle

Page 35: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Sebaceous follicle

What to look for:

• Also look like cauliflower

• Found on face and trunk only

• NOT associated with hair follicle

• Have duct that opens onto skin surface

Page 36: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Lab Activity #7

• Look at slides:– Axillary skin (armpit)– Pigmented and Nonpigmented thin skin slide – Scalp

Page 37: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

What will you find there?

Armpit Scalp– Hair? – Hair follicle? – Sebaceous gland? – Sebaceous follicle? – Apocrine sweat gland? – Merocrine sweat gland?

?

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

YN

N

Y

Page 38: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Pigmented Thin Skin

• Find:– Epidermis

• Identify layers, starting with germinativum• Find melanocytes

– Dermis• Papilary and reticular CT layers

– Hypodermis

Page 39: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Axillary skin

• Locate:– an apocrine sweat gland.– a merocrine sweat gland – also look for a sebaceous follicle (not

associated with a hair)

Page 40: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Turn in one drawing page with…

• Three types of glands (one sebaceous, a merocrine sweat gland and an apocrine sweat gland)

• Epidermis (label the four layers)

• Dermis (label papillary and reticular)

• Hair follicles and shaft (label follicle, sebaceous gland, arrector pilli muscle if seen)

Page 41: Lab #7 Integumentary System. Overview of the Integumentary System

Assignment

• For Next Thursday turn in:– Your drawing– Review Sheet #7 (you do not have to do the

parts about plotting sweat glands and fingerprinting on page 104)