integumentary system the skin and its accessory organs, such as hair, nails, glands, and specialized...
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Integumentary System The skin and its accessory organs, such as hair, nails, glands, and specialized receptors, constitute the integumentary system.
Skin Organ: Group of tissues working together to perform a common, specialized function. Skin and its accessory organs (hair, nails, glands, receptors) are considered the integumentary system.
Dermatology Branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders.
Factors affecting appearance of skin a. nutritionb. hygienec. circulationd. agee. immunity (allergy)f. genetic traitsg. psychological statesh. drugsi. sunj. smoking (wrinkles and vasodilation)
Structure 1. Outer epidermis (predominantly epithelial tissue).2. Inner dermis (connective tissue layer).3. Subcutaneous layer: attaches skin to underlying structures (adipose and connective tissue).
Functions 1. Regulation of body temperature (sweat, shunting of blood). 2. Protection: physical barrier (microbes, dehydration, UV light). 3. Sensation: temperature, touch, pressure, pain.4. Excretion: water, salt, urea, other organic compounds. 5. Immunity: nonspecific immunity (ie: physical protection). Langerhans cells of the epidermis destroy foreign invaders.6. Synthesis of Vitamin D: via UV light. Vitamin D helps absorption of calcium and phosphorus from digestive system into the blood.
Epidermis4 cell types:
Keratinocytes MelanocytesLangerhans CellsMerkels cells.
Keratinocytesproduce keratin (water proofing protein). Protects underlying tissues from light, heat, bacteria, chemicals. Nucleus and organelles degenerate and cell dies (becomes dead package of keratin).
Melanocytesproduces melanin, a pigment which absorbs UV light radiation.
Langerhans Cellsimmune functioning cells
Merkels cellsepithelial cells in Merkels discs (receptors) that are sensitive to touch
Layers (from deepest to the surface) Stratum basale Stratum Spinosum Stratum granulosum Stratum lucidum Stratum corneum
Epidermis - layersa. Stratum basale: regenerative cells and melanocytes. Single layer of cuboidal or columnar epithelial cells. Termed basal epithelial stem cells b. Stratum Spinosum: about 10 layers of cells (thick layer). Cells have "spinelike" projections that interlock and confer strength to the skin.
Epidermis - layersc. Stratum granulosum: thin layer of granulated cells (keratohyalin).d. Stratum lucidum: layer in thick skin only (palms of hands, soles of feet). e. Stratum corneum: 15-30 layers of highly keratinized cells that are sloughed off and replaced. Protect from light, dehydration, heat, trauma, bacteria).
Dermis Predominantly connective tissue. Thick and thin in different body regions. Few cells (adipocytes, fibroblasts, macrophages). Collagen and elastic fibers confer extensibility and elasticity. Predominantly connective tissue. Thick and thin in different body regions. Few cells (adipocytes, fibroblasts, macrophages). Collagen and elastic fibers confer extensibility and elasticity. Receptors: a. Meissners corpuscles: nerve endings sensitive to light touch.b. Pacinian corpuscles: receptors for pressure (sustained touch).c. Pain and temperature receptors.
Dermis4. Hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous (oil) glands, sudoriferous (sweat) glands.5. Blood vessels (arteries and veins) and lymphatics.6. Dermal papillae project up into epidermal ridges and create ridges on skin to help us grip things (fingerprints).
Striae (stretch marks)Combination of collagen and elastic fibers gives the skin estensibility and elasticity. Extreme stretching may produce small tears in the dermis causing striae.
FingerprintsDuring fetal development the basal layer begins to grow faster than either the epidermis or dermis in the tips of the finger. This leads to an increased stress in the basal layer, which causes it to buckle inwards, creating ridges on the surface of the skin.
Subcutaneous layer (Hypodermis)
Subcutaneous layer (Hypodermis) A. Location: Between dermis and underlying bone or muscle.
B. Structure: Composed of areolar connective tissue, many blood vessels, adipose tissue, and nerves.
C. Function: Provides cushioning, protection, insulation, energy reserve. Attaches skin to underlying structures.
A. Due to melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin. The amount of melanin determines the darkness of the skin. B. Melanin confers a brownish tint to the skin. Carotene confers a yellow-orange color. Hemoglobin confers a pink to reddish color to the skin. An inherited inability of an individual of any race to produce melanin results in albinism (no pigment in hair, eyes, or skin. All races have about the same amount of melanocytes, thus variations in skin color are due to amount of pigment they produce. Freckles result from patches of melanin.
Malignant melanoma: cancer of the melanocytes. Fast growing, dangerous cancer.
Accessory Organs Hair Glands -Sebaceous - Sudoriferous - Ceruminous Nails
Hair1. Outgrowths of the epidermis.2. Functions: a. protects from sun rays (UV light).b. insulates.c. provides sensitivity.d. eyelashes and eyebrows protect eyes from foreign particles.e. nasal hairs protect from inhaled foreign substances.
HairHair is composed of strong structural protein called keratin. This is the same kind of protein that makes up the nails and the outer layer of skin.
Hair Structurea. Shaft: external, exposed portion of hairb. Root: portion below surface in dermis of skinc. Follicle: - External sheath and internal sheath of epidermal cells covered by a connective tissue sheath.- follicle surrounded by nerve ending: sensitive to hair movementd. Bulb: contains papilla of hair which contains blood vessels for growing hair nourishment, and the matrix where new hair cells are derived from. Melanocytes of matrix produce melanin for hair coloring.
Hair StructureGrowth rate of hair affected by illness, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, nutrition, age, stress, genetics, and gender.Arrector pili muscles (smooth) contract to pull hair erect. Results in goose bumps. Provides some insulation when cold, warning when frightened.
Glands - Sebaceous (oil) glands:
a. connected to hair follicles or open directly to skins surface. b. no sebaceous glands on palms of hands or soles of feet.c. secrete sebum that prevents hair from drying out, dessication of skin, bacterial growth.d. Pimple, blackhead: build-up of oil and bacteria in a sebaceous gland.
Sudoriferous (sweat) glands:
a. produce perspiration (sweat).b. perspiration evaporates allowing heat to be lost; excretes some wastes.Two types: Eccrine since birth Apocrine Puberty same components + lipids and proteins
Ceruminous (wax) glands
a. located in the outer ear canal.b. combined secretions of ceruminous and sebaceous glands is termed cerumen. Cerumen and hairs of the outer ear canal provide a sticky barrier against foreign invaders.
1. plates of tightly packed, hard, keratinized cells of the epidermis.2. grow about 1mm per week.3. help to grasp and manipulate small objects; provide protection for the ends of the digits; scratch an itch.
Common Disorders - Burns
1. First degree: minor damage to the epidermis only with no blistering.2. Second degree: involves both epidermis and dermis. Redness, blistering, edema, and pain.3. Third degree: most severe burns. Burns through dermis to subcutaneous layer, or deeper. Destroys epidermis, dermis, and epidermal organs, and skin functions are lost.
First second third
Pressure Sores: bedsores.Constant deficiency of blood to tissues over bony projections that have been subjected to prolonged pressure against an object like a bed, cast, or splint.
SunburnsBurns due to overexposure to UV light.