Industrialization of America “Rags to Riches” “Rags to Riches” L A B O R

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Industrialization of America Rags to Riches Rags to Riches L A B O R </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Transformation of America INDUSTRIALIZATION AND LABOR Workers and the Rise of Unions </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> POWERHOUSE The Working Man Men, Women &amp; Children </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> I N D U S T R I A L I Z A T I O N Immigration provided industry with an abundant supply of labor. Over 14 million immigrants came to the United States between 1860 &amp; 1900. Contract Labor Act of 1864. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> U R B A N I Z A T I O N Growth of big cities. Immigrants settling in cities People moving from rural areas to cities for jobs in factories. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Shifts in Population and Employment, 1860-1900 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> F A C T O R Y W O R K </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Piecework &amp; Sweatshops PIECEWORK - Workers paid a fixed amount for each item that they produced. Garment workers Cigar workers SWEATSHOP- shop where employees worked for long hours and under poor working conditions. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Frederick Winslow Taylor The Principles of Scientific Management How to improve worker efficiency. Break down different tasks and proper amount of time to complete Productivity Increases PROFIT$ PROFIT$ increase </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Division of Labor Separation of the tasks of production. Workers completed one task to produce an item. Concept of the assembly line. The end of the artisan. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Working Conditions </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> GUN FOUNDRY GUN FOUNDRY by John Ferguson Wier </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> The Working Man burning On the stake of Monopoly </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> LABORERS Ruled by the CLOCK Start, breaks, stop. Long working hours No minimum work day. Six-day work week Only day off Sunday. Dangerous and Unsafe. No workers compensation for injuries. Low wages. No minimum wage Competition for jobs </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Child Labor Jacob Riis, Children of the Poor (1892) </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Child Labor Jacob Riis and Lewis Hine used photography to document the exploitation of child labor. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Child Labor No laws prohibited use of child labor 1880s approximately 5% of workforce was made up of children. Families relied on income for children to survive. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> W O R K E R S O R G A N I Z E </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> The Gilded Age Uneven distribution of Income The Gilded Age Wide gap between the wealthiest Americans and the working class and poor </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> S O C I A L I S M Philosophy that promotes government/public control of business and the economy. Government run industries Government set production goals Government set wages Society, not individuals, control the wealth. Advocate equal distribution of wealth to all. Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> NOBLE and HOLY ORDER of the KNIGHTS of LABOR </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Knights of Labor Formed Philadelphia, 1869 Admitted men and women Skilled and unskilled workers. Farmers and factory workers. Recruited African Americans </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Knights of Labor Lead by Terrence Powderly Promoted social reforms Equal pay for equal work Eight-hour work day End child labor </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> A MERICAN F EDERATION of L ABOR </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> AF of L Formed under leadership of Samuel Gompers in 1886 Skilled workers only African Americans allowed but discouraged Women not allowed Lower wages. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> American Federation of Labor Bread &amp; Butter unionism. Focus on wages, work hours, and working conditions Political activity, education, strikes, boycotts and collective bargaining </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> I NDUSTRIAL W ORKERS of THE W ORLD WOBBLIES Formed in Chicago in 1905. Lead by socialists and radicals Focused on unskilled workers </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> GREAT RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877 Began over wage cuts and increased work. Railroad workers went on strike and rioted. President Rutherford B. Hayes sent in troops to protect railroad property. Eugene V. Debs established American Railway Union. Lesson Federal government would act on the behalf of business over labor and use the military against labor. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> HAYMARKET MASSACRE 1886 Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will. Labor demonstration at Haymarket Square in Chicago. Anarchists involved Bomb thrown into crowd killing a police officer and igniting a riot. Gunfire. Dozen killed. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> HAYMARKET MASSACRE 1886 Knights of Labor blamed. Effectively ends that union. Lesson- Public believes unions are dangerous and violent. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> HOMESTEAD STRIKE 1892 Steel workers went on strike when Henry Frick decided to cut workers wages at Carnegie Steel. Called in Pinkerton detectives against strikers. Battle of Homestead fought between Pinkertons and the strikers. Attempted murder of Frick by an anarchist was blamed on the strikers. Public opinion turned against union Lessons public belief that unions were dangerous, violent and unAmerican. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> PULLMAN STRIKE 1894 George Pullman Pullman Company Railroad cars Pullman, Illinois Pullman workers paid in company money Cut wages to his workers Raised rent </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> PULLMAN STRIKE Workers protested, Pullman refused to negotiate. Debs and A.R.U. supported. Refused to work on trains that had Pullman cars More than 260,000 railroad workers joined strike Railroad owners asked for federal court to intervene. Court ordered strike illegal because it interfered with free trade President Grover Cleveland sent in federal troops to enforce court order Lesson Federal government side with business over labor. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> AMERICAN SOCIALIST PARTY The SOCIAL DEMOCRACY OF AMERICA Eugene V. Debs </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Labor Hopelessly Bound To The Stake </li> </ul>

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