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TECHNICAL BULLETIN 116 ISSN 0070-2315
IMPROVED CONFECTIONERY PEANUT VARIETIES
!RECEIVED ! 21 SEP 1990
AGll.ICULTURAL RESEARCH 11_ I0:S1ITUTE -- --------, J
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES
IMPROVED CONFECTIONERY PEANUT VARIETIES
Confectionery types of peanuts were evaluated at Akhelia, Paphos, during 1985-1989. The best variety, HYQ-25 (HYQ(CG) 5-25 (M13xNC AC 17352» outyielded the Local by 2.3% in pod yield and by 6.2% in kernel yield. The 1000-kernel weight of this variety was 910 g compared to 804 g of Local. Oil content was 54% and crude protein content 22%, similar to Local. Other promising varieties were Hazera 234n3 and GK-3. Application of iron chiline A12 to cure calcium induced iron chlorosis verified earlier results and increased kernel yield, dry matter yield of forage and number of pods per plant. The effect of iron varied with variety; it was negligible in Local and maximum in HYQ-49(HYQ(CG)5-49(Ah 114xNCAC 1107». The dry matter yield of forage was positively correlated with kernel yield, lateness, 1000-kernel weight and crude protein content. Kernel yield was positively cor related with shelling percentage and pod yield with kernel yield . The 1Ooo-kernel weight was positively correlated with crude protein content.
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Cyprus is currently self-sufficient in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) as a result of mechanization of sowing and harvesting practices (Hadjichristodou lou, 1987). However, the market price of locally produced peanuts is almost 80% higher than that of the world market. A way to reduce cost per kg of peanuts is to grow higher kernel yielding varieties.
Peanuts in Cyprus are consumed roasted as snacks and in certain pastry products, but they are not used for industrial oil production. The confec tionery varieties, which are suitable for these uses, are characterized by large kernels (>800 mg), high ratio of oleic to linoleic acid (enabling longer stor age ability), high sucrose content, high seed unifor mity, easy peeling, facilitated by oblong kernel shape and crisp texture (ICRISAT, personal commu nication). Confectionery types belong to Virginia Bunch types or Virginia Runner types (Hadjichristo doulou, 1987). Spanish or Valencia types produce relatively small kernels. The Local variety belongs to Virginia Bunch type.
The first results of the evaluation of peanut varieties were reported by Hadjichristodoulou (1987). Some new varieties outyielded Local by up to 63%, but their 1000-kernel weights was lower than that of Local.
The aim of the present trials was to evaluate of confectionery types of peanuts in comparison with Local.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Most varieties for this study were obtained from ICRISAT, India. The line, Hazera 234/73, efficient in iron absorption (Hartzook et aI, 1974), was ob tained from Israel and the line GK-3, introduced from USA, from the Department of Agriculture, Cy prus.
The trials were carried out in the area of Akhelia (paphos) from 1985 to 1989. The randomized com plete block design with four replications was used in all trials . Plots consisted of six 4-m long rows of which only the four central rows were harvested for yield. Between-row spacing was 45 em and within row spacing 10 ern. In the 1988 trials, in which some Spanish types and Virginia runner types were included, the optimum spacing for each variety as recommended by the literature, was used (Table 1). The trials were fertilized with 108 kg P205/ha, and
112 kg K/ha. Since N fertilizer is necessary in pea nuts, where rhizobia are not present (papastylianou, 1989a), 170 kg N/ha were also applied. Irrigation was provided as needed for normal growth (around 5000 t/ha), There was no rainfall during the grow ing period of peanuts. Harvesting was done in Oc tober.
In the 1989 trial, in which significant iron in duced chlorosis was observed at the 3-5 leaf stage, iron chilene A12 (EDDHA) was applied at two of the four replications at a rate of 20 kg/ha (Papasty lianou, 1990). Thus, this trial, though sown as ran domized complete block design, was analyzed as split-plot, with iron chelates and the control treat ments in main plots and varieties in sub-plots. As number of degrees of freedom for testing the signifi cance of the effects of Fe application was very small (Fo.os;l,l) the results related to iron chelate ef fects should be considered as verification of earlier results (Papastylianou, 1990) and an observation on the relative effect of Fe on varieties.
Five lines, ICG-799, ICG-1326, ICG-1712, ICG 6323 and ICG-7892, were introduced from ICRISAT for observations on iron chlorosis under ordinary fieldconditions.
The flowering date (when 50% of the plants in a plot reached flowering stage), the pod and kernel yields (sun dried, 5-8 moisture content), the shell ing percentage (percent of kernel weight in pods), the 1000-kernel weight, the dry matter weight of above ground forage after removing the pods, the number of plants per m2, the number of pods per plant and oil and the crude protein content (%N x 5.3) were recorded. Chlorosis was recorded visually as percentage of yellow leaves in a plot. The col our of the mature kernel was also recorded.
Correlation coefficients among traits were com puted in order to determine selection criteria. Plot data were used for these computations and the num ber of pairs of observations (N) was not the same in all cases.
Comparison of varieties
Differences among varieties were significant for almost all traits studied. In the 1988 trials the pod and kernel yield of Local, was among the highest, 5.0 and 3.1 t/ha, respectively (Table 1). Kernel yield of the varieties was not significantly different, ex
Table 1. Agronomic performance of selected peanut varieties in 1988 (means of two trials, Akhelia, Kouklia)
Pod Kernel 1000- Number Number Dry matter Variety yield yield Shelling Flowering kernel Protein Oil of plants of pods of forage
kg/ha) (kg/ha) (0/0) date weight content content per m' per (kgjha) (1 =lst May) (g) (0/0) (0/0) plant
Local 4975 3106 62 23 775 21 54 18 16 9455
Local* 4693 2948 63 23 753 22 53 21 13 11564
NC2 4727 3042 64 23 824 22 52 16 17 10465
NC7 4676 2900 62 20 774 22 51 16 16 9974
~ HYQ-25 4388 2765 63 24 830 23 53 17 15 11874
HYQ48* 4336 2702 62 19 651 20 55 18 16 10333
HYQ49 3966 2698 68 22 913 22 55 17 11 13695
ICGS-61* 4564 3017 67 18 599 19 56 20 17 6922
Hazera 234/73 5002 3200 64 19 808 21 53 17 17 11672
GK-3 4692 2895 62 22 894 21 52 18 13 10979
GK-3** 4083 2554 63 24 925 21 51 6 31 9363
SE (±) 226 169 1.05 0.181 19.0 0.533 1.001 0.54 0.932 905 CV(%) 14.0 16.5 4.6 2.4 6.8 5.0 3.8 9.0 16.0 12.1
* Plots consisted of 9 rows, 30 em apart, within row spacing 10 em ** Plots consisted of 5 rows, 54 em apart, within row spacing 30 em (All other varieties 6 rows, 45 em apart, within row spacing 10 em)
cept for GK-3, sown at the wide spacing (54x30 ern),
The yield of this variety was not significantly dif ferent from that of other varieties at the narrow spacing (3OxlO ern), Differences among flowering date (18-24 May), in shelling percentage and crude protein and oil content were significant.
Varieties HYQ-48 and ICGS-61 (Spanish Bunch types) were sown at narrow between-row spacings (30xlO ern). These varieties had the lowest 1000 kernel weight, 599 g and 651 g, respectively. HYQ 49, GK-3 and HYQ-25 (HYQ (CG)S-25 (M13 x NC AC 17352)) had lOoo-kernel weight above 830 g, compared to 775 g of the Local.
Dry matter of forage was high, around 10 t/ha. The Spanish Bunch type ICGS-49 gave the lowest yield (7 t/ha) and HYQ-49 the highest (14 t/ha).
The average number of pods per plant, a signifi cant yield component, varied between 11 and 17. At the wide spacing (6 plants/m2),GK-3 produced 31
pods per plant compared to 13 pods in the more dense stand (18 plants/m-), For most of the varie ties, the number of pods per plant was around 16 17, except for HYQ-49, which had 11 pods.
The agronomic performance of the four most promising new varieties compared with Local over years is given in Tables 2 and 3. HYQ-25, an ICRI SAT line, had 2.3% higher pod yield, 6.2% higher kernel yield and 12.8% higher lOoo-kernel weight than Local in seven trials over five year (Table 2). GK -3, a USA line, gave 3% higher pod and kernel yield and 22% higher lOoo-kernel weight in four trials during three years. Hazera 234/73, an Israeli line efficient in iron absorption, gave 3% higher pod yield, 6% higher kernel yield and 6% higher 1000 kernel weight than Local in three trials conducted during two seasons. Finally, HYQ-49, another ICRI SAT line, had 12.6% higher kernel yield and 19% higher lOOO-kernel weight than Local. The colour of the kernel was red to dark red in all varieties. However, kernels of HYQ-49 were pale to light red, not preferred by the local consumer.
Table 2. Pod and kernel yield (kg/ha)