impression management

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  • 1. Impression ManagementJunaid Ashraf

2. 13Impression Management Impression management is an attempt to control the perceptions or impressions of others. Targets are especially likely to use impression management tactics when interacting with perceivers who have power over them and on whom they are dependent for evaluations, raises, and promotions. Individuals who are high in self-monitoring are more likely than individuals who are low in selfmonitoring to engage in impression management tactics. 3. Impression Management An attempt to manipulate or control the impressions that others form about the person. Non verbal communication, clothes, hair cut, style, etc. Feigning interest in a boring lecture Behaving nicely when grandparents come to visit 4. Impression Motivation The degree to which an individual actually manages the impression that he or she makes. Sometimes people are strongly motivated for impression management, such as going for an interview Sometimes people are not as strongly motivated for impression management, such as going to meet old friends 5. Impression Construction It refers to an individuals consciously choosing (1) an image to convey & (2) how to go about doing that. For a job interview one may be dressed in conventional suiting. Rewriting the resume, etc. 6. Impression Motivation: How much do I care about the impression that I am making?Impression Construction:What image do I want to convey? How do I go about it?Impression Management 7. Primacy Effect Most of the perceptions are strongly affected by the first impression. How a person perceives other person is influenced by: Characteristics of the person being perceived Characteristics of the perceiver, and The situation or context within which the perception takes place 8. The Person Perceived on basis of voice quality Voice Quality: High inMale VoiceFemale VoiceBreathinessYounger , Artistic Feminine, pretty, petite, shallowFlatnessSimilar for both sexesMasculine, cold, withdrawnNasalitySimilar for both sexesHaving many socially undesirable characteristicsTensenessOld, UnyieldingYoung, emotional, high strung, not very intelligent 9. 15Salience Salience is the extent to which a target of perception stands out in a group of people or things. Consequences of salience Extreme evaluations (positive or negative) Stereotyping 10. 15Causes of salience Being novel: Anything that makes a target unique in a situation (e.g., being the only young person). Being figural: Standing out from the background (e.g., by wearing bright clothes). Being inconsistent with other peoples expectations: Behaving or looking in a way that is out of the ordinary. 11. 17Biases and Problems in Perception Primacy EffectsThe initial pieces of information that a perceiver has about a target have an inordinately large effect on the perceivers perception and evaluation of the target.Interviewers decide in the first few minutes of an interview whether or not a job candidate is a good prospect.Contrast EffectThe perceivers perceptions of others influence the perceivers perception of a target.A managers perception of an average subordinate is likely to be lower if that subordinate is in a group with very high performers rather than in a group with very low performers.Halo EffectThe perceivers general impression of a target influences his or her perception of the target on specific dimensions.A subordinate who has made a good overall impression on a supervisor is rated as performing high-quality work and always meeting deadlines regardless of work that is full of mistakes and late. 12. 18Biases and Problems in Perception Similar-tome EffectPeople perceive others who are similar to themselves more positively than they perceive those who are dissimilar.Supervisors rate subordinates who are similar to them more positively than they deserve.Harshness, Leniency, and Average TendencySome perceivers tend to be overly harsh in their perceptions, some overly lenient. Others view most targets as being about average.When rating subordinates performances, some supervisors give almost everyone a poor rating, some give almost everyone a good rating, and others rate almost everyone as being about average.Knowledge of PredictorKnowing how a target stands on a predictor of performance influences perceptions of the target.A professor perceives a student more positively than she deserves because the professor knows the student had a high score on the SAT. 13. Errors in Attribution Beliefs that all members of specific groups share similar traits and are prone to behave the same way. 14. Errors in Attribution The tendency to attribute others actions to internal causes (for example, their traits) while largely ignoring external factors that also may have influenced behavior. 15. Errors in Attribution The tendency for our overall impressions of others to affect objective evaluations of their specific traits; perceiving high correlations between characteristics that may be unrelated. 16. Errors in Attribution The tendency for people to perceive in a positive light others who are believed to be similar to themselves in any of several different ways. 17. Errors in Attribution The tendency to focus on some aspects of the environment while ignoring others. 18. First Impression Error The tendency to base our judgments of others on our earlier impressions of them. 19. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: The tendency for someones Prophecy expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations. Pygmalion Effect: A positive instance of the selfEffect fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding high expectations of another tend to improve that individuals performance. Golem Effect: A negative instance of the selfEffect fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding low expectations of another tend to lower that individuals performance. 20. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 21. Overcoming Biases Do not overlook the external cases of others behaviors. Identify your stereotypes. Evaluate people based on objective factors. Avoid making rash judgments. 22. Organizational Applications Performance Appraisal: The process of Appraisal evaluating employees on various workrelated dimensions. An inherently biased process Impresssion Management: Efforts by Management individuals (esp. in employment interviews) to improve how they appear to others. Corporate Image: The impressions that Image people have of an organization. 23. Applicant Impression Management


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