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Impression Management Strategies employed across Military & Management Colleges in India

Prajakta Patil

IMPRESSION MANAGEMENTImpression management is an active self presentation of a person aiming to enhance ones image in the eyes of others.(Norris 2007; Slocum & Hellriegel, 2007).

Researchers have referred to IM as conscious (motivational distortion) or unconscious(self perception) practises of responding in such a way so as to present a particular image of oneself.( Bolino & Turnley,2003 Paulus)

CONCEPTS OF THE STUDY

RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Impressing others appears to be a natural human tendency. (Greenberg & Baron, 2005; Mc,Shane & Von Glinow,2008; Peeters & Lievens,2006)As such, both officer cadets and college students make concerted attempts to impress their instructors.With this background, hypotheses of differences between officer cadets and college students not initiated as yet into military service on variable of impression management have been framed.Rationale that prior military training may impact impression mangement strategies and interventions, differences between subjects with prior military training v/s those with no prior military training as well as military parental background v/s no such background have been selected.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEMProblem for the present investigation is to study impression management strategies amongst officer cadets. Other college students not yet initiated into Armed forces have been taken as a comparative group.

OBJECTIVES OF STUDYTo find out whether officer cadets or college students not yet initiated into Armed forces differ with respect to measured variable of impression management.

To find out whether military training in formative years during schooling has an impact on measured variable of impression management.

To find out whether military family background has an impact on measured variable of impression management.

METHODRESEARCH DESIGN

HYPOTHESIS

SAMPLE

TOOLS

PROCEDURE

RESEARCH DESIGNThe present research is designed to study certain important psychological aspect of officer cadets and college students. College students not yet initiated into military service have been selected as a comparative group.

The present research is a 2 x 2 x 2 (types of individuals with respect to classification of students x military training x family background) between subject design.

The subgroups of types of students under study are compared on variable of impression management.

HYPOTHESISThere is no difference in impression management strategies employed by officer cadets and college students.

SAMPLETotal sample constitutes of 240 young adults in educational/training institutionals.

Sample includes:120 officer cadets 120 college studentsEach group has a further split:60 with prior military training 60 with no prior military trainngEach subgroup has a further split:30 belonging to military parents30 belonging to non military parents

Officer Cadets and College StudentsN=240College StudentsN=120Officer CadetsN=120No Prior Military TrainingPrior Military TrainingPrior Military TrainingNo Prior Military Training Non Military ParentsN=30Military ParentsN=30 Non MilitaryParentsN=30MilitaryParents N=30 Non MilitaryParentsN=30Military ParentsN=30MilitaryParentsN=30 Non Military ParentsN=30

TOOLSPersonal Data Sheet (Developed By Researcher) Impression Management Questionnaire(IMQ).Adapted from Greenberg & Baron,2005; Stevens & Kristof, 1995.

Objective test of personality comprising of 25 items to be answered as -Never ,Sometimes, Often, Always.

Provides information about an individual, comprising of 5 factors with 5 items each - Self promotion, Behavioural matching, Other Promotion, Justification & Consistent Performance.

Test provides scoring template. Higher score indicates greater impression management strategies.

Reliability coefficient calculated on pilot testing on local sample is 0.85.

IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT INVENTORY

Self Promotion: Students try to match their behaviours to that of the instructors.

Behavioural Matching: Students try to present themselves in as positive a light as possible.

Other Promotion: Students try to flatter their instructors.

Justification: Students give excuses for their incompetency in non completion of work.

Consistent Performance: Students try hard to maintain their test performance.

The types of dimensions of IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT

PROCEDUREData collected from 120 officer cadets and 120 college students located in cities of Mumbai and Pune only, group size 20-30.

Voluntary participation, importance of sincere responses stressed.

Initially participants filled personal data sheet. Later, were given clear instructions on how to answer.

Clarified doubts to ensure everyone understood procedure.

No time limit imposed.

Administration done carefully.

STATISTICAL ANALYSISQuantitative Analysis The present study involves testing differences and relationships. This necessitated use of certain statistical techniques that have been applied accordingly for analyses of data. 2X2X2 multivariate analyses of variances (MANOVA) and subsequent multiple analyses have been implemented to study differences between officer cadets and college students, military background and no military background, and military parents and non military parents with respect to measured variable of impression management.

Cronbachs alpha reliability analysis implemented to calculate reliability co-efficient for tool on local sample.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

TOSTRAININGPRIOR MILITARY TRAININGNO PRIOR MILITARY TRAININGFamily BackgroundMilitary ParentsNon Military ParentsMilitary ParentsNon Military ParentsOfficer CadetMean16.9317.5313.6314.53SD1.391.201.901.38College StudentsMean15.0315.3713.4015.43SD1.401.501.652.01

Table 1: Showing the Descriptive Statistics on dimension Self Promotion

It can be seen from the results that officer cadets having prior military training and belonging to non military training have scored higher compared to all the other factors.(mean=17.53)

College students having no prior military training belonging to military parents have scored lowest compared to all the other factors.(mean=13.40)

TOSTRAININGPRIOR MILITARY TRAININGNO PRIOR MILITARY TRAININGFamily BackgroundMilitary parentsNon military parentsMilitary parentsNon military parentsOfficerCadets Mean17.6318.1014.1314.77SD.93.931.501.43College StudentsMean10.9713.6010.0711.90SD2.402.041.853.02

Table 2 : Showing the Descriptive Statistics on dimension Behavioural Matching

It can be seen that the officer cadets having prior military training and belonging to non military parents have scored higher compared to other factors.(mean=18.10)

College students having no prior military training and belonging to military parents have scored the lowest compared to other factors.(mean=10.07)

Table 3: Showing the Descriptive Statistics on dimension of other promotion

TOSTRAININGPRIOR MILITARY TRAININGNO PRIOR MILITARY TRAININGFamily BackgroundMilitary parentsNon military parentsMilitary parentsNon military parentsOfficerCadetsMean17.8717.8713.7714.90SD1.381.451.501.18CollegeStudentsMean14.6711.8011.4012.23SD1.031.771.792.46

It can be seen that officer cadets having prior military training have scored higher in the dimension of other promotion compared to the other factors.(mean=17.87)

College students having no prior military training and belonging to non military parents have scored the lowest compared to other factors.(mean=11.40)

TOSTRAININGPRIOR MILITARY TRAININGNO PRIOR MILITARY TRAININGFamily BackgroundMilitary parentsNon military parentsMilitary parentsNon military parentsOfficer CadetsMean15.9313.6715.533314.83SD1.411.991.571.89CollegeStudents Mean16.4316.4315.6015.57SD1.551.591.901.96

Table 4: Showing the Descriptive Statistics on dimension Justification

It can be seen that College Students having prior military training have scored higher in terms of justification compared to all the other factors.(mean=16.43) Officer Cadets having prior military training and belonging to non military parents have scored the lowest compared to other factors.(mean=13.67)

TOSTRAININGPRIOR MILITARY TRAININGNO PRIOR MILITARY TRAININGFamily BackgroundMilitary parentsNon military parentsMilitary parentsNon military parentsOfficer CadetsMean15.1014.3311.7710.87SD1.351.581.671.89College StudentsMean10.2310.208.179.57SD1.482.221.622.19

Table 5: Showing the Descriptive Statistics on dimension Consistent Performance

It can be seen Officer cadets having prior military training and belonging to military parents have scored well compared to all the other factors taken into consideration.(mean=15.10)

College students having no prior military training and belonging to non military parents have scored less compared to all the other factors.(mean=8.17)

EFFECTWilkils FHypothesis dfError dfp Eta SquaredType of students (TOS).233149.735228< .01.77TRAINING.38971.595228< .01.61FAMILY BACKGROUND .76813.765228< .01.23TOS X TRAINING.72817.055228< .01.27TOS X FamilyBackground.81010.735228< .01.19Training X Family Background.8219.935228< .01.18TOS X Training X Family Background.9223.855228< .01.08

TABLE 6: Showing MANOVA among TOS, Training,Family Background As IVs of Impression Management

As shown in Table 6,the findings in the