[IEEE 2011 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops) - Seattle, WA, USA (2011.03.21-2011.03.25)] 2011 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops) - Cloud computing oriented network operating system and service platform
Post on 09-Dec-2016
Cloud Computing Oriented Network Operating System and Service Platform
Jianwei Yin, Yanming Ye, Bin Wu College of Computer Science
Zhejiang University Hangzhou, China
firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Zuoning Chen National Parallel Computing Engineering Research
Center Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing, China email@example.com
AbstractIn recent years, cloud computing sweeps the world and becomes the new direction for future network applications. The traditional operating systems lack constructivity and evolvability, support less for the application perception and multi-core platform so that they cannot satisfy the requirements of cloud computing applications well. So the development of next-generation cloud-oriented network operating system is very significant. In this position paper, we first explained the background of the new network operating system. Then we listed some existing cloud computing operating systems. After describing the challenges that the project meets, we proposed the prototype architecture. We also discussed some key technologies and elaborated the expected typical scenario of developing and deploying applications in the proposed system.
Keywords- Cloud Computing; Microkernel; Network Operating System; Service Computing
I. INTRODUCTION In the last two decades, the Internet has connected
enterprises and individuals around the world and made far-reaching impact on business operations of every company and daily routines of every person. As one of the most popular application technologies in the Internet, web applications require vast amounts of storage capacity and computing power to meet growing business needs . Especially, the emergence of cloud computing model requires more on how to obtain mass storage and powerful computing capacity, how to provide services more economically on the Internet, and how to make Internet services more convenient.
Most of the application systems in cloud computing are based on the traditional operating systems. However, the lack of constructivity and evolvability make it hard to meet the needs of applications complexity and variability well in cloud computing age. Moreover, the traditional operating systems are always over large and complex, poor controllable, so that Internet users can hardly use various resources efficiently to satisfy the individual needs of computation-intensive, data-intensive, network-intensive and other typical network computing model. At the same time, the traditional operating systems can scarcely support the widespread multi-core platform very well and almost not provide the application-driven, open and efficient resource services.
For these deficiencies, we must change a lot on the traditional operating systems to build network computing platforms. Under these circumstances, we received the support of the National Key Science and Technology Research Program of China at the end of last year to develop next-generation network operating system. The project will also provide a service platform that established on this operating system to facilitate developing and deploying cloud computing applications.
In this paper, the cloud operating system (or cloud computing operating system or cloud computing oriented operating system) means specially a specific operating system software that is different from the traditional (network) operating systems and excels in development and deployment of all types of cloud computing related software; the cloud computing platform means especially a set of support software that is established on certain operating system and provide the environment for the convenience of the development and deployment of cloud computing applications; the cloud computing system means especially a application software that developed and deployed in the existing cloud computing operating systems or platforms.
II. RELATED WORKS In the context of cloud computing is becoming the main
model of the Internet applications, research institutes and business communities pay more and more attention to the design and application of cloud computing platform. Some famous companies also presented their cloud computing operating systems and platforms.
(1) Barrelfish  Barrelfish system was developed by Microsoft Research
Cambridge in the UK and ETH Zurich in Switzerland. The system is designed for supporting multi-core and many-core processors, and the nuclear communication is achieved through message. In the way of built-in database, the system can track the use of the resources, so that it can accelerate the overall processing. Unlike other Microsoft systems, Barrelfish is expected to become open-source, but with the exception of the snapshot version, the system's core code has not been open to the public.
(2) FOS  Fos is a new multi-core and cloud computing operating
system, developed by Carbon Research Group of MIT. Fos uses micro-kernel and supports multi-core processor by
1st IEEE PerCom Workshop on Pervasive Communities and Service Clouds978-1-61284-937-9/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE 111
providing a single operating system image to shield the differences of the multi-core and cloud environment. Hence the system has good compatibility and reliability and can provide most of the services that traditional operating systems have, through the message mechanism.
(3) Microsoft Azure Azure is Microsoft's cloud service platform which relies
on the Microsoft's data centers. Azure is an integrated solution, providing both a computing infrastructure and a platform for developing applications. Azure actually is composed of a variety of different services in a common platform, such as Live Services, NET services, SQL services, SharePoint services and Dynamic CRM Services.
(4) Google App Engine (GAE)  Google App Engine is a platform for developing and
hosting web applications in Google-managed data centers. It virtualizes applications across multiple servers and data centers. Google App Engine (GAE) platform includes five parts: GAE Web services infrastructure, distributed storage service (Datastore), the application runtime environment (ARE), application development kit (SDK) and Management Console (Admin Console).
All the systems and platforms are on the cloud side, and there also exist many web operating systems on the terminal side which can integrate web and local applications easily. The more well-known web operating systems are as follows: Google Chrome OS, DeviceVM Splashtop, Windows Cloud, Jolicloud and Red Flag in Mini, etc.
In summary, the development of network operating systems trends to the design of micro-kernel, virtualization and transparency. But current network operating systems are not flexible, so that they are not adaptable to the complex and volatile network computing environment, and cannot meet the high flexible application requirements.
III. CHALLENGES To facilitate the cloud computing system, operating
system should meet many challenges. In our project, we focus on the following challenges.
1. How to provide context-aware components and applications in isomerism network environment.
In traditional service computing network, the systems on each node are isomorphism, while the requirements of actual applications are not the same. This heavily impact on the performance of each node. Service computing network generally uses the distributed architecture and the promotion of communication technology and the various ways in different working environments lead to greater distribution of the information processing. But the vast majority of current distributed systems are isomorphic, which appears in that each node in the network is be made up of the same type of computing and communicating hardware or have the same operating system, programming languages and development tools. In recent years, the distributed systems in heterogeneous network gained some achievements, but most of them are still based on the traditional operating systems and some only implement a communication layer. These systems focus on the application layer programming and can hardly meet the increasingly complex network environment
well. The load balancing between nodes have also been greatly restricted in these systems. In fact, the role and the function of each node in the real environment are different, so the required configurations of hardware and software are different. The design based on the traditional operating system make the actual capability of each node similar, which heavily affects the performance of each node. Therefore, in the target system, we will use micro-kernel to achieve a basic scheduling and management of resources, and then other system functions, basic services and software will be encapsulated into different context-aware and self-adaptive pluggable components. In practical application of target system, each node only needs to install micro-kernel, and then the corresponding context-aware and self-adaptive components will be installed automatically as needed during operation. If one component is no longer in use, it can also be automatically uninstalled to achieve the on-demand configuration.
2. How to overcome the deficiency of server management and maintenance and low resource utilization in large-scale network environment with vast amounts of servers.
According to the IDC market report of China, the total number of servers is approaching one million, of which Tencent has 100 thousand servers and Alibaba has nearly 30 thousand servers, and the number in Netease is about 20 thousand and so on. On one hand, such a large number of servers can provide quality services for users. On the other hand, they also cause a series of problems. First of all, how can each data center ensures effective and timely maintenance of each server and ensures reliable operation of the systems in such a large scale network? The traditional network management model works in a single set deployment way that a set of network management system can only be installed on one monitor server. The deficiency of this way is that the capability of management and maintenance is limited by the performance of the monitor server. When the network size exceeds the limitation of the server capacity, we have to add other monitor servers manually and then install the network management system on them respectively. This will lead to a number of parameter reconfigurations. Therefore, the approach will not only increase the human and material costs greatly, but also be in the risk of single point failure. Secondly, in the complex network environment, due to the need for disaster recovery and efficiency of load balancing and so on, doubling the number of servers does not result in a substantial increase in processing power and storage capacity, so there exists large waste of various system resources. In the target system, we will adopt transparency computing technology to solve the difficult problem of management and maintenance and use virtualization technology to solve the problems of low utilization of resources.
3. How to overcome the extra overheads that overlapped API calls cause and achieve the user-policy-driven seamless integration of the operating system and applications.
API calls are popular in software development, which not only facilitate developing software rapidly, but also cause a series of problems. First of all, each API call will inevitably 112
produce a lot of overhead, which may ultimately cause a huge loss of performance in the system with frequent API calls. Secondly, the method of API calls is not conducive to cross-platform. As long as changes happen in the underlying operating system or in the services components, the application may have to be recompiled to run properly. Finally, API calls isolate the application from operating system; the upper application can difficultly get the same protection and optimization as the operating system. This project will study the new methods of associating different procedures and systems. The initial is to use automatic map technology, which can make important applications run on kernel mode and automatically compile the various related procedures into a whole. This way can speed up the implementation of the procedures and bridge the gap between the applications and the operating system.
4. How to extract the common features from all kinds of applications and build service components in a standard form for the application developers to achieve rapid development.
The rapid development of quality applications is an important factor for the promotion of the target system. In the field of software development, there have been many techniques and methods to avoid duplicative development of programs and accelerate the development, such as open source software, function libraries, development based on the framework and code refactoring and so on. With the basic research on these technologies, we will focus on the common features of all kinds of applications and services on the target system to build the service platform in which developer can
get or implement the standard components. The expected platform will facilitate the rapid implementation of business processes and free developer from the specific implementation of various resource scheduling and services.
4.1 Architecture In this section we will describe the main architecture of
the system that we intend to implement. The system has two subsystems, as shown in Fig 1: the
cloud side operating system and service platform (C-OSSP) and the terminal side operating system (T-OS). The difference is that cloud side operating system and service platform will run on the server nodes in the network and can load and configure different service components and supportive software dynamically according to the actual situation of each node, while terminal side operating system runs on the user client devices to facilitate dynamic access to the cluster. C-OSSP is the core of the system which supports cloud computing and transparency computing and consists of foundation service layer (FSL) and network service layer (NSL). FSL is composed of vStarOS kernel, vStarOS Engine and vStarEnv; NSL is composed of Application Service components (JTang++), Service management components and Integrated Development ToolKits (IDT). T-OS is composed of foundation OS and web access service components.
Figure 1. Prototype architecture
The vStarOS kernel and vStarOS Engine in FSL are also called vStar Meta OS, as shown in Fig 2.
vStarOS Kernel adopts distributed micro-kernel architecture, which is lightweight, running in kernel mode, providing message protection layer, time sharing multiplex mechanism, virtual processor support, the basic security 113
mechanism and a set of kernel interface. The architecture is designed favoring for the implement of mult...