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  1. 1. HYBRID ELECTRICAL VEHICLES PRESENTED BY: Divyanshu Gupta 3rd Year (Mechanical) R.No- 124019 S.no.-81 STREAM SEMINAR (2014-15) 03/08/15
  2. 2. HYBRID VEHICLES A Hybrid vehicle is one that uses two different methods to propel the vehicle. A Hybrid Electric Vehicle, abbreviated HEV uses both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor to propel the vehicle. The hybrid electric vehicles use a high voltage battery pack and a combination electric motor and generator to help or assist a gasoline engine. 03/08/15
  3. 3. Why Hybrid? Regenerative braking actually makes city driving more economical than on the highway. Fuel efficiency is greatly increased. Emissions are greatly decreased. Dependency on fossil fuels can be decreased. Hybrids can be run on alternative fuels as well. 03/08/15
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLESDepending on the drive train structure (how motor and engine are connected), HEVs can be classified as: Series Hybrid Parallel Hybrid Combination Hybrid 03/08/15
  5. 5. SERIES HYBRID 03/08/15
  6. 6. SERIES HYBRID (RANGE EXTENDED ELECTRICAL VEHICLES) In a series hybrid system, the combustion engine drives an electric generator (usually a three-phase alternator plus rectifier) instead of directly driving the wheels . The electric motor is the only means of providing power to the wheels. The generator both charges a battery and powers an electric motor that moves the vehicle. When large amounts of power are required, the motor draws electricity from both the batteries and the generator. 03/08/15
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  8. 8. Weaknesses of series hybrid vehicles: The ICE, the generator and the electric motor are dimensioned to handle the full power of the vehicle. Therefore, the total weight, cost and size of the powertrain can be excessive. The power from the combustion engine has to run through both the generator and electric motor. During long-distance highway driving, the total efficiency is inferior to a conventional transmission, due to the several energy conversions. 03/08/15
  9. 9. Advantages of series hybrid vehicles: There is no mechanical link between the combustion engine and the wheels. The engine-generator group can be located everywhere. There are no conventional mechanical transmission elements (gearbox, transmission shafts). Separate electric wheel motors can be implemented easily. The combustion engine can operate in a narrow rpm range (its most efficient range), even as the car changes speed. Series hybrids are relatively the most efficient during stop- and-go city driving. 03/08/15
  10. 10. Example of SHEV: Renault Kangoo. 03/08/15
  11. 11. PARALLEL HYBRID 03/08/15
  12. 12. Parallel hybrid systems have both an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor in parallel connected to a mechanical transmission . Most designs combine a large electrical generator and a motor into one unit, often located between the combustion engine and the transmission, replacing both the conventional starter motor and the alternator . The battery can be recharged during regenerative braking, and during cruising (when the ICE power is higher than the required power for propulsion). As there is a fixed mechanical link between the wheels and the motor (no clutch), the battery cannot be charged when the car isnt moving. When the vehicle is using electrical traction power only, or during brake while regenerating energy, the ICE is not running (it is disconnected by a clutch) or is not powered (it rotates in an idling manner). 03/08/15
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  16. 16. Weaknesses of parallel hybrid vehicles: Rather complicated system. The ICE doesnt operate in a narrow or constant RPM range, thus efficiency drops at low rotation speed. As the ICE is not decoupled from the wheels, the battery cannot be charged at standstill. 03/08/15
  17. 17. Advantages of parallel hybrid vehicles: Total efficiency is higher during cruising and long- distance highway driving. Large flexibility to switch between electric and ICE power Compared to series hybrids, the electromotor can be designed less powerful than the ICE, as it is assisting traction. Only one electrical motor/generator is required. 03/08/15
  18. 18. EXAMPLES BMW 7Series ActiveHybrid. Honda Civic. Honda's IMA (Integrated Motor Assist) uses a rather traditional ICE with continuously variable transmission, where the flywheel is replaced with an electric motor. 03/08/15
  19. 19. COMBINED HYBRID 03/08/15
  20. 20. Combined hybrid systems have features of both series and parallel hybrids. There is a double connection between the engine and the drive axle: mechanical and electrical. This split power path allows interconnecting mechanical and electrical power, at some cost in complexity. Power-split devices are incorporated in the powertrain. The main principle behind the combined system is the decoupling of the power supplied by the engine from the power demanded by the driver. 03/08/15
  21. 21. At lower speeds, this system operates as a series HEV, while at high speeds, where the series powertrain is less efficient, the engine takes over. This system is more expensive than a pure parallel system as it needs an extra generator, a mechanical split power system and more computing power to control the dual system. In a combined hybrid, a smaller, less flexible, and highly efficient engine can be used. It is often a variation of the conventional Otto cycle, such as the Miller or Atkinson cycle. This contributes significantly to the higher overall efficiency of the vehicle, with regenerative braking playing a much smaller role. 03/08/15
  22. 22. Weaknesses of combined hybrid vehicles: Very complicated system, more expensive than parallel hybrid. The efficiency of the power train transmission is dependent on the amount of power being transmitted over the electrical path, as multiple conversions, each with their own efficiency, lead to a lower efficiency of that path (~70%) compared with the purely mechanical path (98%). 03/08/15
  23. 23. Advantages of combined hybrid vehicles: Maximum flexibility to switch between electric and ICE power Decoupling of the power supplied by the engine from the power demanded by the driver allows for a smaller, lighter, and more efficient ICE design. Example of CHEV: Toyota Prius, Auris, Lexus CT200h, Lexus RX400h. 03/08/15
  24. 24. Types by degree of hybridization 03/08/15
  25. 25. Next Version of Hybrid Electric Vehicle 1) it can be plugged in to an electrical outlet to be charged and 2) has some range that can be travelled on the energy it stored while plugged in 3) gasoline-independent for daily commuting 4) can also be multi-fuel supplemented by diesel, biodiesel or hydrogen Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle 03/08/15
  26. 26. Plug-in-Hybrid Opel Ampera 03/08/15
  27. 27. Key advantages of HEVs Optimize the fuel economy Optimize the operating point of ICE Stop the ICE if not needed (ultra low speed and stops) Recover the kinetic energy at braking Reduce the size (hp and volume) of ICE Reduce emissions Minimize the emissions when ICE is optimized in operation Stop the ICE when its not needed Reduced size of ICE means less emissions 03/08/15
  28. 28. Quiet Operation Ultra low noise at low speed because ICE is stopped Quiet motor, motor is stopped when vehicle comes to a stop, with engine already stopped Fewer exhaust repairs or muffler changes 03/08/15
  29. 29. High initial cost Increased components such as battery, electric machines, motor controller, etc. Reliability concern Increased components, especially power system, electronics, sensors Warranty issues Issues on major electric components Dealership and repair shop not familiar with new components Safety: high voltage system employed in HEV KEY CONCERNS 03/08/15
  30. 30. 03/08/15 Commercial models Toyota Prius Toyota Highlander Ford Escape Mercury Mariner Honda Insight Honda Civic HEV Honda Accord HEV
  31. 31. 03/08/15 REFERENCES Books: Automobile Engineering--- Dr. Kirpal Singh Websites: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia www.hybridtech.shtml www.ieahev.org web.mit.edu www.afdc.energy.gov
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