How to Write an Abstract

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How to Write an Abstract. The Dos and Donts for Writing an Effective Abstract. Dr. Thomas Tomasi Associate Dean, Graduate College Biology Professor. What Should Be Included???. Basic question being addressed Why does this question matter? Methods used to find answer the question - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Slide 1How to Write an AbstractThe Dos and Donts for Writing an Effective AbstractDr. Thomas TomasiAssociate Dean, Graduate CollegeBiology ProfessorWhat Should Be Included???Basic question being addressedWhy does this question matter?Methods used to find answer the questionFindings of this studyWhat has been added to our knowledge?It is unacceptable to state: The results will be discussed. Abstract (projects with data)Methods should include:Subjects of the study (humans, animals, balloons)Sample sizesTreatments comparedAbstract (projects with data)Research findings (Results) should include:Statistical findingsWhat is different from whatDifferent vs. higher/lower, bigger/smaller, etc.Abstract (projects without numerical data)Theoretical framework (if applicable)MethodsProcedure or analysis usedSelecting sources and/or subjectsDiscussion/ResultsFindings (themes, content, rhetoric, etc.)Implications for future research/studySimple Formula for a Thesis AbstractTwo sentences of IntroductionTwo sentences of MethodsTwo sentences of ResultsOne sentence of take-home messageSeven sentences 100 words 600 800 characters Edit from here as neededExample #1During World War II, the United States Air Force submitted women pilots for the first time into a program called the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP). These women pilots faced gendered discrimination and reactions from Air Force men and American society. Many assumed women were physically, emotionally, and intellectually inferior to male pilots. The WASP program concluded in 1944 and women were not admitted into the Air Force again until the late 1970s. This study focuses on an analysis of the media's coverage of these women pilots during the war. The War Department Bureau of Public Relations, Air Force officials, and WASP Director Jacqueline Cochran worked to control the media's access to the WASP program. As a result of public fears surrounding military women, Cochran assigned specific rules and guidelines to protect the pure, feminine image of the WASP. Overall, media outlets portrayed the WASP as glamorized, feminine aviators. Issues largely ignored by the media, including the dangerous roles assigned the WASP, flying demonstrations to prove the safety of certain aircraft to men, and the women's outstanding physical, mental, and emotional record, illuminate the gendered relations of the period. Example #2Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) populations continue to decline despite current conservation efforts. As hibernacula temperatures increase, bats generally use more energy to maintain their torpid state and arousals may occur more frequently. This increase in metabolism sacrifices energy reserves and bats may not survive winter. To determine the effects of temperature on the hibernation of the Indiana bat, we quantified energy budgets of Indiana bats at several ambient temperatures to determine the optimal hibernation temperature (i.e., with the greatest amount of energy savings). Bats were housed in an environmental chamber that mimicked cave conditions of 4-6oC and 77+% humidity. Arousal patterns at target temperatures were determined at 3, 5, 7, and 9oC by the use of iBBat data loggers affixed to the bats back. Oxygen consumption rates at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9oC were measured in metabolic chambers. Metabolic rates declined with decreasing temperature to 5oC, then increased to 1oC. Arousals occurred more frequently at higher temperatures, leading to the conclusion that bats hibernating at higher temperatures are more likely to deplete energy reserves prior to the end of the hibernation season. Knowing the temperature range that provides the greatest success for hibernation (minimal metabolic rates) will contribute to conservation efforts of this endangered species. Submitting the Abstract for IDFGraduate College website ( )Click on Interdisciplinary Forum linkClick on Submit an AbstractDeadline: Noon on Monday, March 14Cutting/pastingUnusual fonts (italics, subscripts, bold, underscore)Size limits & instructionsTitle = 175 characters, all CAPSAbstract = 1350 characters (includes spaces)Dates to RememberGraduate Interdisciplinary ForumSaturday, April 2, 8:00 a.m. 4:00 p.m. (PSU)Presentation Pointers: Oral and Poster Presentation SuccessThursday, March 17, 4:00 -5:00 p.m. (PSU 317)Thesis DeadlineMonday, April 25, 2011