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  • How can I write an effective abstract in < 250 words? Parts of abstract B. Functions of abstractC. Cut out extra words

    How should I write my acknowledgments?

  • An abstract is a complete story in 250 words! It contains:

    Brief orientation to topicYour specific goalStrategy and methods usedCentral results & big conclusions

    Ref: Penrose and Katz

  • Write the abstract as an argument Its not an introduction Its not a listIts not an unsolved mystery

    Ref: K. Tosney lecture

  • Why?How?What?

    Significance?ResultsMethodsIntroductionDiscussionAbstract = mini article!AbstractRef: J. DormanParts of Abstract

  • Abstract ContentMay contain the same information as:The last paragraph of the introductionYour first paragraph of the discussion

    NEVER include information that is not presented elsewhere in article

    DO NOT include a reference citation in abstract

    Ref: R. Day

  • Orient Reader in the First Sentence

    Can be very general:

    - In recent years, dengue viruses have spread throughout tropical regions worldwide.

    Ref: K. Tosneylecture

  • State topic and purpose

    We conducted an exploratory investigation in a community in Haiti to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection.

    We analyzed 83 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) to characterize genetic variations.

  • Specify your methods-- briefly!Name the technique:

    - Too general: Biochemical studies showed that

    - Better: In vitro translation studies revealed that

  • Specify your methods-- briefly!Can often describe methods in introductory phrase

    - Using RT-PCR, 384 samples were analyzed for the presence of polioviral RNA.

    - Using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, we characterized genetic variation among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  • Summarize Results & ConclusionsSummarize the central resultsThe most significant points onlyRemove needless information

    Identify the major conclusionsOnly space for your major conclusionsOther possibilities and interpretations are not presented here

    Ref: K. Tosney lecture

  • When stating the results, be definitiveThe prevalence of Cyclospora in children
  • BUT when interpreting results

    use appropriate qualifiers:

    This indicates suggests may, might, could

  • Functions of AbstractSummarizes the major points

    RememberUsed as indexing toolAvailable in electronic databases May be the ONLY part of your paper someone reads

    Ref: Penrose & Katz

  • Functions of Abstract, contdSells your paper: Sometimes reviewers dont read beyond your abstract---> SO MAKE THE ABSTRACT CLEAR!

    4. Can attract readers

  • Make EVERY word count!

    Often 250 words Look at every word: do you need it? Save words by eliminating passive voice Read it out loudRef: K. Tosney lecture

  • How can I write an effective abstract in < 250 words? Parts of abstract B. Functions of abstractC. Cut out extra words

    How should I write my acknowledgments?A. Who to includeB. Who to omitC. How to acknowledge peopleD. How to acknowledge funding agencies

  • Who should you acknowledge?When in doubt:Its better to include too many people than to omit someone!Ref: K. LaMarco& R. Ward

  • Include:Anyone who gave you technical helpAnyone who gave you valuable input on your study design or interpretations of your results3. Your human subjects4. Anyone who gave you materials or supplies5. Specify your funding sourcesGranting agency (include grant number)Fellowship fundingInstitutional funding6. Anyone who substantially reviewed your manuscript

  • Do not acknowledgeCo-authors

  • Examples: PeopleWe thank J. Flores for technical assistance.We thank S. Smith for valuable discussions and critical reading of the manuscript.We thank Bart Simpson for providing the dengue virus isolates from Springfield.We thank Marge Simpson for her support.

  • Examples: PeopleWe also thank our collaborator Alberto Gianella at the Centro Nacional de Enfermedades Tropicales in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.Thanks to LuLu Lollygag for her kind gift of ECAD2 antibody.Thanks to Steve Opendoor for sharing results pre-publication.

  • Example: FundingFinancial support for this work was provided in part by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the Fogarty International Center, and the National Institutes of Health (grant D43 TW00905).

  • Example: FundingThis study was also supported in part by a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Post-Doctoral Fellowship awarded to B. Simpson.

    *****So now that weve talked about the general structure of a paper, what all the parts are, lets talk about the structure of each part. Within each section.*******************

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