How to write an abstract.

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How to write an abstract. Fiona Moss and Duncan Neuhauser. Paris April 2014. Background:1. There is a lot of good QI work out there It might help if shared/communicated Writing is way of communication Publication would help others - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


How to write your abstract

How to write an abstract. Fiona Moss and Duncan Neuhauser

Paris April 2014 1Background:1 There is a lot of good QI work out there It might help if shared/communicatedWriting is way of communication Publication would help others

Much of what is written up as audit is boring and uninformative

2Aims of this sessionDescribe Quality Improvement in action through using a structure for writing about QI

To show that writing can help your thinking

Learn how to translate achievements into words

Objectives of this SessionTo understand some of the basics of QI

To encourage you to plan and complete your QI project

To learn a process for writing about your work

To encourage you to write it up for publication

4Why bother to write well?Writing is one of the communication skills.

To communicate your message with clarity and accuracy

To engage and stimulate your readers

To help you reflect on your work

5REDSYSTEMBUDWEISER SET Getting down to writing: Story



10Quick foray into matters of style! Good prose is like a window pane

Short sentencesNouns and verbs!Avoid purple proseJournalists first lesson (borrowed from Kiplings serving men)What, why and when

and How and Where and Who George Orwell (1)

[Language] becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts.

George Orwell (2) Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the passive where you can use the active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.Strunk and White Make the paragraph the unit of composition: one paragraph to each topic As a rule start each paragraph with a topic sentence; end it in conformity with the beginning Omit needless wordsUse the active voice

ParagraphsTopic sentence: whats the idea you want to talk about?Elaborate on that ideaFinal sentence: round off the point you are making.and, ideally, form a link to the next ideaRead this: can you re-write this? Data obtained from the audits were analysed. Significant problems in preoperative and postoperative care were identified. Review of preadmission processes identified significant delays in transfer of patients from the emergency department to the two wards with alternating admissions. Delay in physician input was identified and the high level of mortality was unacceptable. There was a need within the hospital for a more proactive culture in the management of this situation.Is this better? Our audit showed problems in preoperative and postoperative care with an unacceptably high mortality rate. Patients were slow to be admitted from the emergency department and physicians did not assess them promptly. We urgently need to find better ways of looking after this vulnerable group of patients. Getting down to writing: Story



19Your story:Recall quality improvement work that you would like to share

Write about it in just paragraph or two.

Get it down to its basics bullet points OK here

Instructions for readers/listenersListen very carefully.(!)

Do you understand what the story is? What is missing that would help you understand?

Write down any questions Best of British our tabloids - 1 Amy stole coke from Kates bag

Boozy Brits give NHS a sore head

Experts admit their forecast is washout

How a broken tumbler cost one pub 18,000

Best of British our tabloids 2 Asda withdraws corned beef after 50% nag traces

10 teens in hospital on mind-bending party drug rocket fuel

Jobs gloom leads to a baby boom

PM: no job then no benefits for youReaders/listeners Now write your Sun headlineAuthors Is that Sun headline a correct summary? Authors now revise your bullet points into paragraph(s) Listen to the play- back/questions from your readers.

Be clear about What is the story?

Revise your brief description of your quality improvement work

Make sure that you make the main messages clear. Getting down to writing: Story



27Quality improvement papers: using a structure Structure can help the process of writing

Essential for some journals

Ensure that use the structure appropriate for the journal and article type

Otherwise, useful for structuring thoughts

Quality improvement papers: using a structure Structure provides a logical sequence Contains the story within itSetting objectives for the paper is important Continuity between sections is important Link back to objectives throughout End should connect with beginning i.e. discussion must relate to introduction

29Structure for QI work should reflect: Cyclical nature of QI Process of assessment Process of gaining understanding of organisational issues Complexity of organisational change Steps required for organisational change Processes of review and re-assessment

Structure for quality improvement reportsThe contextOutline of problem (patient centred) Key measures of improvementProcess of gathering information about problem Analysis and interpretation how the information helped your understanding of the problem/solutionStrategy for change; implementation of change Effects of change - reassessmentNext steps - lessons learnt messages for others 31Convincing othersNarrative important but not all Measurement and data are essential Need data that is robust But clearly QI is not RCTBeware spurious use of statisticsHow do you know your change is improvement

Now. Take the 2 paragraphs you wrote about your quality improvement report , remembering the input from your reader

Revise it using the structure provided..Your structured abstract Does this help?

Could you convey your messages using this structure?

What are the problems?

Could you write your story for your reader?

34Publishing QI work What type of paper reflects your work? A quality improvement report?A research paper?A review?A How To Do It?An opinion/view point? A letter? Etc etc etc.....

36Quality improvement reports for publication Not necessarily completely originalMust have a message for othersBe explicit about contextIf change has occurred - how did you manage it and sustain it ?Organisational changes - importantInterpersonal interactions - importantReal message may lie in difficultiesProgress may not be linearBe clear about messages37Quality improvement reports: check essentials? Is it about improving the quality of care?

Does it have a message relevant to improving the quality or safety of patient care?

Does it describe changes that improve patient care? Is the evidence robust?

Is the message generalisable? What is in it for others to learn?

38SQUIRE guidelines Guidelines: IntroductionBackground knowledgeLocal problem Intended improvementStudy questionMethodsEthical issuesSettingPlanning interventionPlanning study of interventionMethods of evaluationAnalysis Squire Guidelines:ResultsOutcomesNature of setting and improvement intervention Changes in processes of care and patient outcomes DiscussionSummaryInterpretationRelation to other evidenceLimitationsConclusionsOther factors Quality improvement papers: finding a structure Standard structure for research papers. IMRaD

Introduction/Methods/Results and/Discussion

Perhaps not a helpful structure for QI work

42IntroductionBack ground to the paperMakes the case for the need for the paper Should end with objectives of the paper Whole of rest of paper should be written to the stated objectives Objectives are the thread of the paperMethods Headed sub-sections Helps with writing (can be taken out later)Logical order Do not include results End with section Data analysis that outlines how you intend to use data to meet stated objectives as well as any statistical analyses


Headed sub-sections Helps with writing (can be taken out later)Logical order - start with demographicsMust link to objectives Whole number with percentages in brackets x/y(n%)

Discussion Short pithy summary of main findings must link to objectivesOutline of clinical or other implicationsIf appropriate compare results with other relevant workOutline limitations of workReflect on possible future research